SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Algeria

Algeria is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the largest in the African Union and Arab World. With an estimated population of over 42 million, it is among the ten most populous states in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, it is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Pre-1962 Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Zayyanids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Algeria is a middle power, it has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries and one of the largest economies on the continent, based on energy exports.

Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the ninth largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa, supplying large amounts of natural gas to Europe. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in the largest defence budget, it is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations, the Arab Maghreb Union, of which it is a founding member. Other forms of the name are: Arabic: الجزائر‎, romanized: al-Jazāʾir, Algerian Arabic: الدزاير‎, romanized: al-dzāyīr, it is the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers which in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāʾir, a truncated form of the older Jazāʾir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant.

Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast; these settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically.

Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars. In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed; as Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged.

Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of North Africa, Algeria was one of the breadbaskets of the empire, exporting cereals and o

James McQueen (writer)

James McQueen was an Australian novelist and short story writer. Born in Ulverstone, Tasmania, McQueen had a variety of jobs, studied at the National Art School in Sydney, completed a four-year course in accountancy, he began writing fiction in 1975, wrote full-time from 1977, living in Nabowla, north-eastern Tasmania, near Scottsdale. He wrote more than 150 stories, which were published in various countries as well as numerous Australian periodicals before being collected in six volumes, he wrote five novels for adults, as well as books for non-fiction works. He and his second wife Barbara grew orchids professionally, wrote two books about orchids together, he was arrested while protesting against the proposed Franklin River dam. The theme of environmental activism is strong in his novel Hook’s Mountain and some of his other works. Other recurring themes include the inevitability of violence. After a discussion of McQueen's work, the literary critic Laurie Clancy said, "Although the best of his short stories are fine, McQueen's limitations tend to be exposed more in the novels, with their formulaic characterizations."He and his first wife Rosemary had a daughter and a son.

A Just Equinox Hook's Mountain The Floor of Heaven White Light The Heavy Knife White Light and The Heavy Knife were the first two novels of an uncompleted trilogy, The Clocks of Death. The Electric Beach The Escape Machine Uphill Runner Death of a Ladies' Man Lower Latitudes Travels with Michael and Me Escape to Danger The Night of the Crocodile The Candelaria Massacre Dead Reckoning Stranger Snake Island Miniature Orchids Orchids of Brazil The Franklin: Not Just a River James McQueen resources at the National Library of Australia

Inamorata (novel)

Inamorata is a 2004 novel by American novelist and screenwriter Joseph Gangemi. The book was released on January 22, 2004 through Viking Adult and focuses on the investigation of Mina Crandon, a spiritualist from, the 1920s. Film rights for Inamorata were purchased in 2006 by Infinitum Nihil. Inamorata follows Martin Finch, a young college student from Harvard University and member of Scientific American, set to investigate Mina Crawley, a socialite and alleged spiritualist. Finch is sure that he will find proof that Crawley is a fraud but instead finds himself smitten with the beautiful young woman. Critical reception for the book has been mixed to positive, with a reviewer for the New York Times criticizing the main character of Finch as "an oddly blank protagonist". Inamorata received positive reviews from the St. Petersburg Times and the News Journal, with the reviewer for the St. Petersburg Times calling it a "compelling debut". In contrast, the Journal Sentinel overall panned the novel, stating that it started well but "unravels".

Publishers Weekly gave a mixed review, writing that the book was enjoyable but that plot was "a bit weak" and that references to songs and wisecracks from the era "wear thin"