Western Highway (Victoria)
The Western Highway is the Victorian part of the principal route linking the Australian cities of Melbourne and Adelaide with a length of 314 kilometres of single carriageway 156 kilometres of dual carriageway known as the Western Freeway. It is a part of the National Highway network and designated as National Highway A8 and M8; the western end continues in South Australia as the Dukes Highway, the next section of the Melbourne–Adelaide National Highway. The Western Freeway joins Melbourne's freeway network via the Western Ring Road, in the middle western suburbs of Melbourne; the Western Highway is the second busiest national highway in Australia, in terms of freight movements, with over five million tonnes annually. It provides South Australia and Western Australia; the towns along the way, including Ballarat, Ararat and Horsham, are agricultural and manufacturing centres. Plans are underway for the freeway to be extended west to Ararat, to Stawell; the Western Freeway bypasses most sections of the older Western Highway.
Bypassed sections of the former Western Highway that remain are designated sequentially from C801 to C805, or Metropolitan Route 8. The Melbourne section of the Western Highway is shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F12 Freeway corridor; the Western Highway begins at the Victorian–South Australian border, east of Bordertown. It is a high quality single carriageway from there to just outside the Melbourne side of Beaufort, with adequate numbers of overtaking lanes; the highway passes for example Horsham, Victoria. Just east of Beaufort, the Western Highway becomes the Western Freeway, adopting freeway standards with two lanes running each way, begins bypassing most of the towns the old alignment of the highway used to serve; the newest sections of freeway standard dual carriageway opened on 6 March 2015 for the Ballarat to Beaufort section, on 17 April 2016 for the Beaufort to Buangor section. The first section runs between the end of the Ballarat bypass between a new flyover/interchange with the C805 to just outside the eastern side Beaufort providing 156 kilometres of freeway standard road between Melbourne and Beaufort.
The second section runs between just outside the western side of Beaufort to just after the Buangor bypass, where it becomes a single carriageway again running all the way to Ararat, providing a further 21 kilometres of freeway standard road for between Beaufort and just passed Buangor. Plans are underway for the end of this freeway to be extended from the current terminus just after the Buangor bypass westward towards and to Stawell; the dual carriageway continues towards Melbourne bypassing Ballarat, Bacchus Marsh and Rockbank to the Western Ring Road. Major intersecting roads are grade-separated, however there remain minor intersections at-grade. Cycling is permitted on the sealed shoulder along most of the freeway. 1964/65 - Ballarat East. 2.4 miles of duplicate carriageway completed east of Ballarat. No exact date given. Now part of Route C805 leading from the Western Freeway into Ballarat from the east. 1966/67 - Deer Park to Rockbank. 7.12 miles of dual carriageways completed during financial year 1966/67.
Part of this is now Ballarat State Route 8 through Deer Park and Caroline Springs. 1966/67 - Dual carriageways from Djerriwarrh Creek to Coimadai Creek completed during financial year 1966/67. Now part of Bacchus Marsh Road between Melton and Bacchus Marsh. 1966/67 - Dual carriageways 1.83 miles east of Pykes Creek Reservoir completed during financial year 1966/67. 1967/68 - Rockbank to Melton East. Construction completed of over 3 miles of dual carriageways during financial year 1967/68. 1969 - Pykes Creek Reservoir. The ` Western By-pass Road' is completed, running four miles west of Pykes Creek Reservoir. 1972 - Bacchus Marsh bypass. 5.88 miles opened 30 June 1972, by the Hon. Sir Henry Bolte, GCMG, MP, at a cost of A$4.3m. 1972 - Gordon section. 5.74 miles opened 5 May 1972, by the Board's chairman, Mr R E V Donaldson, at a cost of A$2.2m. 1973 - Pentland Hills to Myrniong section. 1 mile completed from Korkuperrimul Creek to the Lion Park interchange, early 1973. 1974 - Pentland Hills section. 4.8 kilometres ‘west of Bacchus Marsh’ opened 1974.
1975 - Myrniong bypass opened 3 October 1975, by the Minister for Transport, the Hon E R Meagher, CBE, ED, at a cost of A$3.28m. The 5.9 kilometres bypass of Myrniong completed'80 km of dual carriageways between Melbourne and Ballarat'. 1978 - Ballan bypass. 8.4 kilometres opened 15 June 1978, by the Hon J A Rafferty, Minister for Transport, at a cost of A$9.8m. 1983 – Wallace and Bungaree bypass opened 9 March 1983, by the Premier of Victoria, the Hon. John Cain MP; the 11.9 kilometres bypass cost A$23.6m. 1987 – Melton bypass. The'freeway work' was opened to traffic on 7 July 1987, with the remainder of works expected to be completed by April 1988; the 8.8 kilometres bypass cost A$44.2m. 1993 - Ballarat bypass. The first stage, a single carriageway section from Woodmans Hill to the Midland Highway, is opened in December 1993, at a cost of A$62m. 1994 - Ballarat bypass. The second stage of the initial 26 kilometres single carriageway by-pass is opened to traffic in December 1994. 1995 - Ballarat bypass.
Second carriageway opened to traffic between Woodmans Hill and Gillies Street in December 1995, at a cost of A$25m. 1998 - Ballarat bypa
Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia. The city has a population of 101,588. In terms of population Ballarat is the third largest inland city in Australia. Just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered on 18 August 1851, news spread of rich alluvial fields where gold could be extracted. Unlike many other gold boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades, which can be evidenced to this day in the city's rich architecture; the city is famous in Australia for the Eureka Rebellion, the only armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to this event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted and as such Eureka is interpreted by some as the origin of democracy in Australia; the rebellion's symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a national symbol and is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat.
Proclaimed a city in 1871, its prosperity continued until late in the 19th century, after which its importance relative to both Melbourne and Geelong faded with the slowing of gold extraction. It has endured as a major regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics, it is the commercial capital of the Central Highlands and its largest city, as well as a significant tourist destination. Ballarat is known for its history and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, with much of the city subject to heritage overlays. After a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in 1921, ending a long-standing rivalry. While a part of the Central Highlands of Victoria, Ballarat is part of the Midlands geological region. More it is situated on the Central Victorian Uplands. Although significant deposits of gold have been mined in the area and mining continues to this day Ballarat is not part of Victoria's Goldfields region. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, an Indigenous Australian people.
The Boro gundidj tribe's territory was based along the Yarrowee River. The first Europeans to sight the area were an 1837 party of six Scottish squatters from Geelong, led by Somerville Learmonth, who were in search of land less affected by the severe drought for their sheep to graze; the party scaled Mount Buninyong. The Yuille family, Scottish settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10,000-acre sheep run; the first houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson, while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp in 1838. Outsiders knew of the settlement as Yuille's Station and Yuille's Swamp. Archibald Yuille named the area "Ballaarat"; some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for balla arat. The meaning of this word is not certain. In some dialects, balla means "bent elbow", translated to mean reclining or resting and arat meaning "place". Another claim is that the name derives from Yuille's native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noah's Ark.
The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996. The first publicised discovery of gold in the region was by Thomas Hiscock on 2 August 1851 in the Buninyong region to the south; the find brought other prospectors to the area and on 19 August 1851 John Dunlop and James Regan struck gold at Poverty Point with a few ounces. Within days of the announcement of Dunlop and Regan's find a gold rush began, bringing thousands of prospectors to the Yarrowee valley which became known as the Ballarat diggings. Yields were high, with the first prospectors in the area extracting between half an ounce and up to five ounces of alluvial gold per day; as news of the Australian gold rushes reached the world, Ballarat gained an international reputation as a rich goldfield. As a result, a huge influx of immigrants occurred, including many from Ireland and China, gathering in a collection of prospecting shanty towns around the creeks and hills. In just a few months numerous alluvial runs were established, several deep mining leads began, the population had swelled to over 1,000 people.
The first post office opened on 1 November 1851. It was the first Victorian post office. Parts of the district were first surveyed by William Urquhart as early as October 1851. By 1852 his grid plan and wide streets for land sales in the new township of West Ballarat, built upon a plateau of basalt, contrasted markedly with the existing narrow unplanned streets and gullies of the original East Ballarat settlement; the new town's main streets of the time were named in honour of police commissioners and gold commissioners of the time, with the main street, Sturt Street, named after Evelyn Pitfield Shirley Sturt. These officials were based at the government encampment, strategically positioned on an escarpment with an optimal view over the district's digg
Burrumbeet is a town in western Victoria, Australia. The town is located on the Western Highway, 136 kilometres west of the state capital, Melbourne and 24 kilometres west of the regional centre, Ballarat. At the 2016 census and the surrounding area had a population of 232. Lake Burrumbeet, a large but shallow eutrophic lake, is located nearby. Burrumbeet Post Office opened on 1 September 1857 and closed in 1978. Burrumbeet has a Thoroughbred horse racing club, the Burrumbeet Park & Windermere Racing Club, which holds one race meeting a year, the Burrumbeet Cup meeting on New Years Day. Burrumbeet railway station
Newington is a suburb south west of Ballarat, Australia. The population at the 2016 census was 1,900. Newington is bordered by Gillies Street to the west, Sturt Street to the north, Pleasant Street to the east and Winter Street to the south; the Newington Estate Gold Mining Company, a deep lead mining company was established in Ballarat West in 1865. A post office opened in 1865 on the corner of Eyre street, nearby to H. Thomas butcher's shop and cottages; the first residential subdivisions occurred in 1867 with 50 lots released. Newington is notable for Victoria Park, Ballarat's largest open parkland which features numerous sporting grounds connected by grand avenues of conifers and oaks planted in the 1920s as well as some ornamental wetlands and lakes. With the exception of the park and schools, the suburb consists solely of Single-family detached homes in grid plan street layout. Many of the homes are either interwar styles. Media related to Newington, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
Brown Hill, Victoria
Brown Hill is a suburb of Ballarat, Australia on the eastern rural-urban fringe of the city, 5 kilometres east of the Central Business District. The population at the 2016 census was 3,582; the suburb's name is a corruption of Brownbill's Hill, named after prospector William Brownbill, who early during the Ballarat gold rush claimed and settled the area. The suburb is located on a valley to the south and east of the Brown Hill range and Gong Gong and straddles both sides of the Western Freeway. Today, Brown Hill is an residential area with large areas of open and recreational space and several schools. Brown Hill incorporates the unbounded neighbourhood of Woodmans Hill is located within Brown Hill adjacent to Warrenheip in the east; the area was first settled in 1851 as the prospector William Brownbill claimed the area during the Ballarat gold rush. The hill after which the suburb was named was Brownbill's Hill with the name corrupted to "Brown Hill". Brown Hill Post Office opened on 1 December 1857.
Brown Hill is home to many schools including the campus of Ballarat Secondary College, Caledonian Primary School, Saint Francis Xavier College and Brown Hill Kindergarten. Brown Hill has several sporting fields, including the 18 hole Mount Xavier Golf Course. There is the Brown Hill Pool, a 25 Metre publicly owned unheated pool. Brown Hill has a cricket club; the training ground in Brown Hill is known as Progress Park, the hard wicket there is used in home games for the club's third and fourth eleven, as well as junior matches. The club's first and second grades play home matches on the turf wicket at the Western Oval in Ballarat. Brown Hill is serviced by the Ballarat bus service. 1996 Olympic Gold Medallist in Shooting, Russell Mark was raised at a property in Boundary Road
Single-family detached home
A stand-alone house is a free-standing residential building. Sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling; the definition of this type of house may vary between statistical agencies. The definition, however includes two elements: a single-family means that the building is a structure maintained and used as a single dwelling unit. Though a dwelling unit shares one or more walls with another dwelling unit, it is a single family residence if it has direct access to a street or thoroughfare and does not share heating facilities, hot water equipment, nor any other essential facility or service with any other dwelling unit. In some jurisdictions, allowances are made for basement suites or mother-in-law suites without changing the description from "single family", it does exclude, any short-term accommodation, large-scale rental accommodation, or condominiums. Most single-family homes are built on lots larger than the structure itself, adding an area surrounding the house, called a yard in North American English or a garden in British English.
Garages can be found on most lots. Houses with an attached front entry garage, closer to the street than any other part of the house is derisively called a snout house. Terms corresponding to single-family detached home in common use are single-family home, single-detached dwelling, detached house, separate house. In the United Kingdom, the term single-family home is unknown, except through Internet exposure to U. S. media. Whereas in the U. S. housing is divided into "single-family homes", "multi-family dwellings", "condo/townhouse", etc. the primary division of residential property in British terminology is between "houses" and "flats". In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in multi-family dwellings for most of their lives. A child lived with their parents from birth until marriage, generally moved in with the parents of the man or the woman, so that the grandparents could help raise the young children and so the middle generation could care for their aging parents; this type of arrangement saved some of the effort and materials used for construction and, in colder climates, heating.
If people had to move to a new place or were wealthy enough, they could build or buy a home for their own family, but this was not the norm. The idea of a nuclear family living separately from their relatives as the norm is a recent development related to rising living standards in North America and Europe during the early modern and modern eras. In the New World, where land was plentiful, settlement patterns were quite different from the close-knit villages of Europe, meaning many more people lived in large farms separated from their neighbors; this has produced a cultural preference in settler societies for space. A countervailing trend has been industrialization and urbanization, which has seen more and more people around the world move into multi-story apartment blocks. In the New World, this type of densification was halted and reversed following the Second World War when increased automobile ownership and cheaper building and heating costs produced suburbanization instead. Single-family homes are now common in rural and suburban and some urban areas across the New World and Europe, as well as wealthier enclaves within the Third World.
They are most common in high-income regions. For example, in Canada, according to the 2006 census, 55.3% of the population lived single-detached houses but this varied by region. In the ville of Montreal, Canada's second-most populous municipality, only 7.5% of the population lived in single-detached homes, while in the city of Calgary, the third most populous, 57.8% did. Note that this includes the "city limits" populations only, not the wider region; the term "single-family detached" describes who lives in it. It does not indicate shape, or location; because they are not surrounded by other buildings, the potential size of a single-family house is limited only by the budget of the builder and local law. They can range from a tiny country cottage or cabin or a small suburban prefabricated home to a large mansion, aristocratic estate or stately home. Sizes in real estate advertising are given in area, or by the number of bedrooms or bathrooms/toilets; the choice in materials used or the shape chosen will depend on what is common to the vernacular architecture of that region, or the lasting trends in professionally designed tract housing.
A traditional log and plaster hut, a timber frame and drywall North American starter home, or a European-style concrete-and-slate house are all varieties of single-family detached housing. Single-detached homes have both disadvantages; the entire space around the building is private to the owner and family, in most cases, one can add onto the existing house if more room is needed. They typically have no property management fees, such as the ones associated with condominia and townhomes; these are considered advantages. Since single detached homes are built in places where land is more plentiful, there is a distinct cost advantage per square foot (although this varies based
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s