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Alfred Fowler

Alfred Fowler, CBE FRS was an English astronomer. He was born in Wilsden on the outskirts of Bradford and educated at London's Normal School of Science, absorbed into Imperial College, London, he was worked there until his death. He was an expert in spectroscopy, being one of the first to determine that the temperature of sunspots was cooler than that of surrounding regions, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1910, when his citation read "Associate of the Royal College of Science. Assistant Professor of Physics Imperial College and Technology, South Kensington. Distinguished for his contributions to Astronomical Physics by spectroscopic observations of eclipses, solar pre-eminences, sunspots, by experimental researches bearing on their interpretation. Associated in observations of total eclipses of the sun with Sir Norman Lockyer in 1893, 1896, 1898, 1900, in 1905. "He was awarded their Royal Medal in 1918 and delivered their Bakerian Lectures in 1914 and 1924. Fowler was president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1919 to 1921 and died in Ealing, London in 1940.

In 1896, Edward Charles Pickering published observations of unknown lines in the spectra of the star ζ-Puppis, which he attributed to hydrogen. Fowler managed to reproduce these lines experimentally from a hydrogen-helium mixture in 1912, agreed with Pickering's interpretation that they were unknown features in the spectrum of hydrogen; these lines became known as the Pickering–Fowler series and turned out to be of great significance in understanding the nature of the atom. Niels Bohr included a theoretical examination of these lines in his'trilogy' on atomic structure and concluded that they had been wrongly attributed to hydrogen, arguing instead that they arose from ionised helium, He+. Fowler was skeptical but was convinced that Bohr was correct, by 1915 "spectroscopists had transferred definitively to helium." Bohr's theoretical work on the series had demonstrated the need for "a re-examination of problems that seemed to have been solved within classical theories" and provided important confirmation for his atomic theory.

Awards Valz Prize from the French Academy of Sciences Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Royal Medal Fellow of the Royal Society Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences Bruce Medal Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Named after him The crater Fowler on the Moon The Spectra of Metallic Arcs in an Exhausted Globe (with H Page,. Bruce Medal page Awarding of Bruce medal: PASP 46 87 Awarding of RAS gold medal: MNRAS 75 355 ApJ 94 1 MNRAS 101 132 Obs 63 262 PASP 52 301

Papillion, Nebraska

Papillion is a city in Sarpy County in the state of Nebraska. Designated as the county seat, it developed an 1870s railroad suburb of Omaha; the city is part of the larger five-county metro area of Omaha. The population of Papillion was 18,894 at the 2010 census, its growth since the late twentieth century has reflected the growth of Omaha. The city was named after the creek of the same name; the name Papillion is derived from the French term for butterfly. According to local tradition, the early French explorers named the creek as Papillon because they saw so many butterflies along its grassy banks; the spelling was changed through a transliteration of the French word. Papillion was platted in 1870. Papillion is one of the last of the late 18th-century, Paris-inspired frontier cities left in the Midwestern United States. Halleck Park, a recreation area in the heart of the city, includes many trails, open spaces, trees and a number of areas of interest, including Papio Fun Park, Papio Bay Aquatic Park, Papio Pool, Papio Bowl.

TeThe park offers tennis courts, volleyball courts, playgrounds, "The Duck Pond", Monarch Field, E. A. Fricke Field, it has nine other baseball diamonds within the park for youth. The baseball diamonds are sited on three fields: Halleck and Papio Bay. Village Park, Papio Bay Aquatic Center and Walnut Creek recreational park are among the other recreational amenities in the city. Papillion Middle School is in the downtown area south of Papio Creek; the former junior high was located directly west, across the street. Downtown are the Old A. W. Clarke banking house, Sump Memorial Library, City Hall, Portal One-Room School House, Papillion Municipal Building, the John Sutter House. Other areas of interest in Papillion include Sarpy County Court House and Jail, Shadow Lake Towne Center, Midlands Hospital, all along Nebraska Highway 370 in the southern portion of the city. Papillion has a Triple-A minor league baseball team. Werner Park, located less than three miles west of the city on Highway 370 in unincorporated Sarpy County, opened in 2011 as the new home of the Omaha Storm Chasers of the Pacific Coast League.

The Storm Chasers were the Omaha Royals. They have been the only AAA-affiliate of the Kansas City Royals, an expansion club that entered the American League in 1969. Papillion is divided with two councilmembers elected from each. One seat for each ward is up for election every two years, with each term lasting four years; the mayor is elected at-large to four-year terms. The council meets every two weeks. Following former Mayor James Blinn's resignation on July 7, 2009, city council president David Black succeeded to become mayor of Papillion, he was elected in 2010 for his first full term. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.47 square miles, of which 6.45 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Companies based in Papillion include Infogroup; as of the census of 2000, there were 16,363 people, 5,505 households, 4,337 families living in the city. The population density was 3,927.9 people per square mile. There were 5,751 housing units at an average density of 1,380.5 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 93.02% White, 2.46% African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.41% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.92% of the population. There were 5,505 households out of which 46.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.2% were non-families. 17.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.30. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $63,992, the median income for a family was $70,737.

Males had a median income of $45,678 versus $27,984 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,521. About 2.5% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 18,894 people, 6,925 households, 5,079 families living in the city; the population density was 2,929.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,240 housing units at an average density of 1,122.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.7% White, 3.3% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 1.5% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 5.2% of the population. There were 6,925 households of which 38.1% had children under the age of 1

Damme Canal

The Damme Canal is a canal in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The canal links Bruges with the Western Scheldt at Netherlands, it was constructed on the orders of Napoleon Bonaparte who wished to create a canal network in order to permit the efficient transport of troops without the risk of disruptive interventions from the British navy. Following the defeat of Napoleon, the original strategic imperative for the canal was removed; the plans in the Napoleonic era had called for a link to the Scheldt at Breskens. Half a century the canal opened to traffic in 1856, the link with the sea had moved to Sluis. At Damme the canal crosses the Leopold Canal and the Schipdonk Canal, both of which were dug in the middle years of the nineteenth century in order to reduce the vulnerability of the Belgian canal network to Dutch interference, after the achievement in 1830 of Belgian independence, it was necessary to create a system of Siphons because of the differences in water level of the three canals.

The canal was used until 1940 when French troops destroyed the siphon system: this put an end to maritime transport on the Damme Canal. After World War II use of the canal resumed, but it was used now by pleasure boats, along with a tourist boat connecting Damme and Bruges. Dutch ministerial webpage on the Damme Canal

Lake St. Louis, Missouri

The City of Lake St. Louis is a planned community situated around two lakes between Interstate 70 and Interstate 64 in western St. Charles County, United States; the population was 14,545 as of the 2010 US Census. In January 1961, Ellis Ellerman and Ira Nathan begin developing plans for a private resort community, a popular concept in the 1960s in the St. Louis region; the vision was for a weekend resort with a lake large enough for recreation and a location close to St. Louis. Ellerman and Nathan hired engineers to begin the initial planning of the lake and community, Nathan named the project "Lake St. Louis" in 1961. Ellerman and Nathan formed Trails Lake Development Corp. in 1962, by August 31 of that year, 10 lots had been sold in the project, to feature a 625 lake. Ellerman and Nathan lacked adequate financing and business experience, they soon found themselves in over their heads on the project. Ellerman and Nathan were soon joined by several other investors to keep the project afloat, including R. T. Crow.

The financial troubles continued for Ellerman and Nathan, The Healey Discount Corp. owned by Crow and the three other investors, foreclosed on Ellerman and Nathan's Trails Lake Development Corp. in June 1966. R. T. Crow felt the location between two major highways, I-70 and Rt.. 61, the westward growth of St. Louis justified building a new town, rather than just the weekend community envisioned by Ellerman and Nathan, he investigated the idea of new towns, including visiting many others in the east. In the end, Crow bought out the other three investors who were part of The Healey Discount Corp. and he became the sole developer of the Lake St. Louis development. St. Charles County approved the preliminary plan for Lake St. Louis in April 1967. People who had purchased lots from the first developers were given credits for lots in the new Lake St. Louis project; the first residents of Lake St. Louis were the Neal family, who moved to an existing home on the property in January, 1968. Gene Neal became a vice president of one of Crow's companies, his wife Hazel managed the Lake St. Louis Country Club.

Son Mike played the "boy" of various mythical families in the development's television and print advertising, was a founding member of the community's water ski club. By 1969, the 85-acre Lake Ste. Louise, the 9-hole, 3-par golf course, tennis courts and pool were open. Construction on the dam for the 600-acre Lake St. Louis, the larger of the two lakes in the community, began in 1968, it was completed in 1972, Crow filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 1974 - an action brought on in part by the energy crisis. Interstate highway speeds were reduced from 70 to 55 mph; the I-70 bridge over the Missouri River was closed while the second bridge was added. The combination of events made Lake St. Louis too far away from employment and retail centers. With Crow out of the picture, the looming threat of annexation from O'Fallon on the East and Wentzville on the West, the residents of the Harbor Town area of the community petitioned St. Charles County Circuit Court for incorporation of the Town of Harbor Town.

The Court granted the petition in June, 1975, with the approval of the incorporation, the Circuit Court appointed a Board of Trustees: George Heidelbaugh, Charles Bailey, David Spitznagel, Betty Patton and Howard Haddock as Chairman. In December 1975, the town boundaries were expanded to include what was known as Phase A, the westernmost portion of the city. In 1976, a special census was conducted. Residents voted in 1977 to change the name to Lake St. Louis and become a 4th Class City under the Revised Statutes of Missouri. Howard Haddock was elected as the first mayor of the city; the two lakes in the city of Lake St. Louis are private lakes owned by the membership of the Lake St. Louis Community Association; the LSLCA was formed to maintain and administer the Lake St. Louis amenities and provide services for the recreation-oriented community; the community association is funded by an assessment on all property within the LSLCA membership area. All owners of property inside the city were automatically members of the LSLCA.

Since the lakes, as well as a country club and several park areas, are private property of the community association, they are not available for use by non-members. This means that many residents of the city are not permitted to use the lakes, because their property is not covered by LSLCA membership. Lake St. Louis is located at 38°47′8″N 90°47′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.72 square miles, of which 7.91 square miles is land and 0.81 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 14,545 people, 5,816 households, 4,213 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,838.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,197 housing units at an average density of 783.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.2% White, 3.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 5,816 households of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.8% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife prese

Nella Walker

Nella Walker was an American film actress and vaudeville performer of the 1920s through the 1950s. Walker was raised in Chicago, Illinois. In 1910, she married Wilbur Mack, in 1912 they formed the vaudeville team Mack and Walker. By 1929, she had launched her first film role being in Tanned Legs, she appeared in three films in 1929 and transitioned to sound films, appearing in another four films in 1930 making the smooth transition because she was never an established actress in silent films. In 1931, her film career took off, with appearances in 10 films that year, five of which were uncredited, her marriage ended not long after her film career was on the rise, from 1932 to 1933, she appeared in 15 films, only five of which were uncredited. In 1935, her career improved, from this year to 1938, she had 23 film appearances, her biggest film appearance during this period was in Young Dr. Kildare with Lionel Barrymore and Lew Ayres. Throughout the 1930s, her career was strong, despite never being a premier star, she had solid acting roles.

She finished the decade in 1939 with nine film roles, only three of which were uncredited. The 1940s mirrored her success of the previous decade in many ways, with appearances in 37 films from 1940 to 1947. In her career, over 60 years of age, she slowed her career for a time, not having another role until 1950 when she appeared in Nancy Goes to Rio with Ann Sothern and Carmen Miranda, she appeared in another two films in 1952 had her last film acting role in 1954 in the film Sabrina with Humphrey Bogart and Audrey Hepburn. She appeared in 117 movies, settling in Los Angeles, where she was residing at the time of her death on March 22, 1971, at age 85. Nella Walker on IMDb Nella Walker at AllMovie Nella Walker at Find a Grave

Redford Webster

Redford Webster was an apothecary, town official, state legislator in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a founding member of the American Antiquarian Society, helped establish the Boston Library Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, he was born in Massachusetts, in 1761 to Hannah Wainwright and shopkeeper Grant Webster. In Boston ca. 1787-1805 he worked as "druggist, medicine," from offices "three doors below the Drawbridge, Ann Street." He had trained "with Mr. Daniel Scott, a druggist or apothecary, at the sign of the Leopard, at the south part of the town, the business being subsequently removed to Union Street. On the death of Mr. Scott, young Webster formed a c-opartnership with his widow, under the firm-name of Scott & Webster, afterward pursued the business in his own name."From 1792 Webster was active in the Massachusetts Historical Society, serving as one of the founding incorporators in 1794, Cabinet-Keeper 1810-1833. He was treasurer and trustee of the Boston Library Society 1792-1829.

In 1810 he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. He served as a Boston town official in the capacity of Overseer of the Poor ca.1810-ca.1821. Along with 27 others, he incorporated the American Antiquarian Society in 1812. Webster represented Boston in the Massachusetts General Court, 1831-1832. Around 1830, Chester Harding painted a portrait of Webster, now in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. In 1787 he married Hannah White. "The town of Redford, in Clinton County, in the north-east corner of the State of New York, was named for him." Committee on the Subject of Pauperism and a House of Industry. Report of the Committee on the Subject of Pauperism and a House of Industry in the town of Boston. Selections from the Chronicle of Boston and from the Book of Retrospections & Anticipations. 1822