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Algernon Charles Swinburne

Algernon Charles Swinburne was an English poet, playwright and critic. He wrote several novels and collections of poetry such as Poems and Ballads, contributed to the famous Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Swinburne wrote about many taboo topics, such as lesbianism, sado-masochism, anti-theism, his poems have many common motifs, such as the ocean and death. Several historical people are featured in his poems, such as Sappho, Anactoria and Catullus. Swinburne was born at 7 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, on 5 April 1837, he was the eldest of six children born to Captain Charles Henry Swinburne and Lady Jane Henrietta, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Ashburnham, a wealthy Northumbrian family. He grew up at East Dene in Bonchurch on the Isle of Wight; as a child, Swinburne was "nervous" and "frail," but "was fired with nervous energy and fearlessness to the point of being reckless."Swinburne attended Eton College, where he started writing poetry. At Eton, he won first prizes in Italian.

He attended Balliol College, Oxford with a brief hiatus when he was rusticated from the university in 1859 for having publicly supported the attempted assassination of Napoleon III by Felice Orsini. He returned in May 1860. Swinburne spent summer holidays at Capheaton Hall in Northumberland, the house of his grandfather, Sir John Swinburne, 6th Baronet, who had a famous library and was president of the Literary and Philosophical Society in Newcastle upon Tyne. Swinburne considered Northumberland to be his native county, an emotion reflected in poems like the intensely patriotic "Northumberland", "Grace Darling" and others, he enjoyed riding his pony across the moors, he was a daring horseman, "through honeyed leagues of the northland border", as he called the Scottish border in his Recollections. In the period 1857–60, Swinburne became a member of Lady Trevelyan's intellectual circle at Wallington Hall. After his grandfather's death in 1860 he stayed with William Bell Scott in Newcastle. In 1861, Swinburne visited Menton on the French Riviera, staying at the Villa Laurenti to recover from the excessive use of alcohol.

From Menton, Swinburne travelled to Italy. In December 1862, Swinburne accompanied Scott and his guests including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, on a trip to Tynemouth. Scott writes in his memoirs that, as they walked by the sea, Swinburne declaimed the as yet unpublished "Hymn to Proserpine" and "Laus Veneris" in his lilting intonation, while the waves "were running the whole length of the long level sands towards Cullercoats and sounding like far-off acclamations". At Oxford, Swinburne met several Pre-Raphaelites, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, he met William Morris. After leaving college, he lived in London and started an active writing career, where Rossetti was delighted with his "little Northumbrian friend" a reference to Swinburne's diminutive height—he was just five-foot-four. Swinburne was an alcoholic and algolagniac and excitable, he liked to be flogged. His health suffered, in 1879 at the age of 42, he was taken into care by his friend, Theodore Watts-Dunton, who looked after him for the rest of his life at The Pines, 11 Putney Hill, Putney.

Watts-Dunton took him to the lost town of Dunwich, on the Suffolk coast, on several occasions in the 1870s. In Watts-Dunton's care Swinburne lost his youthful rebelliousness and developed into a figure of social respectability, it was said of Watts-Dunton that he killed the poet. Swinburne died at the Pines on 10 April 1909, at the age of 72, was buried at St. Boniface Church, Bonchurch on the Isle of Wight. Swinburne is considered a poet of the decadent school, although he professed to more vice than he indulged in to advertise his deviance – he spread a rumour that he had had sex with eaten, a monkey. Common gossip of the time reported that he had a deep crush on the explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton, despite the fact that Swinburne himself hated travel. Many critics consider his mastery of vocabulary and metre impressive, although he has been criticised for his florid style and word choices that only fit the rhyme scheme rather than contributing to the meaning of the piece, he is the virtual star of the third volume of George Saintsbury's famous History of English Prosody, A. E. Housman, a more measured and somewhat hostile critic, had great praise for his rhyming ability: possessed an altogether unexampled command of rhyme, the chief enrichment of modern verse.

The English language is comparatively poor in rhymes, most English poets, when they have to rhyme more than two or three words together, betray their embarrassment. They betray it, for instance, when they write sonnets after the strict Petrarchian rule: the poetical inferiority of most English sonnets, if compared with what their own authors have achieved in other forms of verse, is though not the result of this difficulty. To Swinburne the sonnet was child’s play: the task of providing four rhymes was not hard enough, he wrote long poems in which each stanza required eight or ten rhymes, wrote them so that he never seemed to be saying anything for the rhyme’s sake. Swinburne's work was once popular among undergraduates at Oxford and Cambridge, though today it has gone out of fashio

Gustave Eiffel

Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was a French civil engineer and architect. A graduate of the prestigious École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures of France, he made his name with various bridges for the French railway network, most famously the Garabit viaduct, he is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, his contribution to building the Statue of Liberty in New York. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel focused on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making significant contributions in both fields. Gustave Eiffel was born in France, in the Côte-d'Or, the first child of Catherine-Mélanie and Alexandre Bonickhausen dit Eiffel, he was a descendant of Jean-René Bönickhausen, who had emigrated from the German town of Marmagen and settled in Paris at the beginning of the 18th century. The family adopted the name Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel mountains in the region from which they had come. Although the family always used the name Eiffel, Gustave's name was registered at birth as Bonickhausen dit Eiffel, was not formally changed to Eiffel until 1880.

At the time of Gustave's birth his father, an ex-soldier, was working as an administrator for the French Army. Due to his mother's business commitments, Gustave spent his childhood living with his grandmother, but remained close to his mother, to remain an influential figure until her death in 1878; the business was successful enough for Catherine Eiffel to sell it in 1843 and retire on the proceeds. Eiffel was not a studious child, thought his classes at the Lycée Royal in Dijon boring and a waste of time, although in his last two years, influenced by his teachers for history and literature, he began to study and he gained his baccalauréats in humanities and science. An important part in his education was played by his uncle, Jean-Baptiste Mollerat, who had invented a process for distilling vinegar and had a large chemical works near Dijon, one of his uncle's friends, the chemist Michel Perret. Both men spent a lot of time with the young Eiffel, teaching him about everything from chemistry and mining to theology and philosophy.

Eiffel went on to attend the Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, to prepare for the difficult entrance exams set by engineering colleges in France, qualified for entry to two of the most prestigious schools – École polytechnique and École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures – and entered the latter. During his second year he chose to specialize in chemistry, graduated ranking at 13th place out of 80 candidates in 1855; this was the year that Paris hosted the second World's Fair, Eiffel was bought a season ticket by his mother After graduation, Eiffel had hoped to find work in his uncle's workshop in Dijon, but a family dispute made this impossible. After a few months working as an unpaid assistant to his brother-in-law, who managed a foundry, Eiffel approached the railway engineer Charles Nepveu, who gave Eiffel his first paid job as his private secretary. However, shortly afterwards Nepveu's company went bankrupt, but Nepveu found Eiffel a job designing a 22 m sheet iron bridge for the Saint Germaine railway.

Some of Nepveu's businesses were acquired by the Compagnie Belge de Matériels de Chemin de Fer: Nepveu was appointed the managing director of the two factories in Paris, offered Eiffel a job as head of the research department. In 1857 Nepveu negotiated a contract to build a railway bridge over the river Garonne at Bordeaux, connecting the Paris-Bordeaux line to the lines running to Sète and Bayonne, which involved the construction of a 500 m iron girder bridge supported by six pairs of masonry piers on the river bed; these were constructed with the aid of compressed air caissons and hydraulic rams, both innovative techniques at the time. Eiffel was given the responsibility of assembling the metalwork and took over the management of the entire project from Nepveu, who resigned in March 1860. Following the completion of the project on schedule Eiffel was appointed as the principal engineer of the Compagnie Belge, his work had gained the attention of several people who were to give him work, including Stanislas de la Roche Toulay, who had prepared the design for the metalwork of the Bordeaux bridge, Jean Baptiste Krantz and Wilhelm Nordling.

Further promotion within the company followed, but the business began to decline, in 1865 Eiffel, seeing no future there and set up as an independent consulting engineer. He was working independently on the construction of two railway stations, at Toulouse and Agen, in 1866 he was given a contract to oversee the construction of 33 locomotives for the Egyptian government, a profitable but undemanding job in the course of which he visited Egypt, where he visited the Suez Canal, being constructed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. At the same time he was employed by Jean-Baptiste Kranz to assist him in the design of the exhibition hall for the Exposition Universelle, to be held in 1867. Eiffel's principal job was to draw up the arch girders of the Galerie des Machines. In order to carry out this work and Henri Treca, the director of the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, conducted valuable research on the structural properties of cast iron, definitively establishing the modulus of elasticity applicable to compound castings.

At the end of 1866 Eiffel managed to borrow enough money to set up his own workshops at 48 Rue Fouquet in Levallois-

Suleiman I's campaign of 1529

Suleiman I's campaign of 1529 was launched by the Ottoman Empire to take the Austrian capital Vienna and thereby strike a decisive blow, allowing the Ottomans to consolidate their hold on Hungary. This was in response to Ferdinand I's daring assault on Ottoman Hungary. Suleiman's march to Vienna was an attempt to assist his vassal, John Szapolyai who claimed the throne of Hungary. Suleiman sent his army of 120,000 strong north on the 10 May 1529, his campaign was marked by speedy success- on September 8 Buda surrendered to the Ottomans and John Szapolyai was installed as King of Hungary. Suleiman went further taking Gran, Komárom and Raab so that much of Ferdinand I's gains the previous two years were lost. On 27 September, Suleiman reached Vienna; the arrival of the Sultan's massive host in Central Europe caused much panic across Europe - Martin Luther, who had believed that the Turks were God's punishment against the sins of Christians modified his views and wrote the book the War with the Turks in 1529 urging that "the scourge of God" should be fought with great vigour.

However, when Suleiman began besieging Vienna it would prove to be his first and most decisive blunder. Clodfelter, M.. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786474707. Madden, Thomas F. Crusades the Illustrated History. 1st ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan P, 2005 Turnbull, Stephen; the Ottoman Empire 1326 - 1699. New York: Osprey, 2003