United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
Guided missile destroyer
A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, anti-surface operations; the NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether; the U. S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system. In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is equipped with two large missile magazines in vertical-launch cells; some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap. Hobart-class destroyer HMAS Hobart HMAS Brisbane HMAS Sydney Type 055 destroyer Innominate 1st ship Innominate 2nd ship Innominate 3rd ship Innominate 4th ship Innominate 5th ship Innominate 6th ship Type 052D destroyer Kunming Changsha Hefei Yinchuan Xining Xiamen Urumqi Nanjing Guiyang Hohhot Taiyuan Chengdu Qiqihar Zibo Ganzhou Huainan Nanning Innominate 18th ship Innominate 19th ship Innominate 20th ship Innominate 21st ship Innominate 22nd ship Innominate 23rd ship Innominate 24th ship Type 052C destroyer Lanzhou Haikou Changchun Zhengzhou Jinan Xi'an Type 052B destroyer Guangzhou Wuhan Type 052 destroyer Harbin Qingdao Type 051C destroyer Shenyang Shijiazhuang Type 051B destroyer Shenzhen Type 051 destroyer Kaifeng Dalian Zhanjiang Zhuhai Sovremenny-class destroyer Hangzhou Fuzhou Taizhou Ningbo Although the French Navy no longer uses the term "destroyer", the largest frigates are assigned pennant numbers with flag superior "D", which designates destroyer.
Visakhapatnam-class destroyer INS Visakhapatnam INS Mormugao INS Porbandar INS Paradip Kolkata-class destroyer INS Kolkata INS Kochi INS Chennai Delhi-class destroyer INS Delhi INS Mysore INS Mumbai Rajput-class destroyer INS Rajput INS Rana INS Ranjit INS Ranvir INS Ranvijay Durand de la Penne-class destroyer Luigi Durand De La Penne Francesco Mimbelli Maya-class destroyer JS Maya JS 28DDG Asahi-class destroyer JS Asahi JS Shiranui Akizuki-class destroyer JS Akizuki JS Teruzuki JS Suzutsuki JS Fuyuzuki Atago-class destroyer JS Atago JS Ashigara Kongō-class destroyer JS Kongo JS Kirishima JS Myoko JS Chokai Hatakaze-class destroyer JS Hatakaze JS Shimakaze Takanami-class destroyer JS Takanami JS Onami JS Makinami JS Sazanami JS Suzunami Murasame-class destroyer JS Murasame JS Harusame JS Yudachi JS Kirisame JS Inazuma JS Samidare JS Ikazuchi JS Akebono JS Ariake Asagiri-class destroyer JS Asagiri JS Yamagiri JS Yūgiri JS Amagiri JS Hamagiri JS Setogiri JS Sawagiri JS Umigiri Hatsuyuki-class destroyer JS Matsuyuki JS Asayuki Sejong the Great-class destroyer ROKS Sejong the Great ROKS Yulgok Yi I ROKS Seoae Yu Seong-ryong Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class destroyer ROKS Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin ROKS Munmu the Great ROKS Dae Jo-yeong ROKS Wang Geon ROKS Gang Gam-chan ROKS Choe Yeong Kashin-class destroyer Smetlivy Sovremenny-class destroyer Bystryy Gremyashchiy Bespokoynyy Nastoychivyy Admiral Ushakov Udaloy-class destroyer Vice-Admiral Kulakov Admiral Tributs Marshal Shaposhnikov Severomorsk Admiral Levchenko Admiral Vinogradov Admiral Panteleyev Admiral Chabanenko Kee Lung-class destroyer ROCS Kee Lung ROCS Su Ao ROCS Tso Ying ROCS Ma Kong Type 82 destroyer HMS Bristol Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring HMS Dauntless HMS Diamond HMS Dragon HMS Defender HMS Duncan Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Arleigh Burke USS Barry USS John Paul Jones USS Curtis Wilbur USS Stout USS John S. McCain USS Mitscher USS Laboon USS Russell USS Paul Hamilton USS Ramage USS Fitzgerald USS Stethem USS Carney USS Benfold USS Gonzalez USS Cole USS The Sullivans USS Milius USS Hopper USS Ross USS Mahan USS Decatur USS McFaul USS Donald Cook USS Higgins USS O'Kane USS Porter USS Oscar Austin USS Roosevelt USS Winston S. Churchill USS L
1st Reconnaissance Battalion
1st Reconnaissance Battalion is a reconnaissance battalion in the United States Marine Corps. It falls under the command of the I Marine Expeditionary Force. 1st Recon Battalion was reactivated on July 5, 2000, as part of Marine Corps Commandant General James L. Jones’ mission to revitalize Marine Corps reconnaissance; the mission of 1st Reconnaissance Battalion is to provide task-organized forces in order to conduct amphibious reconnaissance, ground reconnaissance, battlespace shaping operations and specialized insertion and extraction. 1st Reconnaissance Battalion consists of: Headquarters and Service Company Alpha Company Bravo Company Charlie Company Delta/Force Company When the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions were created in 1941, each had a Scout Company 7 officers and 132 NCOs and enlisted men divided into a headquarters unit and three platoons. The unit had a motorcycle platoon. In 1941, Lieutenant Colonel William "Wild Bill" Whaling, the executive officer of 5th Marine Regiment visualized and perceived the use for specialized missions encompassing reconnaissance at the division-level, which would be conducted above the normal infantry battalion-level in scouting and patrolling.
He recommended to General Alexander Vandegrift the need of a special "Scout and Sniper unit" for the 1st Marine Division's operations on Guadalcanal. Upon approval, by February 1, each of the three companies were created for each regiment. Forming the southern of the Bismarck Sea and the Bismarck Archipelago, the island of New Britain was focused for seizure by General MacArthur as it would mean control of the Vitiaz and Dampier Straits. Planning began and decision was made to first seize Arawe Peninsula, an island, a town, a plantation and the Japanese occupation forces situated on the southern coast, sixty miles south across island from Cape Gloucester. Cape Gloucester was tasked for seizure by Major General William H. Rupertus, the landing force commander of the northern elements. General Rupertus turned to his scout company's chief, 1st Lieutenant John D. Bradbeer, to lead a team of several Marine scouts to conduct amphibious reconnaissance patrols of New Britain. D-Day was determined on December 26, 1943.
They landed on New Britain on September 24, 1943, at night by rubber boats from three PT boats #110, #325 and #327 of Motor Torepedo Boat Squadron 21, bringing Royal Australian Navy Lieutenant Kirkwall Smith, a former Australian coastwatcher who knew the area, two natives. For nine days, they paddled throughout the prospective landing beaches, locating coastal-defense guns, sketched the beaches and evaded the Japanese patrols in the area. Upon time of return to their PT boat pickup, they couldn't establish radio contact, so they paddled out into the Dampier Strait until they were able to get contact by radio to arrange recovery. Bradbeer's patrol were able to uncover that Japanese troop strength on New Britain was about seventy-five hundred men. Forty-five days of November 1943, Bradbeer accompanied Lieutenants Firm and Smith, Ensign Gipe and their small team and again landed from three PT boats on other proposed beaches. However, never landing on the proposed landing beach, it was negated due to the cliffs just inland from the beach.
By December 26, 1943, six days prior to D-Day, or D-6, Bradbeer and 1st Lieutenant Joseph A. L. Fournier split the recon patrol, taking their six Marines to reconnoiter remaining portions of the island. Hours they both confirmed the usability of the selected landing beaches, reporting them only defended. Momentarily within a few more hours both teams were recovered by their PT boats. While returning, a Japanese barge opened fire onto Bradbeer's PT boat, injuring three of the PT crew personnel. US Navy Lieutenant Paul T. Rennell, the PT boat's captain, was able to break contact and evade the Japanese safely; the reconnaissance they provided was the third and the last preliminary amphibious reconnaissance for the New Britain operation. The III Amphibious Corps, led by Major General Geiger tasked MGen Rupertus's 1st Marine Division for the main assault landing on Peleliu; the 1st Tank Battalion's scout company were part of the "floating reserve", but was ordered ashore on D-Day, September 15, 1944.
Early in the afternoon, the Company D reinforced Colonel Herman Hanneken's 7th Marines to cover the 5th Marines. The island was declared secured on November 27. On April 3, 1945, 1st Marine Division sent their scout company in front of their zone of action along the boundary of the 6th Marine Division to their north; the recon company, commanded by 1st Lieutenant Robert J. Powell, Jr. traversed by motorized patrols to the eastern shore of Okinawa, reaching the base of Katchin Peninsula by 1300. They received further orders to advance north up the east coast toward Hiazaonna. Along the way they encountered a held tank trap returned to 1st Marine Division before dark. Colonel Edward Snedeker 7th Marine Regiment followed the recon action report of 1st Marine Division's Company D and pushed across the island to the town of Hiazaonna, reaching it at 1830 on April 3, 1945. A selected platoon of Kenny Houghton's 1st Marine Division Reconnaissance Company was dispatched to Korea as part of 1st Marine Brigade landing at Pusan.
The remainder of the Company arrived with the remainder of the Division, all landed at Inchon. Recon Marines from the 2nd Marine Division Recon arrived to augment the reconnaissance unit including Lieutenant "Bull" Francis Kraince. Barry Crossman was the Executive Officer; the organization was altered from an amphibious unit of nine-man boat teams to a motori
Stafford County, Virginia
Stafford County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is a suburb outside of Washington D. C, it is 40 miles south of D. C; as of the 2010 census, the population was 128,961. Its county seat is Stafford. Located across the Rappahannock River from the City of Fredericksburg, Stafford County is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2006, again in 2009, Stafford was ranked by Forbes magazine as the 11th highest-income county in the United States. For thousands of years, various cultures of indigenous peoples succeeded each other in their territories along the Potomac River and its tributaries. By the time of English colonization, there were 32 Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribes in the present-day coastal Tidewater Virginia area, including those of the Patawomeck and numerous tribes that were part of the Powhatan Confederacy; the former small tribe, still centered in Stafford County, was recognized by the state of Virginia in 2010.
The Native Americans' first recorded encounter with Europeans in this area was in 1608, with John Smith of the Jamestown Settlement. During a time of recurring tension between the early English colonists and local Native Americans, the colonists led by Samuel Argall captured Chief Powhatan's daughter, while she was living with her husband, Kocoum; the colonists took her from the eastern part of this county, to a secondary English settlement, known as Henricus. Alexander Whitaker converted Pocahontas to Christianity during her captivity, he renamed her as "Rebecca" at her baptism. Rebecca/Pocahontas married English colonist John Rolfe on April 1614 in Jamestown, their mixed-race descendants were among the First Families of Virginia. The English colonial government of Virginia imposed its own order on peoples. In 1664 it established Stafford County from territory part of Westmoreland County, it was named after England. As delineated, Stafford County included a much larger area than its current borders.
As population grew, the following counties and jurisdictions were created: Arlington and Prince William counties, the City of Alexandria. It is part of the area now considered Northern Virginia. George Washington spent much of his childhood in the lower part of the county at his family's home Ferry Farm, along the Rappahannock River across from Fredericksburg. Colonial Forge High School was built on a tract of land owned in colonial times by his father Augustine Washington. George Mason, another Founding Father lived in Stafford during his formative years,Aquia Church, built in 1757, is unusual among local structures for having been designed on the plan of a Greek cross rather than the more standard Roman Cross design. In addition, Aquia Church has a rare three-tiered pulpit; the Episcopal church continues to be active today. Stafford County industry and resources were important to early nation. During the Revolutionary War, the Stafford ironworks furnished arms for the colonial rebel soldiers.
Aquia Creek sandstone, quarried from Government Island, was used to build the White House and the U. S. Capitol. During the American Civil War, the county was part of the battlegrounds, occupied by more than 100,000 troops for several years. In 1862, before and after the Battle of Fredericksburg, some 10,000 African-American slaves left area plantations and city households to cross the Rappahannock River, reaching the Union lines and gaining freedom; this exodus and Trail of Freedom is commemorated by historical markers on both sides of the river, in Fredericksburg and in Stafford County. The Battle of Aquia Creek took place in the Aquia Harbour area. Both the Union Army and Confederate Army struggled to control the strategic Potomac Creek Bridge at various times during the war. Falmouth, a town bordering Fredericksburg, was the home of late-19th century American Impressionist artist Gari Melchers, his house, still stands and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Stafford County has developed as part of the Washington, D.
C. metropolitan area, the seat of government and numerous major defense installations. Marine Corps Base Quantico in neighboring Prince William County, occupies northern areas of this county. Many residents commute north to work there and in other defense and federal facilities, as well as private companies, in Washington, DC and its environs on Interstate Highway 95, U. S. Route 1, by Virginia Railway Express. In the early morning hours of May 9, 2008, a tornado touched down in the southern part of the county damaging about 140 suburban homes; the county was affected by "Snowmageddon," the massive blizzards of December 2009 and February 2010. Stafford received some of the heaviest snow in the D. C. metropolitan area, with about 25 inches of snow in December, 19 inches in February. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 280 square miles, of which 269 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the Potomac River flows along part of the eastern border of the county, while the Rappahannock River runs along the extent of the county's southern border.
The independent city of Fredericksburg developed at the fall line of the river, supporting mills run by water power. To the northwest of there is the Piedmont area. Aquia Creek empties into the tidal segment of the Potomac River at Brent Point in Stafford County. Rappahannock River Potomac River Aquia Creek The county is divided into seven magisterial districts: George Washington, Falmouth, Griff
3rd Marine Division (United States)
The 3rd Marine Division is an infantry division of the United States Marine Corps based at Camp Courtney, Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler and Okinawa, Japan, it is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps and together with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and the 3rd Marine Logistics Group forms the III Marine Expeditionary Force. The division was first formed during World War II and saw four years of continuous combat in the Vietnam War. Headquarters Battalion 3rd Marine Regiment 4th Marine Regiment 12th Marine Regiment 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion Jungle Warfare Training Center, Okinawa The 3rd Marine Division was activated on 16 September 1942 at Camp Elliott, San Diego, California. Most of the original members of the division were drawn from the cadre staff of the 2nd Marine Division; the division was built around the 9th Marine Regiment, commanded by Colonel Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. who became the 20th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Major General Charles D. Barrett was the first commanding general of the division.
The division deployed into Auckland, New Zealand, between January and March 1943. In June of that year, it moved onto Guadalcanal for additional training. 1 November 1943 saw the division land as part of the Battle of Bougainville and fight on the island until their last unit to arrive, the 21st Marine Regiment, embarked on 9 January 1944. During the course of the battle the division had about 400 Marines killed; the division returned to Guadalcanal in January 1944 to rest and retrain. The next operation in which the division took part was the Battle of Guam. From 21 July 1944 until the last day of organized fighting on 10 August, the division fought through the jungles on the island of Guam. During these 21 days of fighting, the division captured over 60 square miles of territory and killed over 5,000 enemy soldiers; the next two months saw continuous mopping up operations in which the Marines continued to engage leftover Japanese forces. At the end of the battle the division had sustained 677 Marines killed, 3,626 wounded, nine missing.
The division remained on the island of Guam for training, until it embarked as part of the landing force for the Battle of Iwo Jima. The 3rd Marine Division was in reserve for the battle. However, the division was committed one regiment at a time when the initial regiments that landed there needed to be relieved; the 21st Marines came ashore on 20 February followed by the 9th Marines, were reinforced by a battalion from the 3rd Marines on 25 February. The Marines of these two infantry regiments, supported by the artillery of the 12th Marine Regiment and tanks of the 3rd Tank Battalion, fought on Iwo Jima until the end of organized resistance on 16 March and the subsequent mopping up operations for the next month. All elements of the division were back on Guam by 17 April 1945; the fighting on Iwo Jima cost the 3rd Marine Division 1,131 killed in action and another 4,438 wounded. After the return to Guam, the division began preparing for the invasion of Japan; this invasion never took place since Japan surrendered on 14 August 1945.
The 3rd Marine Division was deactivated on 28 December 1945. During the war, the 3rd Marine Division had three Seabee Battalions assigned to it; the 25th Naval Construction Battalion was posted to 19th Marines as the third battalion of the regiment. These landed on Bougainville, as did the 71st NCB, assigned as the 3rd Division's shore party there; the 25th NCB landed during the assault on Guam as the shore party to the 3rd Marine Regiment, after which the 19th Marines were deactivated, the 25th NCB was reassigned. The 62nd NCB was posted TAD to the 3rd for Iwo Jima, they were in the reserve, but they became the lead battalion in getting airfield No. 1 operational, after of the many casualties taken by the primary assault Seabees, the 133rd NCB. The division was reactivated on 7 January 1952 at Camp Pendleton, using the assets of the 3d Marine Brigade activated in June 1951. After its activation and still in its organizational state, the division began intensive combat training, including new tactics and maneuvers based on lessons learned in the then-ongoing Korean War.
During the remaining part of 1952 elements of the division participated in numerous exercises and training problems, including vertical envelopment, airborne operations and attack, defense against atomic weapons and missiles. In August 1953 the division arrived in Japan to support the 1st Marine Division in the defense of the Far Eastern area. In March 1956 the division moved to Okinawa and remained there in a readiness posture until 1965; the 3rd Marine Division moved to Okinawa in June 1955 making an amphibious landing. The 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, 3rd Marine Division, were the first Marines to be sent to Vietnam in March 1965 to protect the Da Nang Air Base. On 6 May 1965, the 3rd Marine Division opened the Marine Compound at Vietnam. By the end of 1965 the division had all its regiments on the ground. In August 1966, the battalions of the 26th Marines began arriving for combat duty in South Vietnam attached to the 3rd Marine Division. In October 1966 commanding general Lewis W. Walt was ordered to establish strong points just south of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.
The 3rd Division moved its headquarters from Da Nang to Phu Bai in late 1966. At the same time the division was building outposts along the southern half of the DMZ at Con Thien, Gio Linh, Cam Lộ and Đông Hà; the first major multi-regiment operations against the People's Army of Vietnam was Operation