Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl was a German Generaloberst who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command throughout World War II. After the war, Jodl was indicted on charges of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; the principal charges against him related to his signature of the criminal Commando and Commissar Orders. Found guilty on all charges, he was sentenced to death and executed in Nuremberg in 1946. Alfred Jodl was educated at a military Cadet School in Munich, from which he graduated in 1910. Ferdinand Jodl, who would become an Army General, was his younger brother; the philosopher and psychologist Friedrich Jodl at the University of Vienna was his uncle. From 1914 to 1916 he served with a Battery unit on the Western Front, being awarded the Iron Cross for gallantry in November 1914, being wounded in action. In 1917 he served on the Eastern Front before returning to the West as a Staff Officer. In 1918 he again won the Iron Cross for gallantry in action.
After the defeat of the German Empire in 1918, he continued his career as a professional soldier with the much-reduced German Army. Jodl married twice: in 1913, in 1944. Jodl's appointment as a major in the operations branch of the Truppenamt in the Army High Command in the last years of the Weimar Republic put him under command of General Ludwig Beck. In September 1939 Jodl first met Adolf Hitler. In the build-up to the Second World War, Jodl was nominally assigned as a commander of the 44th Division from October 1938 to August 1939 during the Anschluss. Jodl was chosen by Hitler to be Chief of Operation Staff of the newly formed Oberkommando der Wehrmacht on 23 August 1939, just prior to the German invasion of Poland. Jodl acted as a Chief of Staff during the swift invasion of Norway. Following the Fall of France Jodl was optimistic of Germany's success over Britain, on 30 June 1940 writing "The final German victory over England is now only a question of time."Jodl signed the Commissar Order of 6 June 1941 and the Commando Order of 28 October 1942.
Jodl spent most of the war at the Hitler's forward command post in East Prussia. On 1 February 1944, Jodl was promoted to the rank of Generaloberst. Jodl was among those injured during the 20 July plot of 1944 against Hitler where he suffered a concussion from the explosion. Jodl was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross by Admiral Karl Dönitz, Hitler's successor, on 6 May. At the end of World War II in Europe, Jodl signed the German Instrument of Surrender on 7 May 1945 in Reims as the representative of Dönitz. Jodl was arrested by British troops on 23 May 1945 and transferred to Flensburg POW camp and put before the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg trials. Jodl was accused of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; the principal charges against him related to his signature of the Commando Order and the Commissar Order, both of which ordered that certain classes of prisoners of war were to be summarily executed upon capture. When confronted with the 1941 mass shootings of Soviet POWs, Jodl claimed the only prisoners shot were "not those that could not, but those that did not want to walk."Additional charges at his trial included unlawful deportation and abetting execution.
Presented as evidence was his signature on an order that transferred Danish citizens, including Jews, to Nazi concentration camps. Although he denied his role in this activity of the regime, the court sustained his complicity based on the evidence it had examined, with the French judge, Henri Donnedieu de Vabres, dissenting, his wife Luise attached herself to her husband's defence team. Subsequently, interviewed by Gitta Sereny, researching her biography of Albert Speer, Luise alleged that in many instances the Allied prosecution made charges against Jodl based on documents that they refused to share with the defence. Jodl proved that some of the charges made against him were untrue, such as the charge that he had helped Hitler gain control of Germany in 1933. Jodl pleaded not guilty "before God, before history and my people". Found guilty on all four charges, he was hanged at Nuremberg Prison on 16 October 1946. Jodl's last words were "Ich grüße Dich, mein ewiges Deutschland"—"I greet you, my eternal Germany."
His remains, like those of the other nine executed men and Hermann Göring, were cremated at Ostfriedhof and the ashes were scattered in the Wentzbach, a small tributary of the River Isar to prevent the establishment of a permanent burial site which might be enshrined by nationalist groups. On 28 February 1953, a West German denazification court declared the now-deceased Jodl not guilty of breaking international law; this not guilty declaration was revoked by the Minister of Political Liberation for Bavaria on 3 September 1953, following objections from the United States. Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knight's Cross on 6 May 1945 as Generaloberst and Chef des Wehrmachtfuhrungsstabes im OKW Oak L
Slatina is the capital city of Olt County, Romania, on the river Olt. It is located in the south of Romania, on the eastern side of the river Olt, in the historical region of Muntenia; the population was 70,293 in 2011. The city administers Cireașov; the town of Slatina was first mentioned on January 20, 1368 in an official document issued by Vladislav I Vlaicu, Prince of Wallachia. The document stated that merchants from the Transylvanian city of Brașov would not pay customs when passing through Slatina; the word Slatina is of Slavic origin, means "marsh, watery plain". Alro Slatina, the largest aluminum producing factories in Southeastern Europe, is located in the city. Other companies based in Slatina include ALPROM, Pirelli Tires Romania, Steel Cord Romania, TMK Artrom and Benteler. One of the oldest private businesses in Romania is the Slatina-based pastry shop Atletul Albanez. There is an association football club in Slatina, CSM Slatina, that plays in Liga III; the women's handball section of CSM Slatina represent the city in the top handball league of Romania.
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The method was first used when interviewing indigenous peoples of the Americas and Native American leaders who were asked by an interviewer to describe their lives with an insight as to what it was like to be that particular person. The purpose of the interview was to capture a living picture of a disappearing people/way of life; the method was used to interview criminals and prostitutes in Chicago. Interviewers looked at social and police-records, as well as the society in general, asked subjects to talk about their lives; the resulting report discussed Chicago at that particular time. The landmark of the life history method was developed in the 1920s and most embodied in The Polish Peasant in Europe and America by W. I Thomas and Florian Znaniecki; the authors employed a Polish immigrant to write his own life story which they interpreted and analyzed. According to Martin Bulmer, it was "the first systematically collected sociological life history"; the approach lost momentum as quantitative methods became more prevalent in American sociology.
The method was revived in the 1970s through the efforts of French sociologist Daniel Bertaux and Paul Thompson whose life history research focused on such professions as bakers and fishermen. Major initiatives of the life history method were undertaken in Germany and Finland. In the German context, the life history method is associated with the development of biographical research and biographical-narrative interviews; the narrative interview as a method for conducting open narrative interviews in empirical social research was developed in Germany around 1975. It borrowed concepts from phenomenology, symbolic interactionism and sociology of knowledge; the development and improvement of the method are connected to German sociologist Fritz Schütze, part of the Bielefeld Sociologist’s Working Group, which maintained close academic cooperation with American sociolinguists and social scientists such as Erving Goffman, Harvey Sacks, John Gumpertz, Anselm Strauss. The analysis of life histories was further developed by the biographical case reconstruction method of German sociologist Gabriele Rosenthal for the analysis of life history and life story.
Rosenthal differentiates between the level of analysis of the narrated life story and the experienced life history. In both cases, the one doing the interview should be careful not to ask "yes or no"-questions, but to get the subject to tell "the story of his or her life", in his or her own words; this is called the "narrative" method. It is common practice to begin the interview with the subject's early childhood and to proceed chronologically to the present. Another approach, dating from the Polish Peasant, is to ask participants to write their own life stories; this can be done either through competitions or by collecting written life stories written spontaneously. In these countries, there are large collections of life stories, which can be used by researchers. Bertaux, Daniel. 1981 Biography and Society: The Life History Approach in the Social Sciences. Sage London Chamberlayne, Prue et al.. 2000: The Turn to Biographical Methods in Social Sciences. Routledge, London Jolly, Margaretta. 2001 The Encyclopedia of Life Writing.
Autobiographical and Biographical Forms. Routledge and New York Rosenthal, Gabriele. 2018 Interpretive Social Research. An Introduction. Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen. Stanley, Liz. 1992 The Autobiographical I: The Theory and Practice of Feminist Autobiography. Manchester University Press, Manchester Thompson, Paul. 1978: The Voices of the Past: Oral History, Oxford University Press, Oxford
The LFG Roland C. II known as the Walfisch, was an advanced German reconnaissance aircraft of World War I, it was manufactured by Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b. H; the C. II had much lower drag than comparable aircraft of its time, it featured a monocoque fuselage built with an outer skin of two layers of thin plywood strips at an angle to each other. This had both lower drag and better strength per weight than typical of the time, but it was slow and expensive to build; the deep fuselage filled the vertical gap between the wing panel center sections, eliminating any need for cabane struts used in biplanes, gave the aircraft its "whale" nickname. Struts and wires were reduced, without suffering the weight penalty of cantilever wings, like those used on the pioneering all-metal Junkers J 1 of late 1915. There was some attempt to flair the wings into the fuselage, to eliminate dead air space, a feature prominently missing from the Schneider Trophy contestants of the following decade; the engineer in charge of the design was Tantzen, a student of Ludwig Prandtl, the founder of mathematical aerodynamics and the one to introduce the concept of boundary layer.
The C. II was powered by a single 160 hp Mercedes D III, providing a top speed of 165 km/h, a ceiling of 4,000 metres and an endurance of four hours; the C. II entered service in the spring of 1916. Operationally, handling was reported as difficult but performance was good. Due to the crew positions with eyes above the upper wing, upward visibility was excellent, but downward visibility was poor, it was used in a fighter escort role and had a crew of two and observer/gunner. Because of its speed, when it was first introduced, it could be intercepted only from above; because of the lack of downward visibility, it was best attacked by diving below and coming up at it. Albert Ball, whose first victim was a C. II, said in the latter half of 1916 that it was "the best German machine now". C. II: Two-seat reconnaissance, escort fighter biplane. C. IIa: Generally similar to the Roland C. II, but fitted with larger vertical stabilizer. C. III: Development with two bay wings and a 200 hp Benz Bz. IV 6-cylinder water-cooled inline engine.
German EmpireLuftstreitkräfte Data from German Aircraft of the First World WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.7 m Wingspan: 10.3 m Height: 2.9 m Wing area: 26 m2 Empty weight: 764 kg Gross weight: 1,284 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D. III 6-cylinder water-cooled in-line piston engine, 120 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch wooden propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 165 km/h Endurance: 4-5 hours dependent on fuel load Service ceiling: 4,000 m Time to altitude: 2,000 m in 12 minutesArmament Guns: 1x 7.92 mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun on a ring mounting in rear cockpit, 1x forward-firing synchronized 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 08 "Spandau" machine gunBombs: 4x 12.5 kg bombs carried under the fuselage. Hannover CL. II Munson, Kenneth. Bombers: patrol and reconnaissance aircraft 1914-1919. Bounty Books. ISBN 0-7537-0918-X. Munson, Kenneth. Aircraft Of World War I. London: Ian Allan. P. 71
The olive bulbul is a species of songbird in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae. It is found from southern Myanmar to the Malay Peninsula, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. The olive bulbul was classified in the genera Microscelis and Hypsipetes by some authorities; the synonym Hypsipetes virescens has been used for the Nicobar bulbul and the Sunda bulbul. Alternate names for the olive bulbul include Blyth's olive bulbul, Sumatran bulbul, viridescent bulbul; the name'olive bulbul' is used as an alternate name by the yellow-bearded greenbul and the sulphur-bellied bulbul. Three subspecies are recognized; the Cachar bulbul was considered as a subspecies of the olive bulbul until it was split off and re-classified as a separate species by the IOC in 2017: I. v. viridescens - Blyth, 1867: Found in southern Myanmar and south-western Thailand I. v. lekhakuni -: Found in southern Myanmar and south-western Thailand I. v. cinnamomeoventris - Baker, ECS, 1917: Found on northern and central Malay Peninsula
Vasil Stoyanov Staikov known as Vasil Adzhalarski, was a Bulgarian revolutionary, an Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization leader of revolutionary bands in the regions of Skopje and Kumanovo. Vasil Stoyanov was born in 1880 in the village of Adzhalari, in the Sanjak of Üsküp of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, he received his nickname after this village, now known as Miladinovtsi. In 1901 he moved with his family in Skopje, he entered IMARO and realized a series of tasks for the Organization – he carried post and purchased weapons, but he was arrested and spent two years in the prison Kurshumli Han. He got released after an amnesty. In 1903, he became an illegal freedom fighter and at first he was an assistant of the band leader Sande Cholaka in Kumanovo, he entered the revolutionary band of Bobi Stoichev and after that he himself became a leader, in the regions of Skopska Crna Gora and Skopska Blatiya, under the supervision of Dame Martinov. Adzhalarski distinguished himself from the other freedom fighters with the assassination of several Muslim beys who were suppressing the local Bulgarian inhabitants.
In 1905, Vasil Adzhalarski became a regional leader of the Skopje region. From the end of 1904 until 1908 his revolutionary band conducted more than 10 massive battles with the Turkish military. Adzhalarski took several successful actions against the armed Serbian propaganda; as a response to the murders of seven Bulgarians from the Chair neighborhood by a Serbian band, he killed 9 Serbomans in Brodets, after which the Serbian bands ceased this type of actions. In February 1907, he burned the Han in the village of Sopishte, that served as a base for the traverse of the Serbian bands to the region of Porechie. After the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, he was no more a freedom fighter, but he was killed in an ambush by the Ottoman authorities in Skopje in 1909, his funeral was a reason for a massive protests by the Bulgarians from the region of Skopje against the authorities. In 1918, Ivan Snegarov wrote the following about Vasil Adzhalarski: "Две надгробни речи; the Istanbul Exarchist newspaper "Vesti" about the murder of Vasil Adzhalarski by the Turkish authorities