Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great was King of Wessex from 871 to c. 886 and King of the Anglo-Saxons from c. 886 to 899. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex, his father died when he was young and three of Alfred's brothers, Æthelbald, Æthelberht and Æthelred, reigned in turn. After ascending the throne, Alfred spent several years fighting Viking invasions, he won a decisive victory in the Battle of Edington in 878 and made an agreement with the Vikings, creating what was known as the Danelaw in the North of England. Alfred oversaw the conversion of Viking leader Guthrum to Christianity, he defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, becoming the dominant ruler in England. Details of his life are described in a work by 9th-century Welsh bishop Asser. Alfred had a reputation as a learned and merciful man of a gracious and level-headed nature who encouraged education, proposing that primary education be conducted in Anglo-Saxon rather than Latin and improving the legal system and military structure and his people's quality of life.

He was given the epithet "the Great" during and after the Reformation in the sixteenth century, alongside the Danish Cnut the Great, remains the only king of England to be given such a name. Alfred was born in the royal estate of Wantage in Berkshire but now in Oxfordshire, between 847 and 849, he was the youngest of five sons of King Æthelwulf of Wessex by Osburh. In 853 Alfred is reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to have been sent to Rome where he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV, who "anointed him as king". Victorian writers interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his eventual succession to the throne of Wessex; this is unlikely. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a "consul" and a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain confusion, it may be based upon the fact that Alfred accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, around 854–855. On their return from Rome in 856 Æthelwulf was deposed by his son Æthelbald.

With civil war looming the magnates of the realm met in council to hammer out a compromise. Æthelbald would retain the western shires, Æthelwulf would rule in the east. When King Æthelwulf died in 858 Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred's brothers in succession: Æthelbald, Æthelberht and Æthelred. Bishop Asser tells the story of how, as a child, Alfred won a book of Saxon poems, offered as a prize by his mother to the first of her children able to memorize it. Legend has it that the young Alfred spent time in Ireland seeking healing. Alfred was troubled by health problems throughout his life, it is thought. Statues of Alfred in Winchester and Wantage portray him as a great warrior. Evidence suggests he was not physically strong and, though not lacking in courage, he was noted more for his intellect than as a warlike character. Alfred is not mentioned during the short reigns of his older brothers Æthelberht; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes the Great Heathen Army of Danes landing in East Anglia with the intent of conquering the four kingdoms which constituted Anglo-Saxon England in 865.

Alfred's public life began in 865 at age 16 with the accession of his third brother, 18-year-old Æthelred. During this period, Bishop Asser gave Alfred the unique title of secundarius, which may indicate a position similar to the Celtic tanist, a recognised successor associated with the reigning monarch; this arrangement may have been sanctioned by Alfred's father or by the Witan to guard against the danger of a disputed succession should Æthelred fall in battle. It was a well known tradition among other Germanic peoples - such as the Swedes and Franks to whom the Anglo-Saxons were related - to crown a successor as royal prince and military commander. In 868, Alfred is recorded as fighting beside Æthelred in a failed attempt to keep the Great Heathen Army led by Ivar the Boneless out of the adjoining Kingdom of Mercia; the Danes arrived in his homeland at the end of 870 and nine engagements were fought in the following year, with mixed results. A successful skirmish at the Battle of Englefield in Berkshire on 31 December 870 was followed by a severe defeat at the siege and the Battle of Reading by Ivar's brother Halfdan Ragnarsson on 5 January 871.

Four days the Anglo-Saxons won a brilliant victory at the Battle of Ashdown on the Berkshire Downs near Compton or Aldworth. Alfred is credited with the success of this last battle; the Saxons were defeated at the Battle of Basing on 22 January. They were defeated again on 22 March at the Battle of Merton. Æthelred died shortly afterwards in April. In April 871 King Æthelred died and Alfred acceded to the throne of Wessex and the burden of its defence though Æthelred left two under-age sons, Æthelhelm and Æthelwold; this was in accordance with the agreement that Æthelred and Alfred had made earlier that year in an assembly at an unidentified place called Swinbeorg. The brothers had agreed that whichever of them outlived the other would inherit the personal property that King Æthelwulf had left jointly to his sons in his will; the deceased's sons would receive only whatever property and riches their father had settled upon them and whatever additional lands their uncle had acquired. The unstated premise was that the surviving brothe


Agriphila is a genus of small moths of the family Crambidae. It was first described by Jacob Hübner in 1825, they are common in adjacent regions. Despite this genus being proposed as early as 1825, it was not recognized until the mid-20th century. Most species were placed in the related genus Crambus. Agriphila aeneociliella Agriphila anceps Agriphila argentea Bassi, 1999 Agriphila argentistrigella Agriphila atlantica Agriphila attenuata Agriphila beieri Błeszyński, 1955 Agriphila biarmica Agriphila biothanatalis Agriphila bleszynskiella Amsel, 1961 Agriphila brioniella Agriphila cernyi Ganev, 1985 Agriphila costalipartella Agriphila cyrenaicella Agriphila dalmatinella Agriphila deliella Agriphila geniculea Agriphila gerinella P. Leraut, 2012 Agriphila hymalayensis Ganev, 1984 Agriphila impurella Agriphila indivisella Agriphila inquinatella Agriphila latistria Agriphila melike Kemal & Kocak, 2004 Agriphila microselasella Błeszyński, 1959 Agriphila paleatella Agriphila plumbifimbriella Agriphila poliella Agriphila ruricolella – lesser vagabond sod webworm moth Agriphila sakayehamana Agriphila selasella Agriphila straminella Agriphila tersella Agriphila tolli Agriphila trabeatella Agriphila tristella Agriphila undata Agriphila vulgivagella – vagabond crambus moth Savela, Markku.

"Agriphila Hübner, ". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved November 28, 2017. "Agriphila Hübner, 1825". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved November 28, 2017

Stations of the Exodus

The Stations of the Exodus are the 42 locations visited by the Israelites following their exodus from Egypt, recorded in Numbers 33, with variations recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. According to the documentary hypothesis, the list of the Stations is believed to have been a distinct and separate source text. In this hypothesis, it is believed that the redactor, in combining the Torah's sources, used parts of the Stations list to fill out awkward joins between the main sources; the list records the locations visited by the Israelites, during their journey through the wilderness, after having left Egypt. The parts which were inserted to join up the sources appear in suitable locations in the books of Exodus and Numbers. However, a variant version of the list appears in full at Numbers 33, several parts of the journey described in the full list, most noticeably the journey from Sinai to Zin, do not appear in the fragmented version. Both versions of the list contain several brief narrative fragments.

For example "... and they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water, seventy date-palms...". It is a matter of some debate as to how much of the narrative is part of the original text of the list, how much is extra detail added into it by the redactor; the situation occurs in reverse, where some brief texts, within parts of the list, ascribed to the redactor, are regarded as not being part of the list of stations, albeit without much conviction. This is true for Numbers 21:14-15, which references unknown events in the lost Book of the Wars of the Lord, Numbers 21:16b-18a, describing the digging of the well at Beer. Biblical commentators like St Jerome in his Epistle to Fabiola, Bede and St Peter Damian discussed the Stations according to the Hebrew meanings of their names. Dante modeled the 42 chapters of his Vita Nuova on them