Mary Howitt was an English poet, and author of the famous poem The Spider and the Fly. Samuel had married his wife Ann in South Wales in 1796 when he was 38 and they had four children Anna, Mary and Charles. Their Queen Anne house is now known as Howitt Place, Mary Botham was educated at home, and read widely, she commenced writing verses at a very early age. Together with her husband she wrote over 180 books, on 16 April 1821 she married William Howitt and began a career of joint authorship with him. Her life was bound up with that of her husband. They lived initially in Heanor in Derbyshire, where William was a pharmacist and it was not until 1823, when they were living in Nottingham, that William decided to give up his business with his brother Richard, and concentrate with Mary on writing. William and Mary mixed with many important literary figures of the day including Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell, on removing to Esher in 1837 she commenced writing her well-known tales for children, a long series of books which met with signal success.
In 1837 the couple went on a tour of the north and stayed with William and their work was well regarded, in 1839 Queen Victoria gave George Byng a copy of Marys book Hymns and Fireside Verses. William and Mary moved to London in 1843, and following a move in 1844 they counted Tennyson amongst their neighbours. While residing at Heidelberg in 1840, Mary Howitt attention was directed to Scandinavian literature, in company with a friend, Madame Schoultz, she set herself to learn Swedish and Danish. She afterwards translated and introduced Fredrika Bremers novels to English readers, among her original works were The Heir of West Way Ian. She edited for three years the Drawing-room Scrap Book, writing Biographical Sketches of the Queens of England and she edited the Pictorial Calendar of the Seasons, translated Joseph Ennemosers History of Magic, and took the chief share in The Literature and Romance of Northern Europe. She produced a Popular History of the United States, Marys brother-in-law Godfrey Howitt, his wife and her family had emigrated to Australia, arriving at Port Phillip in April 1840.
In June 1852, the three members of the Howitt family, accompanied by Edward La Trobe Bateman, sailed there in the hope of finding a fortune. Meanwhile and her two daughters moved into the Hermitage, Mr Batemans cottage in Highgate, which had previously occupied by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The men returned from Australia a number of years later, William wrote several books describing its flora and fauna. Mary Howitt had several other children, herbert Charlton Howitt was drowned while engineering a road in New Zealand. Anna Mary Howitt spent a year in Germany with the artist Wilhelm von Kaulbach and she married Alfred Alaric Watts, wrote a biography of her father, and died while on a visit to her mother in Tirol in 1884
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
William John Wills
William John Wills was a British surveyor who trained as a surgeon. Wills was born in Totnes in Devon, the child to Dr William Wills. He was one of seven children, Elizabeth Rose Wills and he lived at the family home at Ipplepen and as a young child he contracted a fever which left him with slow and hesitating speech. He was home-tutored by his father until the age of 11 and from 1845 to 1850 he attended St Andrews Grammar School and he was articled to Wills surgical practice. In 1852 he studied chemistry under John Stenhouse at St Bartholomews Hospital in London. Dr Wills bought a share in the Melbourne Gold Mining Company in 1852 and planned to migrate to Australia with William, however Sarah Wills objected to him leaving so Dr Wills delayed his departure and the two boys went alone. Eighteen-year-old William and fifteen-year-old Thomas left Dartmouth on 1 October 1852 aboard the Janet Mitchell and they arrived in Melbourne on 3 January 1853 with 197 fellow unassisted passengers. William and Thomas found accommodation at the Immigrants Home in South Melbourne, in February 1853 the Wills brothers found work as shepherds at a property owned by the Royal Bank Company on the Edward River near Deniliquin.
They were paid £30 p. a. plus rations and were in charge of a flock of 1300 rams at the Ram Station. Dr Wills followed his sons out to Australia, arriving in August 1853, in 1854 he worked as assistant surgeon in his fathers practice and he opened his own gold office. In early 1855, William worked on William Skenes Kanawalla Station on the Wannon River near Hamilton and he returned to Ballarat in April 1855 and towards the end of the year he began to study surveying. He was appointed as an amateur to the office of John Hamlet Taylor, William spent several months learning trigonometry, Euclid drawing and geometry and in 1856 he went on to learn field-surveying. He started his experience at Glendaruel, near Tourello, where he worked under the supervision of Frederick John Byerly, Assistant Surveyor. In February 1857 he was working at Bullarook Creek Camp and in March 1857 he was surveying at Kingower near Inglewood, in the middle of 1857 he was promoted to foreman and placed in charge of a field party and his salary increased to ₤185 p. a.
From April to June 1858 he was surveying at St Arnaud and his field party contract was terminated in June and he returned to Ballarat in July and took occasional contracts surveying for Clement Hodgkinson, the Deputy Surveyor General. Wills moved to Melbourne in August 1858 and from August to December he lodged with Mrs E Henderson at 1 Dorcas Street, Wills replaced him, and in March 1859 when his permanent appointment was confirmed, he moved into a room at the Observatory. Robert OHara Burke was appointed leader of the Victorian Exploring Expedition with George James Landells as second-in-command, Wills was appointed third-in-command, surveyor and meteorological observer in July 1860 on a salary of £300 a year. The expedition left Melbourne on Monday,20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men,27 camels and 23 horses and they reached Menindee on 16 October 1860 where Landells resigned following an argument with Burke
A dormitory or hall of residence, is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students. In the United States dorm is the most common term, which comes originally from the Latin word dormitorium, on the other hand, in the United Kingdom the term hall is more usual, especially in a university context. A dormitory can be a room containing several beds – see Sleeping dormitories. Most colleges and universities provide single or multiple rooms for their students. These buildings consist of such rooms, like an apartment building. The largest dormitory building is Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy, many colleges and universities no longer use the word dormitory and staff are now using the term residence hall or simply hall instead. Outside academia however, the dorm or dormitory is commonly used without negative connotations. Indeed, the words are used regularly in the marketplace as well as routinely in advertising and university residential rooms vary in size, shape and number of occupants.
Typically, a United States residence hall holds two students with no toilet. This is usually referred to as a double, residence halls have communal bathroom facilities. In the United States, residence halls are segregated by sex, with men living in one group of rooms. Some dormitory complexes are single-sex with varying limits on visits by persons of each sex, for example, the University of Notre Dame in Indiana has a long history of Parietals, or mixed visiting hours. In the early 2000s, dorms that allowed people of opposite sexes to share a room available in some public universities. Some colleges and university coeducational dormitories feature coeducational bathrooms, most residence halls are much closer to campus than comparable private housing such as apartment buildings. Universities may therefore provide priority to students when allocating this accommodation. Halls located away from university facilities sometimes have extra amenities such as a room or bar. Catered halls may charge for food by the meal or through a termly subscription and they may contain basic kitchen facilities for student use outside catering hours.
Most halls contain a laundry room, as of 2015 there was an expanding market for private luxury off-campus student residences which offered substantial amenities in both the United States and Britain, particularly in London
Walter Howchin was a geologist who lectured in mineralogy and palaeontology at the former Adelaide School of Mines and the University of Adelaide, he won the Clarke Medal in 1907. He was one of eleven children, and attended the Academy, Kings Lynn, which he left aged 12 to study for the Methodist ministry. He was ordained towards the end of 1864 and his first circuit was Shotley Bridge and during the next 16 years he moved between a number of parishes in the Tyne valley. He began to take an interest in geology at an early age, Howchin discovered abundant glacial till at Haltwhistle, the study of which led to work that made him famous. His interest in the flint implements of Northumberland led to the study of stone implements of the Australian aborigines. In 1876, in conjunction with H. B, Howchin did some important work on the foraminifera of Carboniferous and Permian age, and became a fellow of the Geological Society of London in 1878. After contracting tuberculosis, Howchin emigrated to Australia in 1881, the change of climate helped his condition and he recovered fully.
For some time he served as a minister in South Australia, did some journalistic work. Howchin retired in 1920, retaining his title of Honorary Professor, in 1909 Howchin published The Geography of South Australia, a popular book for use in schools, which was followed in 1918 by The Geology of South Australia, a volume of well over 500 pages. These books remained in use as student textbooks for some decades, although Howchin publishing scientific papers throughout his career, his activity increased with age. His most important work was on a series of rocks, that he referred to as the Cambrian series of the Mount Lofty Ranges, but are now known to be Permian. For much of period of his life he was closely associated with another great Australian geologist of his era. Howchin died in Adelaide on 27 November 1937 aged 92, he married Esther Gibbons in 1869, a man of short and stocky build, Howchin came to Australia at 36 years of age thinking his life may soon be over. But he proved to lead a long and vigorous life, it is claimed that he was collecting specimens
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Royal Society of Victoria
The Royal Society of Victoria is the oldest learned society in the state of Victoria in Australia. The Philosophical Institute received Royal Charter in 1859, and the first president of the freshly renamed Royal Society of Victoria was Dr Ferdinand Mueller, in 1860 the RSV organised the Burke and Wills expedition. It continues to be active with twice-monthly meetings throughout the year held in its headquarters at 8 La Trobe Street in the centre of Melbourne. Pescott 1965-1966, John H. Chinner 1967-1968, Phillip G. Law 1969-1970, briggs 1991-1992, Dr Graeme F. Watson 1993-1994, Dr John W. Zillman 1995-1996, Dr Maxwell G. Lay 1997-1998, Professor Em. Herbert H. Bolotin 1999-2001, Associate Professor Gordon D. Sanson 2001-2003, Associate Professor Neil W. Archbold 2006-2007, Associate Professor Bruce Livett 2007-2010, burrows 2010-2012, Professor Lynne Selwood 2013-, Dr William D. Birch Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Formerly the Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria List of Royal Societies Burke and Wills expedition Science, presidents of the Royal Society of Victoria.
The Royal Society of Victoria The Royal Society of Victorias web site, CSIRO Publishing Current, open access editions of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria published online by CSIRO Publishing. State Library of Victoria, Digitised Collections Access to the digitised Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, together with those of its foundation societies. The RSVs Australian Eclipse Expedition to Cape York in 1871 An account of the RSVs Australian Eclipse Expedition to Cape York in 1871 in the Journal of Astronomy History, Burke & Wills Web A comprehensive website containing many of the historical documents relating to the Victorian Exploring Expedition. Burke & Wills 150th A website recording the activities for the Commemoration of the 150th Anniversary of the Victorian Exploring Expedition, the Burke & Wills Historical Society The Burke & Wills Historical Society
John King (explorer)
John King was an Irish soldier who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the survivor of the four men from the ill-fated Burke. The expedition was the first to cross Australia from south to north and he was born at Moy in County Tyrone, Ireland on 15 December 1838 to Henry King and Ellen Orn. King was the youngest of four siblings, William King Elizabeth King Migrated to Australia in 1858. John King was educated at the Royal Hibernian Military School at Phoenix Park in Dublin between 1847 and 1853, before joining the 70th Regiment on 15 January 1853 at the age of 14. King was sent to Chatham and posted to India, where the Regiment had been stationed since 1848, King arrived in India on either 28 September or 29 October 1853. The regiment, under Colonel Galway and Colonel Chute, was stationed in Cawnpore in the Northern Province, King worked as an assistant teacher in the Regimental School. He was stationed in Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province where he was involved in some of the engagements during the Indian Mutiny.
He suffered an illness and spent sixteen months convalescing in the Rawalpindi District. While convalescing he met George James Landells at Muridke, Landells had been sent to India by the Victorian Government to purchase 24 camels to be used for exploration of the Australian desert. King obtained his discharge in Rawalpindi in January 1860 and travelled to Karachi where he was engaged by Landells to supervise the sepoys who had charge of the camels. Landells, two other Europeans, eight Indian sepoys and 24 camels sailed for Melbourne aboard the S. S. Chinsurah on 30 March 1860, King arrived in Melbourne on 8 June 1860. The camels were offloaded a week and accommodated at the Victorian Parliament House stables in Spring Street and they were moved to newly constructed stables at Royal Park whence the Expedition had left. Robert OHara Burke was appointed leader of the Victorian Exploring Expedition with Landells as second-in-command, William John Wills was surveyor and astronomical observer and King was appointed as one of the Expedition Assistants on a salary of £120 a year.
The expedition left Melbourne on Monday,20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men,27 camels and 23 horses and they reached Menindee on 16 October 1860 where Landells resigned following an argument with Burke. Wills was promoted to second-in-command and King was placed in charge of the camels, Burke split the expedition at Menindee and the lead party reached Cooper Creek on 11 November 1860 where they formed a depot. The remaining men were expected to follow up from Menindee and so after a break, Burke split the party again and left on 16 December 1860, placing William Brahe in charge of the depot on Cooper Creek. Burke, Wills and Charley Gray reached the mangroves on the estuary of the Flinders River, near where the town of Normanton now stands, flooding rains and swamps meant they never saw open ocean
Melbourne General Cemetery
The Melbourne General Cemetery is a large necropolis located 2 km north of the city of Melbourne in the suburb of Carlton North. The cemetery is notably the place of four Prime Ministers of Australia. Former Prime Minister Harold Holts headstone is a memorial as his remains have never been discovered, the cemetery was established in 1852 and opened on 1 June 1853, and the Old Melbourne Cemetery was closed the next year. The grounds feature several heritage buildings, many in bluestone, including a couple of chapels, the tomb of famous Australian explorers Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills is located in the cemetery, with an inscription reading Comrades in a great achievement and companions in death. Also buried here is Sir Isaac Isaacs, the first Australian-born Governor General and John Pascoe Fawkner, peter Lalor leader of the Eureka Stockade was buried there in 1889. Walter Lindrum, a billiards player, has a distinctive tombstone in the shape of a billiard table. Boxing champion Gentleman Jack John Reid McGowan is buried in the northern Roman Catholic section, patrick Hannan, who was the discoverer of gold at Kalgoorlie in Western Australia has a memorial in the northern part of the Cemetery.
Dr John Singleton and his family are buried in Church of England Section Q Grave 229, despite his enormous contribution to the founding of Melbourne, and to medicine, social welfare and philanthropy in Victoria, Dr Singleton remains relatively unknown. In June 2012, a visit to his gravesite revealed that his tombstone had fallen over, mendel Balberyszski a noted Jewish community leader and the biographer of the destruction of the Vilna Ghetto in Lithuania. The British opera singer Frederick Federici who created the role in The Mikado in New York in 1885 is buried in the cemetery. Five Prime Ministers of Australia are memorialised at Melbourne General Cemetery, three are interred in the cemeterys Prime Ministers Garden, Sir Robert Menzies, Sir John Gorton and Malcolm Fraser. Harold Holts is a memorial as his body was never recovered after he disappeared at sea, dame Zara is buried at Sorrento Cemetery, the closest burial ground to where Holt disappeared. James Scullin is buried in the Catholic section of the cemetery, the cemetery contains the war graves of 91 Commonwealth service personnel, more than 30 from World War I and more than 50 from World War II.
The Southern Metropolitan Cemeteries Trust, administrators of the Melbourne General Cemetery