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Alfonso the Battler

Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Navarre from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. With his marriage to Urraca, queen regnant of Castile, León and Galicia, in 1109, he began to use, with some justification, the grandiose title Emperor of Spain employed by his father-in-law, Alfonso VI. Alfonso the Battler earned his sobriquet in the Reconquista, he won his greatest military successes in the middle Ebro, where he conquered Zaragoza in 1118 and took Ejea, Calatayud, Tarazona and Monreal del Campo. He died in September 1134 after an unsuccessful battle with the Muslims at the Battle of Fraga, his nickname comes from the Aragonese version of the Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña, which says that "they called him lord Alfonso the battler because in Spain there wasn't as good a knight who won twenty-nine battles". His earliest years were passed in the monastery of Siresa, learning to read and write and to practice the military arts under the tutelage of Lope Garcés the Pilgrim, repaid for his services by his former charge with the county of Pedrola when Alfonso came to the throne.

During his brother's reign, he participated in the taking of Huesca, which became the largest city in the kingdom and the new capital. He joined El Cid's expeditions in Valencia, his father gave him the lordships of Biel, Luna and Bailo. A series of deaths put Alfonso directly in line for the throne, his brother's children and Peter, died in 1103 and 1104 respectively. A passionate fighting-man, he was married in 1109 to the ambitious Queen Urraca of León, widow of Raymond of Burgundy, a passionate woman unsuited for a subordinate role; the marriage had been arranged by her father Alfonso VI of León in 1106 to unite the two chief Christian states against the Almoravids, to supply them with a capable military leader. But Urraca was tenacious of her right as queen regnant and had not learnt chastity in the polygamous household of her father. Husband and wife quarrelled with the brutality of the age and came to open war placing Urraca under siege at Astorga in 1112. Alfonso had the support of one section of the nobles.

Being a much better soldier than any of his opponents he won the Battle of Candespina and the Battle of Viadangos, but his only trustworthy supporters were his Aragonese, who were not numerous enough to keep Castile and León subjugated. The marriage of Alfonso and Urraca was declared null by the Pope, as they were second cousins, in 1110, but he ignored the papal nuncio and clung to his liaison with Urraca until 1114. During his marriage, he had called himself "King and Emperor of Castile, Aragón, Pamplona and Ribagorza" in recognition of his rights as Urraca's husband, he inserted the title of imperator on the basis. Alfonso's late marriage and his failure to remarry and produce the essential legitimate heir that should have been a dynastic linchpin of his aggressive territorial policies have been adduced as a lack of interest in women. Ibn al-Athir describes Alfonso as a tireless soldier who would sleep in his armor without benefit of cover, whom when asked why he did not take his pleasure from one of the captives of Muslim chiefs, responded that the man devoted to war needs the companionship of men not women.

The king quarrelled with the church, the Cistercians as violently as with his wife. As he defeated her, so he expelled the monks of Sahagún, he was compelled to give way in Castile and León to his stepson, Alfonso VII of Castile, son of Urraca and her first husband. The intervention of Pope Calixtus II brought about an arrangement between the old man and his young namesake. In 1122 in Belchite, he founded a confraternity of knights to fight against the Almoravids, it was the start of the military orders in Aragon. Years he organised a branch of the Militia Christi of the Holy Land at Monreal del Campo. Alfonso spent his first four years as king in near-constant war with the Muslims. In 1105, he refortified Castellar and Juslibol. In 1106, he defeated Ahmad II al-Musta'in of Zaragoza at Valtierra. In 1107, he took Esteban de la Litera. Followed a period dominated by his relations with Castile and León through his wife, Urraca, he resumed his conquest in 1117 by conquering Fitero, Cintruénigo, Murchante and Cascante.

In 1118, the Council of Toulouse declared a crusade to assist in the conquest of Zaragoza. Many Frenchmen joined Alfonso at Ayerbe, they took Almudévar, Gurrea de Gállego, Zuera, besieging Zaragoza itself by the end of May. The city fell on 18 December, the forces of Alfonso occupied the Azuda, the government tower; the great palace of the city was given to the monks of Bernard. Promptly, the city was made Alfonso's capital. Two years in 1120, he defeated a Muslim army intent on reconquering his new capital at the Battle of Cutanda, he promulgated the fuero of tortum per tortum, facilitating taking the law into one's own hands, which among others reassumed the Muslim ri

Boscobel, Shropshire

Boscobel is a civil parish in the east of Shropshire, England, on the border with Staffordshire. To the north is the Staffordshire village of Bishops Wood. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 12; because of its small population, it shares a parish council with the neighbouring Donington parish. It is the smallest parish in Shropshire by population – the smallest by area is Deuxhill, it is the site of Boscobel House, home to the Giffard family, owners of the Boscobel Royal Oak, where Charles II hid in an oak tree after losing the Battle of Worcester in 1651. A historical romance on the subject was published as Boscobel in 1871 by William Harrison Ainsworth; the "pine groves of Boscobel" are mentioned by Charles Kinbote, narrator of Vladimir Nabokov's 1962 postmodern novel Pale Fire, in descriptions of his escape from Zembla. In the parish is White Ladies Priory. Escape of Charles II Listed buildings in Boscobel Media related to Boscobel at Wikimedia Commons

Antoine Goetschel

Antoine François Goetschel is a Swiss lawyer who has focused on animal rights law. In cases involving animal abuse, he was appointed to defend the rights of the animal in question, he played a prominent role lobbying for the unsuccessful March 2010 Swiss referendum which would have provided legal representation to all animals involved in Swiss court cases. Goetschel serves. In 2007 he was appointed by the canton government to represent the interests of animals in animal cruelty cases. In this capacity, he attempts to insure that the Swiss animal protection laws, which are among the strictest in the world, are enforced. Goetschel does not bring charges in this role, but rather focuses on explaining law, evaluating precedent, appealing verdicts, he says that a third of his legal work is devoted to cases involving animals and the rest of his time is spent in private practice. His work has been praised by Peter Singer. In 2011, the office of Zurich animal advocate was abolished and the canton veterinary office took charge of animal cruelty cases.

Goetschel plans to continue to advocate for animal rights causes by writing books on the subject. Most of Goetschel's cases involve abuse of domestic pets, such as the case in which he secured a large fine against a woman who abandoned two kittens shortly after purchasing them. Goetschel has represented a variety of animals during his tenure as an animal lawyer, however. In February 2010, he argued on behalf of a pike, caught by an angler, he made the case that the amount of time the angler had spent fighting the fish caused the fish to "suffer excessively." Although the court ruled against him, he is appealing the judgment. He has prosecuted on behalf of fish that were used in a game show episode in which contestants attempted to catch them by hand, arguing that the contestants did not treat the fish with the dignity they deserved, he lost the case on a technicality. Goetschel became interested in animal rights at age 23 after an accident left him temporarily unable to speak; this experience caused him to reflect on animal suffering.

He became a vegetarian and became active in the animal rights movement. He has played a prominent role in lobbying for Swiss animal rights legislation. Although not a representative of the campaign, he devoted much of his time to lobbying on behalf of the March 2010 Swiss animal law referendum. Had it passed, it would have led to the Swiss government hiring other animal advocates in addition to Goetschel, he lobbied on behalf of 2003 law which led to animals being treated as sentient beings, rather than property, in Swiss law. Website of Goetschel's legal practice

William Shepard Wetmore

For the founder of Cuyahoga Falls, see William WetmoreWilliam Shepard Wetmore was an Old China Trade merchant and philanthropist from New England. He was born on January 1801 to Nancy Shepard and Seth Wetmore in St. Albans, Vermont, he was a sixth-generation descendant of Thomas Whitmore, who immigrated to Boston in 1635 from the west coast of England and became one of the earliest settlers of the Connecticut Colony. His mother died on February 2, 1802, he had two stepbrothers Charles Wright Wetmore and Seth Downing Wetmore and one stepsister Nancy Shepard Wetmore. William moved to Connecticut with his aunt and uncle and was educated at Cheshire Academy in Cheshire, Connecticut. William was mentored by an uncle, Samuel Wetmore, in a mercantile partnership with another uncle, Chauncy Whittlesey, in Middletown, Connecticut. In 1815 Samuel and his brother William Willard Wetmore moved to Providence, Rhode Island entering into a business partnership with the merchants Edward Carrington & Company.

When William was fourteen years of age, he was hired aboard the ship Fame, bound for England, South America, the East Indies. In 1823, a trip on the Lion stranded him in Chile, he took employment in Chile with the firm Richard Alsop of Connecticut. This led to a partnership of Alsop and Cryder in 1825 with John Cryder of Philadelphia. In 1829, he retired from the firm. Due to impaired health William's physician advised a career move to China. In 1833, he traveled to Canton and took over a partnership in Dunn & Company, he formed close ties with a junior partner Joseph Archer. He went on to establish Wetmore & Company, with Joseph Archer. Wetmore's profit and loss ledgers from 1834–1839 reveal that the primary goods brokered by Wetmore & Co. were tea, tea papers and spices. Lesser cargoes were wines, opium, pearl buttons and coffee, they transported a variety of foreign currencies, delivered Sunday newspapers. "Fast boats" were employed for personal passages and letters. The company went on to be one of the largest mercantile houses in the East Indies despite the fact that Wetmore was opposed to the opium trade.

During his time in the Far East, Wetmore collected a variety of Chinese objects and china, which he imported home. It was in 1835 that the Maryland merchant George Peabody sailed to London on a mission to defer a United States banking crisis when states had begun skipping interest payments on bonds marketed in London. Peabody enjoyed a huge success as a merchant banker in London and as a self-appointed American ambassador of the mercantile industry, he developed a form of wholesale banking known as merchant banks and became a leading dealer of American state bonds in London. It was through family and business connections that William S. Wetmore began a lifelong friendship with the prominent financier Peabody. In 1844, he revisited his partnership with Cryder and formed the house of Wetmore and Cryder in New York City, he retired from the firm in 1847. According to Barrett in The Old Merchants of New York City, besides his success in the merchant trade, Wetmore acquired vast land holdings of 10,000 acres in Ohio and 70,000 acres in Tennessee and his net worth at retirement was valued over one million dollars.

Wetmore left New York City and retired to Newport, Rhode Island where he bought 15 acres of land. On October 24, 1837, William married his cousin, Esther Phillips Wetmore of Middletown, Connecticut, at Gloucester Lodge, Regent's Park, London, she was the daughter of a sister of Mary Cryder. The following year, a daughter was born in New York City, who died at birth or soon thereafter on October 12, 1838. Esther died on October 26, 1838. After her death, he married 21-year-old Anstiss Derby Rogers in Salem, Massachusetts, on September 5, 1843, daughter of John Wittingham Rogers, they had three children: William Shepard Wetmore Jr. who died of scarlet fever in June 1858. George Peabody Wetmore the Governor of Rhode Island and a U. S. Senator. Annie Derby Rogers Wetmore, who married William Watts Sherman on July 7, 1871. In Newport, he built Chateau-sur-Mer, the first of the grand Bellevue Avenue mansions of the Gilded Age in Newport, Rhode Island, it is now open to the public as a museum. He furnished it with porcelain.

In 1860 he added a massive stone moon gate on the grounds from designs brought back from China. However, there is no mention of his wife, Anstiss, in a series of letters written between Annie and their father, corresponding between Newport and New York City during the years 1856-1860, it is believed she lived at the Merlano Cottage in Massachusetts. According to the 1860 and 1865 census, Mrs. Wetmore is not residing at Chateau-sur-Mer. Servants living at the house in the 1860 census were a butler, cook and chambermaid. Another resident in the 1860 census at Chateau-sur-Mer was a Wetmore cousin, twenty-year-old Lucy Dennison. William S. Wetmore conducted an active community life in Newport as a founder and incorporator of the Newport Historical Society in 1854, as the first and continuing chairman of the Newport Reading Room, 1854–1861, as a Director of the Redwood Library from 1856-1862. Wetmore was one of sixteen Newporters, he was elected Vice President of the innovative Butler Hospital for the insane in 1858, which initiated reform of treatment for the poor and insane.

Upon William Wetmore's death on June 16, 1862, sixteen-year-old George and fourteen-year-old Annie were master and mistress of Chateau-sur-Mer. A Study of


Byz is a Swedish hip-hop musician from Sala. His artist-name is inspired by his last name. Over the years from 1999 to 2000, he started his career as a musician with the group Inte helt oskyldiga, but not until 2003 did he release his first solo album There Is Still A Party Going On. In 2004, Byz had planned to end his music career, but decided against it, he released his second solo album, From Here during the summer of that year. The album was sold in limited edition, just like his first 100 records for friends and family. In recent years, with the help of the Internet, his music has spread rapidly. In 2005 Byz released his first Swedish album, which came to be called Når botten i toppen av en sjuttis; the single "Karatefylla" on the last album Fat by you. He became popular among many young people. In 2008 Byz initiated closer cooperation with Headline; this collaboration was to result in the joint album Does it look like I care? Released in the second quarter of 2009 via their website. Unlike the previous albums, it was made available for free.

Byz's father is Finnish. In December 2010, Byström's wife, Juumi Aleksis Byström, gave birth to the couple's second child in Hanover, Germany. Ser det ut som jag bryr mig, 2009 Fett av dig, 2007 Når botten i toppen av en sjuttis, 2005 From here to somewhere, 2004 There is still a party going on, 2003 Vadå, 2001 2004 - "The party is in you" 2006 - "Karatefylla" 2007 - "Hey där" 2011 - "Ölbrillor" 2012 - "Tjena Tjena Tjena" 2012 - "Min dealer" 2012 - "Pusha den hårt" 2015 - "Tusen smällar sen " Official Web Site

The Dresser (1983 film)

The Dresser is a 1983 British drama film, with a screenplay by Ronald Harwood, based on his 1980 play The Dresser. It tells the story of an aging actor's personal assistant, who struggles to keep his charge's life together; the film was produced by Yates with Ronald Harwood. Cinematography was by Kelvin Pike, it stars Albert Finney, Tom Courtenay, Zena Walker, Eileen Atkins, Michael Gough, Edward Fox. Finney and Courtenay were both nominated for Academy Awards, BAFTA Awards, Golden Globe Awards for their performances, with Courtenay winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama in a tie with Robert Duvall in Tender Mercies; the plot is based on Harwood's experiences as dresser to English Shakespearean actor-manager Sir Donald Wolfit, the model for the character "Sir". The film opens with a performance of Othello at a regional theatre in Britain during World War II. In the title role is an aging, once-famous Shakespearean actor identified to us only as "Sir", he is of the bombastic school of British acting, full of grand gestures and fine oratory.

As the curtain comes down on the last act, as the actors line up for their curtain call, Sir lectures them on the mistakes they've made during the performance, showing us that he is the leader of this travelling band of actors bringing Shakespeare to the provinces during wartime. Waiting backstage is Norman, Sir's dresser for decades. Norman is an efficient, somewhat effeminate man who knows Sir's every whim and fancy, is used to his tirades and temperamental rants and is, for all intents and purposes, Sir's servant; as Norman waits for Sir to come offstage after a florid closing address to the audience, we see one way he copes with his job as he takes a nip from a little bottle of brandy always in his back pocket. The company is hurrying to its next venue, the industrial city of Bradford, where Sir is to give his renowned portrayal of the title character in King Lear; the train nearly leaves without them, as Sir makes his stately progress through York railway station to the platform, Norman scurrying ahead to plead with the train guard to hold the train for Sir's arrival.

But the train begins to pull out of the station, until Sir delivers a loud, commanding "STOP.... THAT.... TRAIN!" from the platform steps. The guard is taken aback, the train halts, Sir placidly leads his company aboard. Arriving in Bradford, another source of Norman's anxiety soon becomes clear, for it becomes obvious that Sir's mental capacities are fading. Norman rescues him from a confused violent rant in Halifax town square near Piece Hall that lands Sir in hospital; as the company tries to decide what to do, Sir unexpectedly arrives at the theatre and exhausted, saying he has discharged himself from hospital. Norman ushers Sir to the dressing room, fiercely resisting the stage manager's insistence that the show be cancelled, insisting Sir will be ready to go on; the middle section of the film takes place nearly in the dressing room, as Norman struggles to prepare Sir for the curtain. Sir's wandering mind and nearly incoherent ramblings become more focused as Norman gets him to concentrate on applying his makeup, remembering his lines.

Sir would have no career left without Norman. By the time Sir's wife, referred to only as "Her Ladyship", playing Cordelia to her husband's Lear, arrives in the dressing room for the five-minute call, Sir is ready for the role he has performed 227 times; the curtain rises for the opening dialogue among Lear's courtiers, but Sir seems to mentally drift away while waiting for his cue, much to Norman's distress, forcing the hapless actors on stage to improvise speeches while Norman struggles to convince Sir of his entrance. Air raid sirens sound. After the triumphant performance, Sir collapses from exhaustion and Norman helps him to his dressing room to lie down. Sir requests that Norman read from an autobiography he claims to have been writing. Although all Sir has written is the opening dedication, Norman reads aloud Sir's gracious "thank you"s to his audiences, his fellow actors, to Shakespeare, to stage technicians...but not a word about his dresser who has served him so long and loyally. About to protest, Norman discovers.

Norman, by now drunk from the evening's brandy nips, flies into a rage, accusing Sir of being a thankless old sod, in his anger madly scribbles an addition to Sir's writing thanking himself. But Norman's anger only temporarily covers his disorientation at losing the only life he has known for so many years and, as Norman tearfully admits, the only man he has loved; the film closes with Norman sprawled across Sir's body, unwilling to let go of his life and his love. Goldcrest Films gave Ronald Harwood $60,000 to write the screenplay, they invested £1.5 million in the film and made a profit of nearly £300,000. In 1990 Jake Eberts of Goldcrest called it "the most pleasant production with which I have been associated." The Dresser received good reviews upon its release. Roger Ebert, of the Chicago Sun-Times, in awarding the film four out of four stars, described the film as "the movie is a wonderful collection of theatrical lore and superstition....the best sort of drama, fascinating us on the surface with color and humor and esoteric detail, revealing the truth u