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Alfred Stieglitz

Alfred Stieglitz HonFRPS was an American photographer and modern art promoter, instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form. In addition to his photography, Stieglitz was known for the New York art galleries that he ran in the early part of the 20th century, where he introduced many avant-garde European artists to the U. S, he was married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe. Stieglitz was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, the first son of German Jewish immigrants Edward Stieglitz and Hedwig Ann Werner, his father worked as a wool merchant. He had five siblings, twins Julius and Leopold and Selma. Alfred Stieglitz, seeing the close relationship of the twins, wished he had a soul mate of his own during his childhood. Stieglitz attended Charlier Institute, a Christian school in New York, in 1871; the following year, his family began spending the summers at Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains, a tradition that continued into Stieglitz's adulthood. So that he could qualify for admission to the City College of New York, Stieglitz was enrolled in a public school for his junior year of high school, but found the education inadequate.

In 1881, Edward Stieglitz sold his company for US$40,000 and moved his family to Europe for the next several years so that his children would receive a better education. Alfred Stieglitz enrolled in the Real Gymnasium in Karlsruhe; the next year, Alfred Stieglitz studied mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin. He enrolled in a chemistry class taught by Hermann Wilhelm Vogel, a scientist and researcher, who worked on the chemical processes for developing photographs. In Vogel, Stieglitz found both the academic challenge he needed and an outlet for his growing artistic and cultural interests, he received an allowance of $1,200 a month. German artists Adolf von Menzel and Wilhelm Hasemann were his friends, he bought his first camera and traveled through the European countryside, taking photographs of landscapes and peasants in Germany and the Netherlands. Photography, he wrote, "fascinated me, first as a toy as a passion as an obsession."In 1884, his parents returned to America, but 20-year-old Stieglitz remained in Germany and collected books on photography and photographers in Europe and the U.

S. Through his self-study, he saw photography as an art form. In 1887, he wrote his first article, "A Word or Two about Amateur Photography in Germany", for the new magazine The Amateur Photographer, he wrote articles on the technical and aesthetic aspects of photography for magazines in England and Germany. He won first place for The Last Joke, Bellagio, in 1887 from Amateur Photographer; the next year he won both first and second prizes in the same competition, his reputation began to spread as several German and British photographic magazines published his work. In 1890, his sister Flora died while giving birth, Stieglitz returned to New York. Stieglitz considered himself an artist, his father purchased a small photography business for him so that he could earn a living in his chosen profession. Because he demanded high quality images and paid his employee high wages, the Photochrome Engraving Company made a profit, he wrote for The American Amateur Photographer magazine. He won awards for his photographs at exhibitions, including the joint exhibition of the Boston Camera Club, Photographic Society of Philadelphia and the Society of Amateur Photographers of New York.

In late 1892, Stieglitz bought his first hand-held camera, a Folmer and Schwing 4×5 plate film camera, which he used to take two of his best known images, Fifth Avenue and The Terminal. Prior to that he used an 8×10 plate film camera that required a tripod. Stieglitz gained a reputation for his photography and his magazine articles about how photography is a form of art. In the spring of 1893, he became co-editor of The American Amateur Photographer. In order to avoid the appearance of bias in his opinions and because Photochrome was now printing the photogravures for the magazine, Stieglitz refused to draw a salary, he wrote most of the articles and reviews in the magazine, was known for both his technical and his critical content. On November 16, 1893, the 29-year-old Stieglitz married 20-year-old Emmeline Obermeyer, the sister of his close friend and business associate Joe Obermeyer and granddaughter of brewer Samuel Liebmann, they were married in New York City. Stieglitz wrote that he did not love Emmy, as she was known, when they were married and that their marriage was not consummated for at least a year.

Daughter of a wealthy brewery owner, she had inherited money from her father. Stieglitz came to regret his decision to marry Emmy, as she did not share his artistic and cultural interests. Stieglitz biographer Richard Whelan summed up their relationship by saying Stieglitz "resented her bitterly for not becoming his twin." Throughout his life Stieglitz maintained a fetish for younger women. In early 1894, Stieglitz and his wife took a delayed honeymoon to France and Switzerland. Stieglitz photographed extensively on the trip, producing some of his early famous images such as A Venetian Canal, The Net Mender and A Wet Day on the Boulevard, Paris. While in Paris, Stieglitz met French photographer Robert Demachy, who became a lifelong correspondent and colleague. In London, Stieglitz met The Linked Ring founders George Davison and Alfred Horsley Hinton, both of whom remained his friends and colleagues throughout much of his life. In the year, after his return, Stieglitz was unanimously elected as one

Giacomo Vaghi

Giacomo Vaghi was an Italian opera singer who had an active international career from 1925-1956. Along with Tancredi Pasero and Ezio Pinza, he was one of the leading operatic basses of his generation, he possessed a rich voice with a dark timbre that drew him particular acclaim in the operas of Giuseppe Verdi. He appears on several complete opera recordings made with EMI Cetra Records. Born in Como, Vaghi studied singing in Milan before making his debut in Jules Massenet's Manon at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples in 1925, he appeared in several roles at that house the following year, including the role of Sintram in the Naples premiere of Riccardo Zandonai's I cavalieri di Ekebù. On 29 October 1927 he made his debut at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna as Timur in the house premiere of Giacomo Puccini's Turandot, he sang several other roles in Bologna in successive months, including Pimen in Boris Godunov, Alvise in La Gioconda, Garcia/Sereno in Conchita. In 1928 Vaghi joined the roster of singers at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, serving as that house's leading bass through 1939.

He sang a broad repertoire at that house, including appearances in the world premieres Ildebrando Pizzetti's Lo straniero, Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari's La vedova scaltra, Licinio Refice's Cecilia, Franco Alfano's Cyrano de Bergerac. He worked as a guest artist at numerous opera houses and opera festivals while based in Rome, he made appearances at La Scala, the Teatro Comunale Florence, Arena di Verona Festival, the Teatro Communale di Bologna, La Fenice among others. From 1937-1941, Vaghi was a regular performer at the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires. In 1945 he signed a contract with the Metropolitan Opera, making his debut at the house on 18 February 1946 as Colline in La bohème with Dorothy Kirsten as Mimì, Jan Peerce as Rodolfo, Frances Greer as Musetta, John Brownlee as Marcello, Cesare Sodero conducting, he remained committed to that house for the next two and a half years, portraying Alvise in La Gioconda, Don Basilio in The Barber of Seville, Ferrando in Il trovatore, Nilakantha in Lakmé, Raimondo in Lucia di Lammermoor, Ramfis in Aida, Samuel in Un ballo in maschera, Sparafucile in Rigoletto.

In 1950 he appeared at the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino as Antigono in Gaspare Spontini's Olimpie. From 1951 until his retirement in 1956 he was once again committed to the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma. In 1952 he appeared at the Royal Opera, London as Oroveso in Norma with Maria Callas in the title role, he died in Rome in 1978 at the age of 76. Some of the other roles Vaghi created on stage were Alfonso in Lucrezia Borgia, Baldassarre in La favorite, Banquo in Macbeth, Basilio in Nerone, Blind man of Kinnèreth in Dèbora e Jaéle, Cacio in Il Guarany, Count Rodolfo in La sonnambula, Count Walter in Luisa Miller, Don Bartolo in The Barber of Seville, Don Fernando in Fidelio, Dosifey in Khovanshchina, the Gentleman in Fra Gherardo, the Grand Inquisitor in L'Africaine, Heinrich der Vogler in Lohengrin, Il Cieco in Iris, Jacopo Fiesco in Simon Boccanegra, Lotario in Mignon, Herrmann in Tannhäuser, King Marke in Tristan und Isolde, Le Comte des Grieux in Manon, Marco Orsèolo in Orsèolo, Margherita's father in Margherita da Cortona, Mathieu in Andrea Chénier, Mefistofele in Faust, The Miller in Il re, Milone in Giuseppe Mulè's Dafni, Padre Guardiano in La forza del destino, Pagano/Hermit in I Lombardi alla prima crociata, Philipp II in Don Carlos, Simone in Gianni Schicchi, Veit Pogner in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Walter Furst in William Tell, the title role in Boris Godunov

North Topeka, Kansas

North Topeka, Kansas is an area of Topeka, Kansas. Although not a city, it is treated like one by many of its residents, experiences low crime rates compared to the rest of Topeka. Unlike most of the City of Topeka, North Topeka is served by the Seaman USD 345 School District; the City of Topeka was incorporated in North Topeka. William Curtis and Louis Laurent laid out a town in 1865. Less than a year on New Year's Day, what is now North Topeka welcomed the first train to town; the advent of the railroad assured that this area would for much of the 19th century be the industrial heart of the Kansas capital. In April 1867, southside Topeka annexed the first such city expansion. At the time more evenly matched in population and economy and south played a tug-of-war for industry and commerce during the remainder of the 1800s. In 1903, North Topeka suffered the devastating effects of a major flood. However, many fine buildings dating from that period remain, when restored, will make North Topeka a showplace of Victorian-era commercial and residential architecture.

The Great Overland Station is a neo-classical station designed by Los Angeles firm Gilbert S. Underwood. Over the years, many dignitaries passed through. North Topeka was one of the most photographed of Union Pacific's mid-sized stations. Has been restored. North Topeka Schools: Topeka Public Schools serve over 13,000 students, employing more than 1,300 teachers and 1,100 support staff. Student ethnicity breaks down into 3 main categories: 42% white, 27% Hispanic, 27% Black. Http://northtopekabusinessalliance.org/ - North Topeka Business Alliance http://notoma.org/ - North Topeka on the Move http://www.greatoverlandstation.com/ - Great Overland Station http://www.usd345.com/ - USD345 Seaman Schools http://skyways.lib.ks.us/orgs/schs/preservation/northtopeka.html https://www.topekapublicschools.net/