Alfonso VI of León and Castile

Alfonso VI, nicknamed the Brave or the Valiant, was king of León and of Galicia, king of the reunited Castile and León. After the conquest of Toledo in 1085, Alfonso proclaimed himself victoriosissimo rege in Toleto, et in Hispania et Gallecia The Battle of Sagrajas and the Battle of Uclés, in which his only son and heir, Sancho Alfónsez died, constituted defeats for the Leonese and Castilian armies; the son of Ferdinand I, King of León and Count of Castile and his wife, Queen Sancha, Alfonso was a "Leonese infante with Navarrese and Castilian blood". His paternal grandparents were Sancho Garcés III, king of Pamplona and his wife Muniadona of Castile, his maternal grandparents were Alfonso V of León and his first wife Elvira Menéndez; the year of Alfonso's birth is not recorded in the medieval documentation. According to one of the authors of the Anonymous Chronicle of Sahagún, who met the monarch and was present at his death, he died at age 62 after reigning 44 years; this indicates that he was born in the second half of 1047 or in the first half of 1048.

Pelagius of Oviedo wrote that Alfonso was 79 when he died, but that would place his birth around 1030, before his parents' marriage. According to the Historia silense, the eldest child of Ferdinand I and Sancha, a daughter called Urraca, was born when her parents were still Count and Countess of Castile, so her birth could be placed in 1033–34; the second child and eldest son, must have been born in the second half of 1038 or in 1039. The third child and second daughter, may have been born in 1039–40, followed by Alfonso in 1040–41, the youngest of the siblings, García, sometime between 1041 and 24 April 1043, the date on which King Ferdinand I, in a donation to the Abbey of San Andrés de Espinareda, mentions his five children. All of them except Elvira signed a document in the monastery of San Juan Bautista de Corias on 26 April 1046. All the children of King Ferdinand I, according to the Historia silense, were educated in the liberal arts, the sons were trained in arms, the "art of running horses in the Spanish usage", hunting.

The cleric Raimundo was in charge of Alfonso's early education. Once king, Alfonso appointed him Bishop of Palencia and referred to him as magistro nostro, viro nobile et Deum timenti. Alfonso spent long periods in Tierra de Campos, along with Pedro Ansúrez, the son of Ansur Díaz and nephew of Count Gómez Díaz de Saldaña, he learned the art of war and what was expected of a knight; as the second son of the king of León and Count of Castile, Alfonso would not have been entitled to inherit the throne. At the end of 1063 on 22 December, taking advantage of the fact that numerous magnates had gathered in León, capital of the kingdom, for the consecration of the Basílica of San Isidoro, Ferdinand I summoned a Curia Regia to make known his testamentary dispositions, under which he decided to distribute his patrimony among his children, a distribution that would not become effective until the death of the monarch in order to prevent any disputes arising after his death: Alfonso inherited the Kingdom of León, "the most extensive and emblematic part: the one that contained the cities of Oviedo and León, cradles of the Asturian-Leonese monarchy", which included Asturias, León, Astorga, El Bierzo, Zamora with Tierra de Campos as well as the parias of the Taifa of Toledo.

His elder brother, was given the Kingdom of Castile, created by his father for him, the parias of the Taifa of Zaragoza. His younger brother, García, received the entire region of Galicia, "elevated to the rank of kingdom" that extended south to the Mondego River in Portugal with the parias of the Taifa of Badajoz and Seville, their sisters and Elvira, both received the Infantazgo, that is, "the patronage and income of all the monasteries belonging to the royal patrimony" on the condition that they remained unmarried. The historian Alfonso Sánchez Candeira suggests that, although the reasons that led King Ferdinand I to divide the kingdom are unknown the distribution was made because the king considered it proper that each son should inherit the region where he had been educated and spent his early years. After his coronation in the city of León in January 1066, Alfonso VI had to confront the expansionist desires of his brother Sancho II, who, as the eldest son, considered himself the sole legitimate heir of all the kingdoms of their father.

The conflicts began after the death of their mother Queen Sancha on 7 November 1067, leading to seven years of war between the three brothers. The first skirmish was the Battle of Llantada, a trial by ordeal in which both brothers agreed that the one, victorious would obtain the kingdom of the defeated brother. Although Sancho II was the winner, Alfonso VI did not comply with the agreement; this was the same event where both decided to join forces to divide between themselves the Kingdom of Galicia, assigned to their younger brother García II. With the complicity of Alfonso VI, Sancho II invaded Galicia in 1071, defeating their brother García II, arrested in Santarém and imprisoned in Burgos until he was exiled to the Taifa of Seville under the rule of Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad. After eliminating their brother


Deutzia is a genus of about 60 species of flowering plants in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to eastern and central Asia, Central America and Europe. By far the highest species diversity is in China; the species are shrubs ranging from 1–4 m in height. Most are deciduous; the leaves are opposite, with a serrated margin. The flowers are produced in corymbs; the fruit is a dry capsule containing numerous small seeds. Identification of the species is difficult, requiring microscopic detail of the leaf hairs and seed capsule structure. Deutzia is named after the 18th century Dutch patron of Johann van der Deutz. Selected species The deutzias are new to gardens: the exception, D. scabra, was noticed in Japanese gardens by Engelbert Kaempfer and Carl Peter Thunberg but not seen in Europe till the 1830s. H. S. Dictionary were gathered in from the wild during the 20th century. Deutzias are grown as ornamental plants for their white and pink flowers. Many cultivars and hybrids have been selected for garden use, including selections with double flowers.

For example, Deutzia × lemoinei is a hybrid of D. parviflora. The following cultivars and hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- Deutzia gracilis'Nikko' Deutzia monbeigii Deutzia scabra ‘Candidissima’ Deutzia scabra ‘Codsall Pink’ Deutzia setchuenensis var. corymbiflora Deutzia × elegantissima'Rosealind' Deutzia × hybrida ‘Contraste’ Deutzia × hybrida'Mont Rose' Deutzia × hybrida'Strawberry Fields'The temperate deutzias are hardy shrubs from far eastern regions where winters are dependably frozen. Alice Coats remarks that deutzias have done better in Edinburgh, on the chilly east coast of Scotland, than in London. A solution in milder climates might be to site deutzia in the garden's most exposed, coldest microclimate, as is done with early-flowering magnolias. Identification can be difficult, in particular, many of the plants in cultivation sold as D. scabra are D. crenata. The selected hybrid white double "Pride-of-Rochester" in cultivation in 1881, was originated by the Rochester, New York nurserymen Ellwanger and Barry.

Deutzia scabra is used by joiners in Japan to polish wood. Flora of Pakistan: Deutzia Flora of Nepal checklist: Deutzia Huxley, Anthony. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-47494-5. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list


Egosoft GmbH is a German video game developer based in Würselen, Germany. The company was founded by Bernd Lehahn in 1988. Egosoft is best known for its X series of video games, a series of space simulator games noted for combining open-ended gameplay, dynamic market-driven economy and compelling storyline; the series began in 1999 with X: Beyond the Frontier. Since the series has expanded with three sequels and three standalone expansions. Egosoft was founded in Würselen by Bernd Lehahn in 1988, making it one of the oldest active video game companies in Germany, alongside Blue Byte, as of June 2017. In 2000, Egosoft planned a multiplayer online game called X Online; this project was intended to be "the next step in the evolution of Egosoft's X universe." Egosoft has since released a number of games, yet has given little indication of the progress of this project. In 2003, Egosoft staff were working on a version—codenamed X2OL—which Egosoft chief executive officer Bernd Lehahn described as their "long-term goal."

There is still no official information on the Online Universe, though there has been speculation that X2 and X3's 2007 uplink feature may be a positive spin-off of the project. In late 2009, Egosoft announced that Terran Conflict completed the story started in X: Beyond the Frontier, taken by some to mean the end of the franchise. However, in March 2011 they announced on their X-Universe forums that they would be attending FedCon XX in Düsseldorf on 28 April 2011, would show preview footage of their current project only referred to by the codename TNBT. However, on 20 April 2011, they released a trailer announcing X Rebirth slated for a Q4 2011 release. X Rebirth will take place in the X Universe after a major catastrophe (the shutdown of the series' network of, thus starting a new chapter in the X Universe separate from the original plot line. Rebirth missed its first two proposed release dates and was released 15 November 2013. Official website