Sancho III of Pamplona
Sancho Garcés III known as Sancho the Great, was the King of Pamplona from 1004 until his death in 1035. He ruled the County of Aragon and by marriage the counties of Castile, Álava and Monzón, he added the counties of Sobrarbe and Cea, would intervene in the Kingdom of León, taking its eponymous capital city in 1034. He was the eldest son of his wife Jimena Fernández; the year of Sancho's birth is not known, but it is no earlier than 992 and no than 996. His parents were García Sánchez II the Tremulous and Jimena Fernández, daughter of Fernando Bermúdez, count of Cea on the Leonese frontier. García and Jimena are first recorded as married in 992, but there is no record of their son Sancho until 996; the first record of the future king is a diploma of his father's granting the village of Terrero to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. The king describes Sancho as "my son"; the same diploma shows the future duke of Gascony, Sancho VI, at the court of Pamplona. Sancho was raised in Leyre, his father last appears in 1000, while Sancho is first found as king in 1004, inheriting the kingdom of Pamplona.
This gap has led to speculation as to whether there was an interregnum, while one document shows Sancho Ramírez of Viguera reigning in Pamplona in 1002 ruling as had Jimeno Garcés during the youth of García Sánchez I three generations earlier. On his succession, Sancho ruled under a council of regency led by the bishops, his mother Jimena, grandmother Urraca Fernández. Sancho aspired to unify the Christian principalities in the face of the fragmentation of Muslim Spain into the taifa kingdoms following the Battle of Calatañazor. In about 1010 he married Muniadona of Castile, daughter of Sancho García of Castile, in 1015 he began a policy of expansion, he displaced Muslim control in the depopulated former county of Sobrarbe. In Ribagorza, another opportunity arose; the 1010 partition of the county left it divided between William Isarn, illegitimate son of count Isarn, Raymond III of Pallars Jussà and his wife, Mayor García of Castile, both niece of Isarn and aunt of Sancho's wife. In 1018, William Isarn tried to solidify his control over the Arán valley, but was killed, Sancho jumped on the opportunity to take his portion based on some loose claim derived from his wife.
Raymond and Mayor annulled their marriage, creating a further division resolved in 1025 when Mayor retired to a Castilian convent and Sancho received the submission of Raymond as vassal. He forced Berengar Raymond I of Barcelona to become his vassal, though he was a vassal of the French king. Berengar met Sancho in Zaragoza and in Navarre many times to confer on a mutual policy against the counts of Toulouse. In 1016, Sancho fixed the border between Navarre and Castile, part of the good relationship he established by marrying Muniadona, daughter of Sancho García of Castile. In 1017, he became the protector of Castile for the young García Sánchez. However, relations between the three Christian entities of León, Navarre soured after the assassination of Count García in 1027, he had been betrothed to Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V, set thus to gain from Castile lands between the rivers Cea and Pisuerga. As García arrived in León for his wedding, he was killed by the sons of a noble he had expelled from his lands.
Sancho III had opposed the wedding and the expected expansion of Leonese power to Castile, used García's death to reverse this. Using the pretext of the protectorship he had exercised over Castile, he occupied the county and named as successor his own younger son Ferdinand, nephew of the deceased count, bringing it within his sphere of influence. Sancho established relations with the Duchy of Gascony of a suzerain–vassal nature, him being the suzerain. In consequence of his relationship with the monastery of Cluny, he improved the road from Gascony to León; this road would begin to bring increased traffic down to Iberia as pilgrims flocked to Santiago de Compostela. Because of this, Sancho ranks as one of the first great patrons of the Saint James Way. Sancho VI of Gascony was a relative of King Sancho and spent a portion of his life at the royal court in Pamplona, he partook alongside Sancho the Great in the Reconquista. In 1010, the two Sanchos appeared together with Robert II of France and William V of Aquitaine, neither of whom was the Gascon duke's suzerain, at Saint-Jean d'Angély.
After Sancho VI's death in 1032, Sancho the Great extended his authority definitively into Gascony, where he began to mention his authority as extending as far as the Garonne in the documents issued by his chancery. In southern Gascony, Sancho created a series of viscounties: Labourd and Baztán. After the succession of Bermudo III to León, Sancho negotiated the marriage of his son Ferdinand to Sancha, the former fiancée of García Sánchez and Bermudo's sister, along with it a dowry that included disputed Leonese lands. Sancho was soon engaged in a full-scale war with León, combined Castilian and Navarrese armies overran much of Bermudo's kingdom, occupying Astorga. By March 1033, he was king from Zamora to the borders of Barcelona. In 1034 the city of León, the imperiale culmen and there Sancho had himself crowned again; this was the height of Sancho's rule which now extended from the borders of Galicia in the west to the county of Barcelona in the east. In 1035, he refounded the diocese of Palencia, laid was
Santa María de León Cathedral called The House of Light or the Pulchra Leonina is situated in the city of León in north-western Spain. It was built on the site of previous Roman baths of the 2nd century which, 800 years king Ordoño II converted into a palace. All of it built between 1205 - 1301, the north tower and cloister were built in 14th-century, the south tower completed in 1472. León Cathedral, dedicated to Santa María de la Regla, was declared of Cultural Interest in 1844, it is a masterpiece of the Gothic style of the mid-13th century. The design is attributed to the architect Enrique. By the mid 15th century it was completed; the main façade has two towers. The southern tower is known as the'clock tower'; the Renaissance retrochoir contains alabaster sculptures by Jusquin, Copin of Holland and Juan de Malinas. Noteworthy is the Plateresque iron grillwork screen or reja in the wall behind the sepulchre of King Ordoño, it has three portals decorated with sculptures situated in the pointed arches between the two towers.
The central section has a large. Outstanding is the image of the Virgen Blanca and the Locus Appellatione, where justice was imparted; the church has nearly 1,800 square meters of stained glass windows. The great majority of them date from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century: a rarity among medieval gothic churches. In the Main Chapel, there is an altarpiece by Nicolás Francés and a silver urn containing the relics of San Froilán, the town's patron saint, made by Enrique de Arfe; the 13th- to 15th-century cloister contains sculpted details in the capitals and ledges. The Cathedral Museum houses a large collection of sacred art. There are 1,500 pieces, including 50 Romanesque sculptures of the Virgin, dating from pre-historic times to the 18th century with works by Juan de Juni, Gregorio Fernández, Mateo Cerezo, a triptych of the School of Antwerp, a Mozarabic bible and numerous codices; the first manuscript in Leonese language, the Nodicia de Kesos, can be found in its archives. Leon Cathedral is one of the three most important cathedrals, along with that of Burgos and Santiago de Compostela, on The Way of Saint James.
The Roman baths and the first cathedral Originally, under the current location of the cathedral, the Legio VII Gemina had built the baths, with a size larger than the current building. Remains of the first cathedral were explored near the south facade in 1997. During the Christian reconquest the ancient Roman baths were converted into a royal palace. King Ordoño II, who had occupied the throne of Leon in 916, defeated the Arabs in the Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz in 917; as a sign of gratitude to God for victory, he gave up his palace to build the first cathedral. Under the episcopate of Fruminio II, the building was transformed into a sacred place; the tomb of Ordoño II of Leon, who died in 924, is found in the cathedral. The temple was guarded and governed by monks of the Order of St. Benedict, it is that its structure was similar to many others existing during the Leonese Mozarabic period. Almanzor campaigned through these lands in the late 10th century, devastating the city and destroying the temples.
However, damage to the building of the cathedral appears to have been addressed, since in the year 999 King Alfonso V was crowned in the church. After the political turmoil and Moorish raids that lasted till 1067 the state of the cathedral was in extreme poverty; this would move to King Ferdinand I of León, after transferring the remains of San Isidoro to León, sought to restore the temple. This king achieved success in the expansion of the kingdom; the Romanesque cathedralWith the help of Princess Teresa Urraca of Navarre, sister of the king, the construction of a second cathedral, was started, within its architecture. It fell within the Pelayo II episcopal see, its style was Romanesque, built in brick and masonry, with three naves finished in semicircular apses, the central one dedicated to Saint Mary, as in the previous church. While the cathedral was built according to the international style, examination of what has survived of its original facade, its indigenous nature can be noted. There is still the use of the horseshoe arch, at least decoratively.
The cathedral was consecrated on November 10, 1073 during the reign of Alfonso VI. The same masons who were building the Basilica of San Isidoro of Leon worked on it; this cathedral remained standing until the end of the next century. When the last proprietary king of Leon, Alfonso IX, rose to the throne, the city and the kingdom witnessed major social and cultural changes. Construction of the third cathedral, now Gothic in style, began circa 1205, but problems with the foundation delayed continued work until 1255 under Bishop Martín Fernández with the support of King Alfonso X of Castile and León; the design is attributed to the master Enrique a native of France, who had worked on the Cathedral of Burgos. He knew the Gothic architectural form of the Isle of France, he was replaced by the Spaniard Juan Perez. In 1289, Bishop Martín Fernández was dying when the front of the temple was open for worship; the basic structure of the cathedral was finished soon, in 1302 Bishop Gonzalo Osorio opened the whole church to the faithful.
The cloister and the north tower were completed in the fourteenth century. The south tower was not completed until the second half of the fifteenth century; the Cathedral of Leon, like its sister predecessor, Burgos Cathedral, follows the layout of the Rheims Cathedral. Like most French cathedrals, th
Basilica of San Isidoro, León
The Basílica de San Isidoro de León is a church in León, located on the site of an ancient Roman temple. Its Christian roots can be traced back to the early 10th century when a monastery for Saint John the Baptist was erected on the grounds. In 1063 the basilica was rededicated to Saint Isidore of Seville. Isidore was archbishop of Seville, the most celebrated academic and theologian of Visigothic Spain in the period preceding the Arab invasions. With the agreement of Abbad II al-Mu'tadid, the Muslim ruler of Seville, Isidore's relics were brought to Leon where they could be interred on Christian soil; the tomb of the saint still draws many visitors today. An equestrian statue of Saint Isidore dressed as Santiago Matamoros is visible, along with many other sculptures, high on the facade. In 1188, the Cortes of León were held in here, it was the first sample of modern parliamentarism in the history of Europe, according to the UNESCO and John Keane's book "The Life and Death of Democracy"; the original Church was built in the pre-Arab period over the ruins of a temple to the Roman god Mercury.
In the 10th century, the kings of León established a community of Benedictine sisters on the site. Following the conquest of the area by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, the first church was destroyed and the area devastated. León was repopulated and a new church and monastery established in the 11th century by Alfonso V of León. Alfonso's daughter, the infanta Sancha of León, married Count of Castile. Sancha's brother, Bermudo III, declared the war against Castile and Castilian troops, with the help of Navarre, killed the Leonese king, becoming Ferdinand I of León, he and his queen gave the crucifix. The church benefited from its position on the famous pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostella. Sculptors and artists from across Europe gathered to work on the monastery. Queen Sancha chose the new monastery as the site of the royal burial chapel. Today eleven kings, numerous queens and many nobles lie interred beneath the polychrome vaults of the medieval "royal pantheon". In 1063 the relics of Saint Isidore were transferred to the chapel, a community of canons was established to maintain the monastery and ward the relics.
The apse and transept of the building are in the Gothic style, whilst other parts of the building are Romanesque or of the Renaissance period. The basilica is still a collegiate foundation and the canons' office is celebrated each day. Built in the Romanesque style, the basilica has had major additions in the styles of many succeeding centuries including the Gothic; the arches on the crossing of the transept hark back to Islamic art. However the many styles merge into a harmonious whole; the carved tympanum of the Puerta del Cordero is one of the basilica's most notable features. Created prior to 1100, this romanesque tympanum depicts the sacrifice of Abraham. Or the Pantheon of the Kings of León; this funeral chapel of the kings of León is one of the examples of surviving Romanesque art in León. The columns are crowned with floral or historic designs; the 12th century painted murals are in an exceptional state of preservation and consist of an ensemble of New Testament subjects along with scenes of contemporary rural life.
This contains numerous examples of early medieval art including jewelled chalices and works of ivory and precious metal. The library holds 300 medieval works, numerous manuscripts as well as mozarabic bible dating from 960 and a Latin version transcribed in the Seventh Century. There is a text of the Seventh Century law code of the Visigothic rulers of pre-conquest Spain; the Chalice of Doña Urraca is one of the most important pieces in this Museum. Círculo Románico - Visigothic and Romanesque art in all Europe Visualisation of romanesque building sculpture in an architectural context Photos Basilica de San Isidoro Photo Page in Paradoxplace The Art of medieval Spain, A. D. 500-1200, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Basilica of San Isidoro
Imperator totius Hispaniae
Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning "Emperor of all Spain". In Spain in the Middle Ages, the title "emperor" was used under a variety of circumstances from the ninth century onwards, but its usage peaked, as a formal and practical title, between 1086 and 1157, it was used by the kings of León and Castile, but it found currency in the Kingdom of Navarre and was employed by the counts of Castile and at least one duke of Galicia. It signalled at various points the king's equality with the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and Holy Roman Empire, his rule by conquest or military superiority, his rule over several ethnic or religious groups, his claim to suzerainty over the other kings of the peninsula, both Christian and Muslim; the use of the imperial title received scant recognition outside of Spain and it had become forgotten by the thirteenth century. The analogous feminine title, "empress", was less used for the consorts of the emperors. Only one reigning queen, had occasion to use it, but did so sparingly.
One of the earliest references to the Kingdom of Asturias, predecessor of the Kingdom of León, as an empire is in the Chronicle of Alfonso III, which says that King Silo "subjugated the people of Galicia to his imperial rule". The reference is to the rule of the Asturian king over several peoples, namely Asturians and Basques. A surviving charter of 863 refers to Ordoño I as "our lord, residing in the Asturias", qualifying him as a "commanding prince"; this residential form of title was preferred because the Asturian kingdom at this stage was not ethnically unified or well-defined. There exist two diplomas dated to the reign of Alfonso III of Asturias and referring to him as emperor, but both are early twelfth-century fabrications emanating from the scriptorium of the Diocese of Mondoñedo and Bishop Gonzalo, designed to bolster that church's claims in a dispute of 1102; the first document, dated to 866 or 867, confirmed by Alfonso, who signs as "I, Alfonso, of all Spain emperor, unworthily permitted to be called the Catholic".
The other refers to him as "Alfonso, Emperor of Spain". The forger may have borrowed these exalted titles from the chancery of Alfonso VI, using the title imperator totius Hispaniae at the time; the subscription lists of both these charters are compatible with the dates, it has been suggested that the clauses referring to Alfonso as emperor are derived from authentic charters. There exists a letter purportedly written by Alfonso III to the clergy of the Cathedral of Tours in 906, wherein the king is arranging to purchase an "imperial crown made of gold and precious stones, fitting to his dignity" kept at Tours. Alfonso invariably calls himself "King Alfonso" in his surviving charters, but in the letter he uses the elaborate and high-ranking style "Alfonso by the power and assent of Christ king of Spain". A grandiose title is given to Alfonso in the contemporary Chronica Prophetica: "glorious Alfonso in all the Spains to reign"; the authenticity of the letter is still debated. Besides the apocryphal charters, there are genuine, posthumous documents referring to Alfonso as emperor.
In one that dates from 917, in the reign of his son Ordoño II of León, the king confirms as "Ordoño, son of the Emperor Alfonso the Great". A document from 950 can be cited that refers to Alfonso with the imperial title; the pertinent passage reads: "They put in place a border with Gonzalo, son of our lord emperor Prince Alfonso". A royal diploma of 922, where Ordoño II refers to himself as emperor, is the first recorded instance of a Leonese king doing so; the charter reads, "I, the most serene emperor Ordoño". Ordoño II's successor, Ramiro II, is not titled "emperor" in any contemporary document, but a charter dated 940 and preserved as a copy in the cartulary of the monastery of Eslonza is dated by "our reigning lord and emperor", the reigning king being Ramiro II. Although he avoided the imperial style himself, his subjects and his successor did not. Private documents of his reign refer to him as the "great king", as in a document of 930. In a charter of Ramiro's son Ordoño III, from his first regnal year, the king is called "our reigning lord prince Ordoño, heir of the lord emperor Ramiro" and the charter was given "at Simancas in the presence of the emperor".
Contemporary documents of the reign of Ramiro III of León use the magnified titles basileus and magnus rex. The former is a Latinisation of the Greek for "king" and was the title employed by the Byzantine Emperors. To western European ears it had an imperial inflection. During the regency of Ramiro's aunt, the nun Elvira Ramírez, the king confirmed a document of 1 May 974 as "Flavius Ramiro, anointed great basileus in the kingdom... I confirm with my own hand. Elvira, paternal aunt of the king"; the Roman personal name Flavius, which meant "blond", was popular among Romanised barbarians, the kings of the Visigoths took to using it as a Byzantine-sounding title, to give themselves legitimacy. Its use in a do
Fruela II of Asturias
Fruela II was the King of Asturias from the death of his father, Alfonso III of Asturias, in 910 to his own death. When his father died, the kingdom was divided, with the third son, taking the original portion; as king of Asturias, he had the job of consolidating the region called Castile and keeping its counts in check. Fruela's mother was Jimena of Pamplona, he himself married twice, first to a woman of unknown origin named Nunilona. His second wife, according to Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, was the daughter of the Banu Qasi governor of Tudela, they were married by 917. Fruela maintained good relations with his brother Ordoño, they cooperated in the Reconquista and Fruela undersigned Ordoño's diplomas as Froila rex with his second wife, Urraca regina. When Ordoño died in 924, the magnates elected Fruela king. Fruela had never been popular with the nobles and his subjects and his election has been doubted by some, who see it as a usurpation, he assassinated Gebuldo and Aresindo, sons of Olmundo, who claimed descent from King Witiza and thus further alienated the nobility.
For this, one chronicler relates, he was condemned to a reign of only fourteen months. According to Ramón Menéndez Pidal, he exiled the bishop a relation of Olmundo. Whatever the case, he did reign for a mere fourteen more months and died in early summer 925, some say after having contracted leprosy. Following Fruela's death, there were several competing claimants to his lands, including his younger brother Ramiro, the sons of his brother Ordoño II, along with his own young sons. There is some debate as to the immediate succession, although his family lost out to that of brother Ordoño. According to Bishop Pelayo, he left three sons by Nunila: Alfonso, Ordoño, Ramiro. Ibn Khaldun gives Ordoño and Ramiro to Urraca and leaves open the possibility of other children by either wife. Genealogy Ni obtuvo gloria ni venció enemigo
Menendo González was a semi-autonomous Duke of Galicia and Count of Portugal and a dominant figure in the Kingdom of León around the turn of the second millennium. He was the armiger regis, or royal alférez, the king's armour-bearer and commander of the royal armies, under Vermudo II, he continued to hold the position until his death, he became the tutor and father-in-law of Vermudo's successor, King Alfonso V. He maintained peaceful diplomatic relations with the Caliphate of Córdoba until 1004, after which there was a state of war. Before 999 King Vermudo II placed Alfonso V, under the tutorship of his alférez Menendo. Alfonso was only five at his father's death and he spent the early years of his reign in the care of Menendo and his wife; the earliest act of Alfonso as king dates to 13 October 999, it lists as confirmants first Count Menendo González and "Duke" Sancho García of Castile. Menendo appears in contemporary documents with the ducal title, as in dux domnus Menendus proles Gundisalvi.
The young Alfonso always appears in his early charters beside his mother, Elvira García, a sister of the count of Castile and exercising the regency under his influence. After 1003 Elvira no longer appears in royal charters. In subscribing one royal act Menendo went so far as to call himself "he who under the authority of the aforementioned king ordains and guides all things". In 1004 Sancho challenged the regency of Menendo. Both counts petitioned the Córdoban hajib al-Muzaffar to arbitrate the dispute. According to Ibn Khaldun, a hearing took place and al-Muzaffar's deputy, the qadi of the Mozarabic community of Córdoba, Asbag bin Abd Allah bin Nabil, found in favour of Menendo. According to some sources this took place in Córdoba with the two disputant counts in attendance, but according to others it took place in León. In 1000, as regent, Menendo confirmed the testament of Hilal, called Salvatus, the Mozarabic abbot of San Cipriano de Valdesalce, after the queen-regent Elvira and the young king and before five bishops of the realm.
A charter dated 23 December 1001 records the settlement of a dispute concerning the Monastery of Celanova by Alfonso V and "his elder, the lord Menendo, son of Gonzalo". Another charter dated 11 January 1002 records the donation of San Andrés de Congostro to the monastery of Celanova and was confirmed by "duke Menendo, son of Gonzalo". A royal charter of 1007 recognises Menendo as "the great count who holds all the land of Galicia". Menendo did not collaborate with the Córdobans, but after contingents were sent from Córdoba to reinforce Coimbra and the frontier with Portugal, Menendo entered into a pact with al-Muzaffar, which included a clause calling for military collaboration in 1003; that year Castilian troops assisted the Córdobans in their attack on Catalonia. This pact seems to have been broken when, in 1005, a Córdoban army marched with the intent of taking Zamora; the city was not captured. For the remainder of Menendo's regency there was no peace with the Córdobans. In the treasury of the Cathedral of Braga, now in the cathedral museum, there is an early 11th-century ivory pyxis containing a contemporary chalice and silver paten.
The pyxis has an inscription on the rim of its lid which allows it to be dated rather to between 1004, when the hajib Abd al-Malik received the title he bears in the inscription, Sayf al-Dawla, 1007, when he received the higher title of al-Muzaffar. The pyxis had found its way into the hands of Menendo González sometime before his death, since an added inscription on the bottom of it relates its donation to the church by him and his wife, Toda, it reads: IN NNE DNI MENENDUS GUNDISALVI ET TUDADMNA SUM. It has been suggested that the chalice and paten, which appear to be made to fit the pyxis, were commissioned by Menendo for the pyxis he obtained during a campaign against Córdoba. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the pyxis was a gift from the court of Córdoba to the Leonese regent during diplomatic negotiations. Historian Serafín Moralejo sees it presented to Menendo by Asbagh the qadi as "a good-will gift... a bitter one indeed and a warning oo, since the title of Sayf al-Dawla carved on its lid commemorated the raid the hajib had launched on León one year earlier."
The iconography of the pyxis is peaceful, its original function could have been at a "marriage, or an occasion of a calendrical observance such as a summer of fall harvest festival". The carvings of birds eating fruit may imitate a well-used Christian eucharistic motif dating back to Visigothic times. If so, the piece may have been designed to serve as a diplomatic gift to a Christian ruler Menendo; the last recorded act of Menendo was to confirm a charter of the monastery of San Pedro de Rocas in 1007. He was mentioned in a lawsuit settled in favour of Count Munio Fernández in early 1008, but as he did not confirm the result it is probable that he was in Galicia. Eight months on 6 October 1008, he died a violent death in unclear circumstances; the Islamic historian Ibn Khaldun, dating his death by the anno Hegirae, places it between 17 September 1007 and 4 September 1008, but the date provided by the Chronicon Lusitanum is more reliable. It records that "in the year 1046 of the Spanish era, on the day preceding the nones of October, Count
Ordoño IV of León
Ordoño IV, called the Wicked or the Bad was the king of León from 958 until 960, interrupting the reign of Sancho the Fat for a two-year period. He was the son of Alfonso IV of León and his queen, Oneca Sánchez of Pamplona, nephew of Ramiro II of León and of García Sánchez I of Pamplona. In 958, two years into the reign of Sancho I of León, he benefited from a rebellion of the nobility that would succeed in placing him on the throne; the Leonese nobles, as well as the disaffected Galician and Castilian ones, had grown sick of the obese Sancho. He received particular help in this from his brother-in-law, count Fernán González of Castile, whose daughter he married. However, count Fernán was defeated through a Navarrese and Umayyad alliance on Sancho's behalf in 960, Ordoño was forced out. Upon losing his throne, Ordoño fled first to Asturias Burgos, where he abandoned his wife; this lost him the support of Fernán González. The Castilian count sent Ordoño to Ghalib al-Nasiri, commander of the'Middle Frontier' in Medinaceli, from whom he was passed on to the court of the caliph of Córdoba.
There he made a plea for aid. The caliph at first offered him help, but this led his rival Sancho to offer his submission, thereby neutralizing any benefit to the caliph helping Ordoño, who died in Cordoba, still dethroned. During the short period of his reign, he was married, for political reasons, to Urraca, daughter of Fernán González and wife of his cousin Ordoño III of León. After Ordoño IV abandoned her, she would remarry to Sancho II of Pamplona. According to chronicler Sampiro, she bore Ordoño IV two children, but their identity is not known with certainty. Chronicler Ibn Hayyan assigns him a son García, but given that Urraca had a son of that name, the future king García Sánchez II of Pamplona by her third husband, Ibn Hayyan may have mistaken this step-son for a son. A minority of modern scholars suggested that Bermudo II of León was the son of Ordoño IV rather than of Ordoño III of León, but a contemporary charter naming Bermudo's grandfather as Ramiro refutes this. Collins, Roger.
Kings and Caliphs: Spain, 796-1031. Blackwell publishing