East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, to the south by the English Channel. East Sussex is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful in the upland areas; the area's position on the coast has meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes; this situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.
In East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a self-administered unitary authority. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, districts: Lewes. Eastbourne and Hastings are urban areas; the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. From a geological point of view East Sussex is part of southern anticline of the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalk hills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kent by the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of, the Weald itself; the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings. The area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency.
Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an annual average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year; this is much higher than the UK's average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year. The relief of the county reflects the geology; the chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: Cuckmere; the Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk. To the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the clays of the Weald meet the sea. Further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond, the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands; the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet: it is termed a Marilyn.
The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; the High Weald is wooded in contrast to the South Downs. Part of the Weald is the Ashdown Forest; the location of settlements in East Sussex has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, along the coastal strip. Here towns such as Bexhill-on-Sea and Hastings lie. Newhaven and Rye are ports, although the latter is of historical importance. Peacehaven and Seaford are more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham and Uckfield. Lewes, the County town of East Sussex; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
The Seven Sisters Park is part of the South Downs National Park. Beachy Head is one of the most famed local attractions, along with the flats along Normans Bay. Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam, Herstmonceux and Pevensey. Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings.
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to
The River Cuckmere rises near Heathfield in East Sussex, England on the southern slopes of the Weald. The name of the river comes from an Old English word meaning "fast-flowing", since it descends over 100 m in its initial four miles, it flows into the English Channel, has the only undeveloped river mouth on the Sussex coast. The river has many tributaries at the principal one being the River Bull. After crossing the Low Weald area of farmland, the Cuckmere cuts through the South Downs in its own valley, it reaches the English Channel at Cuckmere Haven, between the Seven Sisters cliff face. The lower part of its course in the floodplain is marked by meandering; the Cuckmere Valley Nature Reserve is located in the lower estuary portion of the river. The valley is important for nature conservation, it has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is part of the South Downs National Park. The Cuckmere Valley civil parish takes its name from the river. In the 19th century, defensive measures were taken to prevent flooding of the upper valley.
Shingle was dug from the mouth of the river and the banks were made higher. In 1846, the course of the river was straightened in an artificial cut, it provided support for irrigation. In addition, raised river banks, or levees, were constructed to protect areas from flooding. In recent decades, the area has become a major tourist destination, with tourism contributing to the local economy more than does agriculture. In the last decade, the Cuckmere Estuary Partnership was established as a collaboration of the National Trust, Natural England, Environment Agency, East Sussex County Council, Sussex Wildlife Trust, various other environmental and conservation groups, they are working together to create long-term plans for the natural area. Government guidelines prohibit continuing to maintain hard flood defences where houses are not at risk. In addition, there is growing scientific evidence that the area would be more ecologically rich if allowed to return to its natural state; the partnership and the Environment Agency have proposed estuary restoration, have been talking to local residents and visitors about how to proceed in the future.
Presently, a shingle beach and raised river banks prevent seawater from penetrating the uppermost areas of the Cuckmere Valley. But the Environment Agency projects that an expected sea level rise due to climate change will increase the steep costs of physical reinforcement, current measures will not be sufficient, they intend to stop repair of the levees and to allow the cycle of natural processes, including periodic flooding of the area. The planning collaborators believe that in the long term, restoration of the saltwater estuary and marshes will enrich the ecological habitat, attract more wildlife and improve tourism; the Environment Agency plans have provoked controversy in the valley among some property owners. Some residents have formed a group called "Rescue the Cuckmere Valley" to try to create an alternative to proposed seasonal flooding. In early 2008 the Cuckmere Parish Council issued a public statement urging the Environment Agency to take less drastic steps in the near term, protecting the Cut while developing longer-term plans over the next 25–50 years.
"The Cuckmere Estuary", Cuckmere Estuary Partnership
Cuckmere Valley is a civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. As its name suggests, the parish consists of a number of small settlements in the lower reaches of the River Cuckmere. There are three villages within the Cuckmere Valley: Litlington and Westdean. Archaeological remains nearer the coast at Exceat suggest a further settlement there in former times; the civil parish of Cuckmere Valley was created in 1990 when Litlington and Westdean parishes were abolished, with small areas transferred between Litlington and Alfriston, which remained a separate civil parish. The name is Saxon, indicates Litl's homestead; the twelfth- century church is dedicated to St Michael the Archangel. Maria Fitzherbert, mistress of George IV, lived at Clapham House in the village. In 1924 a chalk figure of a horse was cut into the downs to the west of the village, replacing one cut in the 19th century; the village inn is the Harrow. Lullington is the most northerly of about 10 miles southeast of Lewes.
It lies on a shoulder of the South Downs at the point where the River Cuckmere cuts through the downs, on the opposite bank of the river to Alfriston. A medieval village, Lullington Court, was abandoned after the Black Death in the 14th century; the church, dedicated to the Good Shepherd, is believed to be the smallest in England, having been rebuilt using only the original chancel after a fire had destroyed the remainder of the building. Services are held only in the summer months. Exceat was an ancient village; the A259 goes by it just east of the River Cuckmere. The name may have come from æc-sceat, an oak grove, or from the Old English for "the place of the Aese", early kings of Kent whilst another etymology is possible from Brittonic wysg meaning water or river and ceat meaning woods, hence "Wooded River" or "Wooded Ridge". After the Norman conquest, the village was given to Robert, Count of Mortain, half brother of William the Conqueror. Both Exceat and the land were given to Grestein Priory in Wilmington.
Until the 14th century, Exceat was an important village with its own church. The village suffered French raids; the main features are the Visitors Centre for the nearby Seven Sisters and the Cuckmere Inn Public House across Exceat Bridge over the Cuckmere. West Dean is located on the edge of Friston Forest, its church is dedicated to All Saints. The National Trust owns land on the western side of the river south of the A259. In addition, there are three Sites of Special Scientific Interest within the parish. Seaford to Beachy Head is a large site of biological and geological importance; the area contains a wide variety of habitats based on the chalk bedrock, which hosts a wide range of flora and fauna, including some nationally rare species. Wilmington Downs is another area of biological interest. Lullington Heath is of biological interest due to its chalk heath and grassland habitats. Cuckmere Haven
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Battle Abbey is a ruined Benedictine abbey in Battle, East Sussex, England. The abbey was dedicated to St Martin of Tours; the Grade I listed site is now operated by English Heritage as 1066 Battle of Hastings and Battlefield, which includes the abbey buildings and ruins, a visitor centre with a film and exhibition about the battle, audio tours of the battlefield site, the monks' gatehouse with recovered artefacts. The visitor centre includes a children's discovery room and a café, there is an outdoor-themed playground. In 1070, Pope Alexander II ordered the Normans to do penance for killing so many people during their conquest of England. In response, William the Conqueror vowed to build an abbey where the Battle of Hastings had taken place, with the high altar of its church on the supposed spot where King Harold fell in that battle on Saturday, 14 October 1066. William started building it, dedicating it to St. Martin, sometimes known as "the Apostle of the Gauls," but died before it was completed.
Its church was finished in about 1094 and consecrated during the reign of his son William known as Rufus. William I had ruled that the church of St Martin of Battle was to be exempted from all episcopal jurisdiction, putting it on the level of Canterbury, it was remodelled in the late 13th century but destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1538 under King Henry VIII. At the dissolution, the displaced monks of Battle Abbey were provided with pensions, including the abbot John Hamond and the prior Richard Salesherst, as well as monks John Henfelde, William Ambrose, Thomas Bede and Thomas Levett, all bachelors in theology; the abbey and much of its land was given by Henry VIII to his friend and Master of the Horse, Sir Anthony Browne, who demolished the church and parts of the cloister and turned the abbot's quarters into a country house. It was sold in 1721 by Browne's descendant, Anthony Browne, 6th Earl of Montagu, to Sir Thomas Webster, MP and baronet. Sir Thomas had married the heiress Jane Cheek, granddaughter of a wealthy merchant, Henry Whistler, to whose vast inheritance she succeeded in 1719.
Webster was succeeded by his son, Sir Whistler Webster, 2nd Baronet, who died childless in 1779, being succeeded in the baronetcy by his brother. Battle Abbey remained in the Webster family until 1857, when it was sold to Lord Harry Vane Duke of Cleveland. On the death of the Duchess of Cleveland in 1901, the estate was bought back by Sir Augustus Webster, 7th baronet. Sir Augustus was born in 1864 and succeeded his father as 8th baronet in 1886. In 1895, he married the only daughter of Henry Crossley of Bedale. Sir Augustus was a captain in the Coldstream Guards; the descendants of Sir Augustus Webster, 8th baronet who brought the extinction sold Battle Abbey to the British government in 1976 and it is now in the care of English Heritage. It was an all-girls boarding school when Canadian troops were stationed there in the Second World War, continues as a school now. All, left of the abbey church itself today is its outline on the ground, but parts of some of the abbey's buildings are still standing: those built between the 13th and 16th century.
These are still in use as the independent Battle Abbey School. Visitors to the abbey are not allowed inside the school buildings, although during the school's summer holidays, access to the abbot's hall is allowed; the church's high altar reputedly stood on the spot. This is now marked by a plaque on the ground, nearby is a monument to Harold erected by the people of Normandy in 1903; the ruins of the abbey, with the adjacent battlefield, are a popular tourist attraction, with events such as the Battle of Hastings reenactments. Harold Godwinson II Abbot of Battle, a list of abbots of Battle Abbey Battle Abbey Roll List of monastic houses in East Sussex Senlac Hill Odo of CanterburyThe main building housing one of the largest paintings in England is now currently a school and has been for the past 100 years as of 2016
United Reformed Church
The United Reformed Church is a Protestant Christian church in the United Kingdom. It has 46,500 members in 1,383 congregations with 608 active ministers, including 13 church related community workers; the United Reformed Church resulted from the 1972 union of the Presbyterian Church of England and the Congregational Church in England and Wales. In introducing the United Reformed Church Bill in the House of Commons on 21 June 1972, Alexander Lyon called it "one of the most historic measures in the history of the Christian churches in this country". About a quarter of English Congregational churches chose not to join the new denomination; the URC subsequently united with the Re-formed Association of Churches of Christ in 1981 and the Congregational Union of Scotland in 2000. In 1982, the United Reformed Church voted in favour of a covenant with the Church of England, the Methodist Church and the Moravian Church, which would have meant remodelling its moderators as bishops and incorporating its ministry into the apostolic succession.
However, the Church of England rejected the covenant. In 2012, the United Reformed Church voted to allow the blessing of same-sex civil partnerships. In 2016, the URC voted to allow its churches to conduct same-sex marriages. According to its own records, the United Reformed Church has 56,000 members in 1,400 congregations with 608 active ministers, including 13 church-related community workers. From 2005 to 2010, 90 congregations closed, the fourth highest number of closures for a British denomination over the period; the decline of the URC is one of the fastest within denominations in the UK. Between 31 December 2013 and 31 December 2018, the denomination declined by 12,196 members, representing 20.6% of its membership. At the current decline rate, the URC would have no members by the mid-2030s; the URC is a trinitarian church whose theological roots are distinctly Reformed and whose historical and organisational roots are in the Presbyterian and Congregational traditions. Its Basis of Union contains a statement concerning the nature and order of the United Reformed Church which sets out its beliefs in a condensed form.
The URC is governed by a combined form of presbyterian polity. Each congregation within the URC is governed by a Church Meeting consisting of all its members, the ultimate decision-making body in the local church. There is an elders' meeting which advises the Church Meeting and shares with the minister the spiritual and pastoral oversight of the church. Elders are elected to serve for a specific period of time. Within the present structures, congregations are able to manage themselves and arrange their services as they choose, reflecting their circumstances and preferences; as a result, congregations neighbouring ones, may have quite different characters, types of service and eligibility for communion. Congregations, through the Church Meeting, are responsible for the selection of ministers to fill vacancies, they select elders from within the membership and accept new members. At a regional level, representatives of the congregations assemble in a synod. There are 11 English synods corresponding to each region of England, one in Scotland and one in Wales.
The synod and its committees provide oversight within the framework of presbyterian polity, giving pastoral care and making important decisions about where ministers serve and how churches share ministry. Through the synods, the URC relates to other Christian denominations at a regional level such as Anglican dioceses. Synods make many key decisions about finance, about church property, held in trust by a synod trust company. Synods employ staff to encourage and serve local churches; the URC has a General Assembly which gathers representatives of the whole of the URC to meet biennially. Advised by the Mission Council, the General Assembly plans the activity of the URC across Great Britain and makes key policy decisions about the direction of the life of the denomination, it appoints central staff, receives reports from committees, deals with substantial reports and initiatives such as Vision4Life. The synods are represented along with the convenors of the Assembly's standing committees. There are 11 standing committees appointed by General Assembly to carry out its policy and to advise the Assembly.
Each committee relates to a different area of church life, including mission and education and learning. Mission Council, the executive body of the General Assembly, meets twice a year. Church related community work is a distinctive ministry within the URC. CRCW ministers use the principles of community development to respond to issues facing their neighbourhoods, working alongside local individuals and organisations, developing initiatives to transform communities. Between them, CRCW ministers enable churches to widen their mission by: identifying local needs and opportunities. Formed in an act of ecumenical union, the URC is committed to ecumenism; the denomination is a member of many ecumenical organisations