Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories
The Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories was created by Adolf Hitler in July 1941 and headed by the Nazi theoretical expert and Baltic German, Alfred Rosenberg. Alfred Meyer served as Rosenberg's deputy; this ministry was created to control the vast areas captured by the Germans in Eastern Europe and Russia. It played a part in supporting anti-Soviet groups in Central Asia. In February 1942, under Rosenberg's plans, the Ministry tried to promulgate a program of land reform in the occupied territories in the USSR that included promises of decollectivization through the abolition of kolkhozes and the re-distribution of land to peasants for individual farming. Germany established two Reichskommissariats, for Ostland and Ukraine, planned for two more, for Moscow and for the Caucasus; the Wehrmacht never established firm possession of the areas designated for the last two Reichskommissariats, so German civilian control never developed there. In practice, the appointment of Erich Koch to administer the Reichskommissariat Ukraine undermined Rosenberg's authority.
Hitler ordered Koch to take a brutal approach. Furthermore, Rosenberg's ministry was denied authority over army and other security formations within the occupied territories; the other Reich Commissar, Hinrich Lohse was disregarded. The SS filled the resulting power vacuum. "Decollectivization" under German occupation Foreign Armies East Gerhard von Mende
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Essen is the central and second largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 583,393 makes it the ninth largest city of Germany, as well as the fourth largest city of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region; the Ruhrdeutsch regiolect spoken in the region has strong influences of both Low German and Low Franconian. Essen is seat to several of the region's authorities, as well as to eight of the 100 largest publicly-held German corporations regarding turnover, including three DAX corporations, placing Essen first among all German cities in the number of DAX corporate headquarters, together with Munich. Essen is considered the energy capital of Germany with E. ON and RWE, Germany's largest energy providers, both headquartered in the city. Essen is known for its impact on the arts through the respected Folkwang University of the Arts, its Zollverein School of Management and Design, the Red Dot industrial product design award.
In early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen. In 1958, Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese. Founded around 845, Essen remained a small town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality until the onset of industrialization; the city — through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers. Essen, until the 1970s, attracted workers from all over the country. Following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy; the most notable witness of this Strukturwandel is the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex, which has once been the largest of its kind in Europe. Closed in 1993, both the coking plant and the mine have been inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2001.
Notable accomplishments of the city in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in 2010 and the selection as the European Green Capital for 2017. Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe, comprising eleven independent cities and four districts with some 5.3 million inhabitants. The city limits of Essen itself are 87 km long and border ten cities, five independent and five kreisangehörig, with a total population of 1.4 million. The city extends over 21 km from north to south and 17 km from west to east north of the River Ruhr; the Ruhr forms the Lake Baldeney reservoir in the boroughs of Fischlaken, Kupferdreh and Werden. The lake, a popular recreational area, dates from 1931 to 1933, when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools. Large areas south of the River Ruhr are quite green and are quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise densely populated central Ruhr area.
According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Essen with 9.2% of its area covered by recreational green is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third-greenest city in Germany. The city has been shortlisted for the title of European Green Capital two consecutive times, for 2016 and 2017, winning for 2017; the city was singled out for its exemplary practices in protecting and enhancing nature and biodiversity and efforts to reduce water consumption. Essen participates in a variety of networks and initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the city’s resilience in the face of climate change; the lowest point can be found in the northern borough of Karnap at 26.5 m, the highest point in the borough of Heidhausen at 202.5 m. The average elevation is 116 m. Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts named after the most important boroughs; each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a local body of nineteen members with limited authority.
Most of the boroughs were independent municipalities but were annexed from 1901 to 1975. This long-lasting process of annexation has led to a strong identification of the population with "their" boroughs or districts and to a rare peculiarity: The borough of Kettwig, located south of the Ruhr River, and, not annexed until 1975, has its own area code. Additionally, the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig directly subject to the Archdiocese of Cologne, whereas all other boroughs of Essen and some neighboring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen. Essen has a "true"/typical oceanic climate with mild winters and cool summers. Without large mountains and the presence of inland seas, it ends up extending a predominantly marine climate is found in Essen a little more extreme and drier in other continents in such geographical location, its average annual temperature is 10 °C: 13.3 °C during the day and 6.7 °C at night. The average annual precipitation is 934 mm; the coldest m
Rudolf Amelunxen was a German politician of the Zentrum and the 1st Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia between 23 August 1946 and 17 June 1947. He was died on 21 April 1969 in Grafschaft Abbey / Schmallenberg. From 1926 to 1932 he was the regional president of the Westphalian Münster Region, furloughed after the Putsch in Prussia. On 5 July 1945 the British military government appointed him upper president of the Province of Westphalia, an office he held until Westphalia merged in North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946. Online Rudolf Amelunxen in the German National Library catalogue
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg was a Baltic German-born theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart and held several important posts in the Nazi government; the author of a seminal work of Nazi ideology, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Rosenberg is considered one of the main authors of key National Socialist ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, opposition to what was considered "degenerate" modern art. He is known for his rejection of and hatred for Christianity, having played an important role in the development of German Nationalist Positive Christianity. At Nuremberg he was sentenced to death and executed by hanging for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Rosenberg was born on 12 January 1893 in Reval, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire, the capital of modern Estonia, to a family of Baltic Germans, his father, Waldemar Wilhelm Rosenberg, was a wealthy merchant from Latvia, his mother, was a teacher of French language in Reval.
The Hungarian-Jewish journalist Franz Szell, residing in Tilsit, Germany, spent a year researching in Latvian and Estonian archives before publishing an open letter in 1936, with copies to Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, German foreign minister Konstantin von Neurath and others, accusing Rosenberg of having "no drop of German blood" flowing in his veins. Szell wrote that among Rosenberg's ancestors were only "Latvians, Jews and French." As a result of his open letter, Szell was deported by Lithuanian authorities on 15 September 1936. His claims were repeated in 15 September 1937 issue of the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano; the young Rosenberg graduated from the Petri-Realschule and went on to study architecture at the Riga Polytechnical Institute and engineering at Moscow's Highest Technical School completing his PhD studies in 1917. During his stays at home in Reval, he attended the art studio of the famed painter Ants Laikmaa, but though he showed promise, there are no records that he exhibited.
During the German occupation in 1918, Rosenberg served as a teacher at the Gustav Adolf Gymnasium. He gave his first speech on Jewish Marxism on 30 November, at the House of the Blackheads, after the outbreak of the Estonian War of Independence, he emigrated to Germany with the retreating imperial army, along with Max Scheubner-Richter, who served as something of a mentor to Rosenberg and to his ideology. Arriving in Munich, he contributed to the Völkischer Beobachter. By this time, he was both an antisemite – influenced by Houston Stewart Chamberlain's book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, one of the key proto-Nazi books of racial theory – and an anti-Bolshevik. Rosenberg became one of the earliest members of the German Workers' Party – renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party, better known as the Nazi Party – joining in January 1919, eight months before Adolf Hitler joined in September. According to some historians, Rosenberg had been a member of the Thule Society, along with Eckart, although Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke contends that they were only guests.
After the Völkischer Beobachter became the Nazi party newspaper in December 1920, Rosenberg became its editor, in 1923. Rosenberg was a leading member of Aufbau Vereinigung, Reconstruction Organisation, a conspiratorial organisation of White Russian émigrés which had a critical influence on early Nazi policy. In 1923, after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, imprisoned for treason, appointed Rosenberg as the leader of the National Socialist movement, a position he held until Hitler's release. Hitler remarked in years that his choice of Rosenberg, whom he regarded as weak and lazy, was strategic. However, at the time of the appointment Hitler had no reason to believe that he would soon be released, Rosenberg had not appeared weak, so this may have been Hitler reading back into history his dissatisfaction with Rosenberg for the job he did. In 1929 Rosenberg founded the Militant League for German Culture, he formed the "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question," dedicated to identifying and attacking Jewish influence in German culture and to recording the history of Judaism from a radical nationalist perspective.
He became a Reichstag Deputy in 1930 and published his book on racial theory The Myth of the Twentieth Century which deals with key issues in the National Socialist ideology, such as the "Jewish question." Rosenberg intended his book as a sequel to Houston Stewart Chamberlain's above-cited book. Despite selling more than a million copies by 1945, its influence within Nazism remains doubtful, it is said to have been a book, venerated within Nazism, but one that few had read beyond the first chapter or found comprehensible. Hitler disapproved of its pseudo-religious tone. Rosenberg convinced Hitler that communism was an international threat due to the fragility of the Soviet Union's internal political structure. "Jewish-Bolshevism" was accepted as a target for Nazism during the early 1920s. In Rome during November 1932 Rosenberg participated in the Volta Conference about Europe. British historian Sir Charles Petrie me