Old Course at St Andrews
The Old Course at St Andrews is one of the oldest golf courses in the world, a public course over common land in St Andrews, Scotland. It is held in trust by The St Andrews Links Trust under an act of Parliament, the Old Course at St Andrews is considered by many to be the home of golf because the sport was first played on the Links at St Andrews in the early 15th century. Golf was becoming popular in Scotland until in 1457, when James II of Scotland banned golf because he felt that young men were playing too much golf instead of practicing their archery. The ban was upheld by the kings of Scotland until 1502. In 1552, Archbishop John Hamilton gave the people of St. Andrews the right to play on the links. In 1754,22 noblemen and landowners founded the Society of St Andrews Golfers and this society would eventually become the precursor to the Royal and Ancient which is the governing body for golf everywhere outside of the United States and Mexico. St Andrews Links had a scare when they went bankrupt in 1797, the Town Council of St.
Andrews decided to allow rabbit farming on the golf course to challenge golf for popularity. Originally, it was played over the set of fairways out. As interest in the increased, groups of golfers would often be playing the same hole. The Old Course was pivotal to the development of how the game is played today, for instance, in 1764, the course had 22 holes. The members would play the same hole going out and in with the exception of the 11th, the members decided that the first four and last four holes on the course were too short and should be combined into four total holes. St Andrews had 18 holes and that was how the standard of 18 holes was created, around 1863, Old Tom Morris had the 1st green separated from the 17th green, producing the current 18-hole layout with seven double greens and four single greens. The Old Course is home of The Open Championship, the oldest of golfs major championships, the Old Course has hosted this major 29 times since 1873, most recently in 2015. The 29 Open Championships that the Old Course has hosted is more than any other course, bobby Jones first played St Andrews in the 1921 Open Championship.
During the third round, he hit his ball into a bunker on the 11th hole. After he took four swings at the ball and still could not get out, six years later, when the Open Championship returned to St Andrews, Jones returned. Not only did he win, he became the first amateur to win back-to-back Open Championships. He won wire-to-wire, shooting a 285, which was the lowest score at either a U. S. Open or Open Championship at the time and he ended up winning the tournament by a decisive six strokes
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The village and parish of Kingsbarns lies near the eastern coast of Fife, Scotland, in an area known as the East Neuk,6.5 miles southeast of St Andrews and 3.6 miles north of Crail. The name derives from the area being the location of the used to store grain before being transported to the Palace at Falkland. Folk musician James Yorkston was brought up in Kingsbarns, the coast around Kingsbarns is known as a challenging surfing area. Pitmilly, an estate that was owned by the Moneypenny family for over seven centuries, is located about 1.5 miles from Kingsbarns on the road to St Andrews. Ruins of two mills and the Bronze Age tumulus, Pitmilly Law, are still evident, the civil parish has a population of 443. An inn existed in Kingsbarns for centuries, previously offering a place of refuge for pilgrims to St Andrews Cathedral, the village has a shop and primary school. In 1922, Kingsbarns Golf Club was founded, and a course designed by Willie Auchterlonie was laid out. Kingsbarns hosted the St Andrews and Jacques Léglise trophies in 2007, as of November 2014 Kingsbarns Distillery and Visitor Centre was opened and began filling barrels of spirit in March 2015.
Kingsbarns Distillery was founded by a golf caddie who wished to convert a historic. Kingsbarns pot stills were hand-made at Forsyths in Rothes, kingsabarns new make spirit has been bottled giving visitors and curious whisky drinkers a unique chance to sample the spirit before it matures. Kingsbarns – information centre Kingsbarns Golf Links – official site The Barns at Kingsbarns – official site
Daniel John Willett is an English professional golfer who plays on the European Tour. Willett was born in Sheffield, one of four brothers and his father, was a Church of England vicar and his mother, Swedish-born Elisabet, was a maths teacher. Willett used to practice his golf in a pasture, interviewed by The Daily Telegraph in 2016 he said. As an amateur, he won the English Amateur Championship in 2007, in March 2008 he became the number one ranked amateur in the world. Willett signed with FirstPoint USA in 2005 and secured a scholarship he played two seasons for Jacksonville State University in the U. S. During his time with JSU, he was the 2006 Ohio Valley Conference Freshman of the Year and he was a first-team All-OVC performer and a member of the OVCs All-Tournament Team in both seasons. Willett turned professional in May 2008, and earned his European Tour card for the 2009 season coming through qualifying school, following this performance, Willett moved into the top 100 of the Official World Golf Ranking for the first time.
He finished the 2010 season ranked 23rd on the Order of Merit, willetts first victory on the European Tour came in June 2012 at the BMW International Open in Cologne. He defeated Marcus Fraser on the extra hole of a sudden death play-off. Through 36 holes at the 2015 Open Championship, Willett was one stroke off the lead of Dustin Johnson and was paired with him in the group for the third round of the Championship. He only could muster an even-par 72 in the round, however. A final round 70, moved him into a tie for sixth at the Old Course at St Andrews, in July 2015, Willett won his third European Tour title with a one-stroke victory over Matthew Fitzpatrick at the Omega European Masters. Though he earned enough to qualify for a PGA Tour card, Willett won his first major championship at the 2016 Masters Tournament at Augusta National after shooting a five-under-par round of 67 to take advantage of a collapse by Jordan Spieth. Defending champion Spieth led by five shots as he approached the 10th hole of the final round, Willett took the lead when Spieth, who was leading by 1 shot from Willett, had a quadruple bogey 7 at the par-3 12th.
Willett was the leader in the clubhouse at −5 when he posted a final round of 67 and was crowned champion when Spieth finished at −2 alongside Lee Westwood. Willett became the first British player to win the Masters for 20 years, after being presented with the green jacket as champion, Willett said, It was a very surreal day when you look back at the ebbs and flows. After his win, Willett accepted PGA Tour membership and rose to the 9th place of the Official World Golf Ranking, beside the first major win at the Masters,2016 proved to be the most successful season for Willett. With his position he earned the automatic selection for the 2016 Ryder Cup
Nigel Ernest James Mansell, CBE is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship and the CART Indy Car World Series. His career in Formula One spanned 15 seasons, with his two full seasons of top-level racing being spent in the CART series. He held the record for the most number of set in a single season. He was rated in the top 10 Formula One drivers of all time by longtime Formula One commentator Murray Walker, in 2008, ESPN. com ranked him 24th on their Top 25 Drivers of All Time list. He was ranked No.9 of the 50 greatest F1 drivers of all time by the Times Online on a list that included such drivers as Prost, Jackie Stewart. Mansell raced in the Grand Prix Masters series in 2005, and he signed a one-off race deal for the Scuderia Ecosse GT race team to drive their number 63 Ferrari F430 GT2 car at Silverstone on 6 May 2007. He has since competed in sports car races with his sons Leo and Greg. Mansell was inducted to the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 2005 and he is the current president of one of the UKs largest Youth Work Charities, UK Youth.
He is President of the IAM, in September 2014, it was announced that Mansell would be opening a Mitsubishi franchise on Jersey in the month. Defeated Erik Spaulding in semi-final 2017 Belleair Club Championship, Nigel Ernest James Mansell was born on 8 August 1953 in Upton-upon-Severn, the son of Eric, an engineer and Joyce Mansell. Mansell spent 11 years of his life as a Special Constable on the Isle of Man during his driving career, during this period, he developed a golf course in Devon. He had a slow start to his racing career, using his own money to help work his way up the ranks. After considerable success in racing, he moved to the Formula Ford series to the disapproval of his father. In 1976, Mansell won six of the nine races he took part in and he entered 42 races the following year and won 33 to become the 1977 British Formula Ford champion, despite suffering a broken neck in a qualifying session at Brands Hatch. Doctors told him he had been close to quadriplegia, that he would be confined for six months.
Mansell discharged himself from the hospital and returned to racing, Three weeks before the accident he had resigned from his job as an aerospace engineer, having previously sold most of his personal belongings to finance his foray into Formula Ford. Later that year he was given the chance to race a Lola T570 Formula 3 car at Silverstone and he finished fourth and decided that he was ready to move into the higher formula. Mansell raced in Formula Three in 1978–1980, Mansells first season in Formula Three started with a pole position and a second-place finish
Carnoustie Golf Links
The Carnoustie Golf Links are in Carnoustie, Scotland. Its historic championship golf course is one of the venues in the Open Championship rotation, Golf is recorded as having been played at Carnoustie in the early 16th century. In 1890, the 14th Earl of Dalhousie, who owned the land and it had no funds to acquire the property, and public fundraising was undertaken and donated to the council. The original course was of ten holes and recrossing the Barry Burn, it was designed by Allan Robertson, assisted by Old Tom Morris, and opened in 1842. The opening of the railway from Dundee to Arbroath in 1838 brought an influx of golfers from as far afield as Edinburgh. This led to a restructuring of the course, extended in 1867 by Old Tom Morris to the 18 holes which had meanwhile become standardized. Young Tom Morris won an open event there that same year. Two additional courses have since been added, the Burnside Course, Carnoustie first played host to The Open Championship in 1931, after modifications to the course by James Braid in 1926.
The winner was Tommy Armour, from Edinburgh, the last three championships were all won in playoffs. A large hotel was built behind the 18th green of the Championship course. The Amateur Championship was first hosted by Carnoustie in 1947, the winner was Willie Turnesa, the worlds oldest amateur event has returned three times since,1966,1971, and 1992. The British Ladies Amateur was first hosted by Carnoustie in 1973, the Senior Open Championship was held at Carnoustie for the first time in 2010, with Germanys Bernhard Langer winning. The Womens British Open was held here for the first time in 2011, Carnoustie is one of the three courses hosting the Alfred Dunhill Links Championship, an autumn event on the European Tour, the others are the Old Course at St Andrews and Kingsbarns. The Golf Channels reality series The Big Break, in which aspiring golfers compete for exemptions on professional tours and other prizes, filmed its fourth season at Carnoustie in 2005. As that year saw the Ryder Cup at The K Club in Ireland.
In North America, the course is infamously nicknamed Car-nasty, due to its famous difficulty, Carnoustie is considered by many to be the most difficult course in the Open rota, and one of the toughest courses in the world. One much-fancied young favourite, a 19-year-old Sergio García of Spain, the Carnoustie effect is defined as that degree of mental and psychic shock experienced on collision with reality by those whose expectations are founded on false assumptions. This being a term, it can of course apply to disillusionment in any area of activity
Ross Daniel Fisher is an English professional golfer who plays on the European Tour, where he has won five times, including the 2009 Volvo World Match Play Championship at Wentworth. Fisher was born in Ascot and his home course is the famous Wentworth Golf Club, England, location of the European Tour administrative headquarters. As a child, he attended Charters School, a state close to Wentworth. Fisher joined the European Tour in 2006 and he earned his card by finishing 18th on the Challenge Tours money list in 2005. During Fishers first season on the European Tour he won a Jaguar for a nearest to the pin contest in the 2006 Quinn Direct British Masters. In 2007, Fisher won the KLM Open by one stroke over Joost Luiten, Fisher started the 2008 season with a joint-second place in the HSBC Champions tournament in Shanghai, beaten by Phil Mickelson in a three-way play-off that featured Lee Westwood. In July 2008, Fisher won the European Open on the Heritage Course at The London Golf Club, the first staging of the event at the venue in Kent, England.
Having established a first round lead, he was never subsequently headed at the top of the leaderboard, Fisher played steadily for the rest of the season and finished sixth on the Tours Order of Merit. Fishers progress continued in 2009 when he reached the semi-final of the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship in Arizona, Fisher finished second at the BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth Club, after shooting a 64 in his final round, which included 6 birdies in the first 12 holes. Fishers 64 was just a shot outside the Wentworth course record, Fisher was in contention during the final round of the 2009 U. S. Open at Bethpage Black, New York up until a three-putt bogey at the par three 17th hole. Fisher finished in 5th place, three shots behind the champion Lucas Glover and he eventually finished in a tie for 13th place. In 2009, Fisher had the lowest cumulative score for the four championships for players who made the cut in all four events. Fishers cumulative score of +2 was one better than Henrik Stenson of Sweden.
At the end of 2009, Fisher won the first Volvo World Match Play Championship that was away from Wentworth. He finished the season in place in the Race to Dubai. He won the tournament with an 18-under-par score of 266, Fisher qualified for the 2010 European Ryder Cup team, which regained the trophy from the United States at Celtic Manor, Wales, on 4 October. He contributed two points towards the European team total and finished with a record of 2–2–0, in March 2014, Fisher won his fifth European Tour title and first in over three years at the Tshwane Open in South Africa. Fisher won by three strokes over Michael Hoey and Danie van Tonder, having entered the day five ahead of the field, Fisher is married to Joanne with whom he has a daughter, Eve
Michael Kirk Douglas is an American actor and producer. Douglass career includes a range of films in independent and blockbuster genres, for which he has received a number of accolades. These awards include the Golden Globe Cecil B. Douglas is the son of Kirk Douglas. He received his Bachelor of Arts in Drama from the University of California and his early acting roles included film and television productions. Douglas first achieved prominence for his performance in the ABC police procedural television series The Streets of San Francisco, in 1975 Douglas produced One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, having acquired the rights to the Ken Kesey novel from his father. The film received critical and popular acclaim, and won the Academy Award for Best Picture, after leaving The Streets of San Francisco in 1976, Douglas went on to produce films including The China Syndrome and Romancing the Stone. He won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy for Romancing the Stone, in which he starred and he reprised the role in the sequel Wall Street, Money Never Sleeps.
Douglass subsequent film roles included, Black Rain, The War of the Roses, Basic Instinct, The American President, The Game and Wonder Boys, Solitary Man, and Ant-Man. Douglas was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the first child of actors Kirk Douglas and his parents met at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. His paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Chavusy, and his father was born Issur Danielovitch and his mother was from Devonshire Parish and had English, Scottish, French and Dutch ancestry. Douglas has a brother, Joel Douglas, and two paternal half-brothers, Peter Douglas and Eric Douglas, from stepmother Anne Buydens. Douglas attended The Allen-Stevenson School in New York City, Eaglebrook School in Deerfield, Massachusetts and he received his B. A. in drama from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1968, where he was the Honorary President of the UCSB Alumni Association. He studied acting with Wynn Handman at The American Place Theatre in New York City and his first TV breakthrough role came with a 1969 CBS-TV Playhouse special, The Experiment—and it was the only time he was billed as M. K.
Douglas. Michael Douglas started his career in the late 1960s and early 1970s, appearing in little known films such as Hail. Adam at 6 A. M. and Summertree, earned him a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Male Newcomer. His first significant role came in the TV series The Streets of San Francisco from 1972 to 1976, Douglas said that Malden became a mentor and someone he admired and loved deeply. After Douglas left the show, he had an association with his mentor until Maldens death on July 1,2009. In 2004, Douglas presented Malden with the Monte Cristo Award of the Eugene ONeill Theater Center in Waterford, in 1975, Douglas received from his father, Kirk Douglas, the rights to the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common