Not to be confused with Quechua, South American language. The Quechan are a Native American tribe who live on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation on the lower Colorado River in Arizona, members are enrolled into the Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. The federally recognized Quechan tribes main office is located in Fort Yuma and its operations and the majority of its reservation land are located in California, United States. The term Patayan is used by archaeologists to describe the prehistoric Native American cultures who inhabited parts of modern day Arizona and these areas included territory near the Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, and north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. The prehistoric people may have been ancestral to the Quechan and they practiced floodplain agriculture where possible, but relied heavily on hunting and gathering. The first significant contact of the Quechan with Europeans was with the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza, the chief Palma and his three companions were baptized in Mexico City on February 13,1777.
Palma was given the Spanish baptismal name Salvador Carlos Antonio, Spanish settlement among the Quechan did not go smoothly, the tribe rebelled from July 17–19,1781 and killed four priests and thirty soldiers. They attacked and damaged the Spanish mission settlements of San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer and Puerto de Purísima Concepción, the following year, the Spanish retaliated with military action against the tribe. After the United States annexed the territories after winning the Mexican-American War, during which, the historic Fort Yuma was built across the Colorado River from the present day Yuma, Arizona. Estimates for the populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Quechan at 2,500, jack D. Forbes compiled historical estimates and suggested that before they were first contacted, the Quechan had numbered 4,000 or a few more. Kroeber estimated the population of the Quechan in 1910 as 750, by 1950, there were reported to be just under 1,000 Quechan living on the reservation and another 1, 100+ off it.
The 2000 census reported a resident population of 2,376 persons on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, more than 27 percent identified as white. The Quechan language is part of the Yuman language family, the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the Quechans traditional lands. Established in 1884, the reservation, at 32°47′N 114°39′W, has an area of 178.197 km2 in southeastern Imperial County, California. Both the county and city are named for the tribe, warriors of the Colorado, The Yumas of the Quechan Nation and Their Neighbors. Kroeber, A. L. Handbook of the Indians of California, a Native American Encyclopedia, History and Peoples. Traders and Raiders, The Indigenous World of the Colorado Basin, chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Press
It is the hottest desert in Mexico. It has an area of 260,000 square kilometers, the western portion of the United States–Mexico border passes through the Sonoran Desert. In phytogeography, the Sonoran Desert is within the Sonoran Floristic Province of the Madrean Region in southwestern North America, the desert contains a variety of unique and endemic plants and animals, such as the saguaro and organ pipe cactus. It is bounded on the west by the Peninsular Ranges, which separate it from the California chaparral and woodlands, to the north in California and northwest Arizona, the Sonoran Desert transitions to the colder-winter, higher-elevation Mojave, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau deserts. To the east and southeast, the transition to the coniferous Arizona Mountains forests and Sierra Madre. To the south the Sonoran–Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest is the zone from the Sonoran Desert to the tropical dry forests of the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The deserts sub-regions include the Colorado Desert of southeastern California, many ecologists now consider Shreves Vizcaíno and Magdalena regions, which lie on the western side of the Baja California Peninsula, to be a separate ecoregion, the Baja California Desert.
The Pinacate National Park includes the only active Erg dune region in North America, the nearest city to the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is Puerto Peñasco in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The Sonoran Desert area southeast of Tucson and near the Mexican border is vital habitat for the population of jaguars living within the United States. Many plants not only survive, but thrive in the conditions of the Sonoran Desert. Many have evolved to have specialized adaptations to the desert climate, the Sonoran Deserts biseasonal rainfall pattern results in more plant species than any other desert in the world. The Sonoran Desert includes plant genera and species from the family, palm family, cactus family, legume family. The Sonoran is the place in the world where the famous saguaro cactus grows in the wild. Cholla, hedgehog, prickly pear, nightblooming cereus, creosote bush and bur sage dominate valley floors. Indigo bush and Mormon tea are other shrubs that may be found, wildflowers of the Sonoran Desert include desert sand verbena, desert sunflower, and evening primroses.
Ascending from the valley up bajadas, various such as velvet mesquite, palo verde, desert ironwood, desert willow. Shrubs found at higher elevations include whitethorn acacia, fairy duster, in the desert subdivisions found on Baja California, cardon cactus, elephant tree, and boojum tree occur. The California fan palm is found in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert and it is found at spring-fed oases, such as in Anza Borrego Desert State Park, Joshua Tree National Park, and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge
Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, riverbeds, snow and other natural terrain. Types of off-roading range in intensity, from leisure drives with unmodified vehicles to competitions with customized vehicles, off-roaders have been met with criticism for the environmental damage incurred by their vehicles. There have been extensive debates over the role of government in regulating the sport, traveling on off-road terrains require vehicles capable of accommodating off-road driving such as ATVs. These vehicles accommodate off road conditions with extended ground clearance, off-road tires, some manufacturers offer vehicles specifically meant for off-road use. Some examples of recreational off-roading include the following, Dune bashing is a form of off-roading on sand dunes, a Large sport utility vehicle such as the Toyota Land Cruiser is an example of vehicle used. Vehicles driven on dunes may be equipped with a cage in case of an overturn, Similar to auto-racing and skill is required to maneuver the car.
Before entering the desert in an everyday-use SUV or pickup, it is essential to reduce the tire pressure. This is done to more traction by increasing the footprint of the tire and, therefore. For example, tires with a pressure of 35 psi would be reduced to approximately 12-14 psi. A common modification is to fit beadlock rims, which allow tire pressure to be lowered further, without risking tire. Upon entering the desert, it is common to meet with a pack of vehicles, the group leader leads the pack through the stunts in single file. The main reason for this technique is to prevent vehicles from losing track of direction, high speed racing in the open desert includes chases and racing on a rough desert terrain with numerous pots and bumps at the maximum speed. Drivers mostly use RWD and 4WD trucks with long travel suspension, wide stance on the front and this type of trucks is often called Prerunner. Routes in Africa generally have obstacles in largely uninhabited and uncharted terrain and these circuit routes are over 50 km and usually around 300 km long This is a type of travel undertaken with a 4x4 that mostly goes over tracks and contains some bits of off-roading.
Traditionally these trips are going through relatively uninhabited areas, popular are the deserts in Tunisia and other North African countries, continent crossing trips through Africa, trips through Mongolia or Northern Scandinavia. Due to the weight the suspension is often reinforced with stronger springs. Green laning is a pursuit, generally suitable for any four-wheel-drive vehicle. The term green lane refers to the fact that the routes are predominantly along unsurfaced tracks, forest tracks, in the UK they are usually roads which are not maintained in any way and will often include fords
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by wind or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water, most kinds of dunes are longer on the windward side where the sand is pushed up the dune and have a shorter slip face in the lee of the wind. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack, a dune field is an area covered by extensive sand dunes. Dunes occur, for example, in deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach, in most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, Dunes can form under the action of water flow, and on sand or gravel beds of rivers and the sea-bed. The modern word dune came into English from French c,1790, which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne.
Crescent-shaped mounds are generally wider than they are long, the slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow consistently from one direction, some types of crescentic dunes move more quickly over desert surfaces than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in Chinas Ningxia Province, and similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt. The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in Chinas Taklamakan Desert. They may be composed of clay, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long,1 km wide and they occur in southern and West Africa, and in parts of the western United States, especially Texas. Straight or slightly sinuous sand ridges typically much longer than they are wide are known as linear dunes and they may be more than 160 kilometres long.
Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes, many form in bidirectional wind regimes. The long axes of these dunes extend in the resultant direction of sand movement, linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar. These hills appear to have formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation. Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the center of the mound
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific Transportation Company, earlier Southern Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Company, and usually called the Southern Pacific or Espee, was an American Class I railroad. It was absorbed in 1988 by the company controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. The railroad was founded as a holding company in 1865. By 1900 the Southern Pacific Company was a railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgans Louisiana. It extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco, Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. By the 1980s route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles, in 1988 the Southern Pacific was taken over by D&RGW parent Rio Grande Industries. The combined railroad kept the Southern Pacific name due to its recognition in the railroad industry.
Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, by 1996 years of financial problems had dropped SPs mileage to 13,715 miles, and it was taken over by the Union Pacific Railroad. Southern Pacific founded important hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson, in the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This evolved into Sprint, a company name that came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony. The original aim was to construct a railroad from Galveston Bay to a point on the Red River near a trading post known as Coffees Station, the GRR built 2 miles of track in Houston in 1855. Track laying began in earnest in 1856 and on 1 September 1856 GRR was renamed the Houston and Texas Central Railway. SP acquired H&TC in 1883 but it continued to operate as a subsidiary under its own management until 1927, when it was leased to another SP-owned railroad, the Texas and New Orleans Railroad.
The Buffalo Bayou and Colorado Railway, was chartered in Texas on 11 February 1850 by a group that included General Sidney Sherman, bBB&C was the first railroad to commence operation in Texas and the first component of SP to commence operation. Surveying of the route alignment commenced at Harrisburg, Texas in 1851, the first 20 miles of track opened in August 1853. SP was founded in San Francisco, California in 1865 by a group of businessmen led by Timothy Phelps with the aim of building a connection between San Francisco and San Diego, California. The company was purchased in September 1868 by a group of known as the Big Four, Charles Crocker, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins. The Big Four had, in 1861, created the Central Pacific Railroad, CPRR was merged into SP in 1870
As the name implies, it is designed to handle a wider variety of terrain than most other vehicles. Although it is a vehicle in some countries, it is not street-legal within most states and provinces of Australia. By the current ANSI definition, ATVs are intended for use by an operator, although some companies have developed ATVs intended for use by the operator. These ATVs are referred to as tandem ATVs, the rider sits on and operates these vehicles like a motorcycle, but the extra wheels give more stability at slower speeds. Although equipped with three or four wheels, six-wheel models exist for specialized applications, engine sizes of ATVs currently for sale in the United States, range from 49 to 1,000 cc. Royal Enfield built and sold the first powered quadracycle in 1893. It had many components, including handle bars. The Royal Enfield resembles a modern ATV-style quad bike but was designed as a form of carriage for road use. With the introduction of straddle ridden ATVs, the term AATV was introduced to define the original amphibious ATV category, the first three-wheeled ATV was the Sperry-Rand Tricart.
It was designed in 1967 as a project of John Plessinger at the Cranbrook Academy of Arts near Detroit. The Tricart was straddle-ridden with a rather than sit-on style. In 1968 Plessinger sold the Tricart patents and design rights to Sperry-Rand New Holland who manufactured them commercially, numerous small American manufacturers of 3-wheelers followed. I. and Hart to Hart. Dubbed the US90 and later—when Honda acquired the trademark on the term—the ATC90, clearly influenced by earlier ATVs, it featured large balloon tires instead of a mechanical suspension. By the early 1980s, suspension and lower-profile tires were introduced, the 1982 Honda ATC200E Big Red was a landmark model. It featured both suspension and racks, making it the first utility three-wheeled ATV, the ability to go anywhere on terrain that most other vehicles could not cross soon made them popular with US and Canadian hunters, and those just looking for a good trail ride. Soon other manufacturers introduced their own models, sport models were developed by Honda, which had a virtual monopoly in the market due to effective patents on design and engine placement.
The 1981 ATC250R was the first high-performance three-wheeler, featuring full suspension, a 248 cc air cooled engine, a five-speed transmission with manual clutch. For the sporting trail rider, the 1983 ATC200X was another landmark machine and it used an easy-to-handle 192 cc four-stroke that was ideal for new participants in the sport. Today, ATC200Xs can be found on the market in all conditions and prices, in 1985, Honda introduced the new ATC350X
Lake Cahuilla is a prehistoric lake in California and northern Mexico. Located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys, it covered areas of 5,700 square kilometres to a height of 12 metres above sea level during the Holocene. Earlier stages during the Pleistocene reached even higher levels, up to 31–52 metres above sea level, the lake overflowed close to Cerro Prieto into the Rio Hardy, eventually draining into the Gulf of California. The lake formed several times over during the Holocene when water from the Colorado River was diverted into the Salton Trough and this tectonic depression forms the northern basin of the Gulf of California, but was separated from the sea proper by the growth of the Colorado River Delta. Such changes in river courses may have been caused by earthquakes among the numerous faults that cross the region, conversely, it is possible that the weight of the water itself triggered earthquakes. During its existence it formed well developed strandlines and various beach deposits such as gravel bars, the lake existed in several stages during the past 2,000 years, periodically drying and refilling and eventually disappearing sometime after 1580.
In 1905-1907, the Salton Sea formed in parts of the basin of Lake Cahuilla. Today the former lake bed forms the regions of the Imperial. The Algodones Dunes were formed from sand deposited by Lake Cahuilla, during its existence, the lake supported a rich biota with fish and vegetation on its shorelines. In turn these resources supported human populations on its shores, as evidenced by a number of archeological sites, the lake may have had profound effects on population genetics and language history of the surrounding regions. The name Lake Cahuilla was used in 1907 by William Phipps Blake, the lake is named after the Cahuilla, who refer to the lake in their oral tradition. A second name is Blake Sea, after William Phipps Blake, the Cahuilla themselves named the lake paul, and their mythology states that when their creator paulnevolent was cremated, tears turned the lake salty. The name Lake LeConte was coined in 1902 by Gilbert E. Bailey, in 1980, M. R. Waters applied the term to cover all lakes of Holocene age in the Salton Basin.
This name is derived from Joseph Le Conte, a geography professor, the name Lake Cahuilla applies to the reservoir at the northern end of the Coachella Canal, in the Coachella Valley. Lake Cahuilla is the name of a station in California. Lake Cahuilla formed in the region of the present-day Salton Sea and it extended over the southern end of Coachella Valley in the north, through the Imperial Valley in the south, and down to the Cerro Prieto area in Baja California. This area was known as the Colorado Desert. Currently,5,400 square kilometres of the land is below sea level, the Salton Trough extends 225 kilometres northwest and has a width of 110 kilometres at the border
Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. The former Chrysler Corporation acquired the Jeep brand, along with the assets of its owner American Motors. The division is headquartered in Toledo, Jeeps current product range consists solely of sport utility vehicles and off-road vehicles, but has included pickup trucks in the past. The original Jeep was the prototype Bantam BRC, Willys MB Jeeps went into production in 1941 specifically for the military, arguably making them the oldest four-wheel drive mass-production vehicles now known as SUVs. The Jeep became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army, the term became common worldwide in the wake of the war. Doug Stewart notes, The spartan and unstintingly functional jeep became the ubiquitous World War II four-wheeled personification of Yankee ingenuity and cocky, the first civilian models were produced in 1945. It inspired a number of light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover.
Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been designed in other nations, only two companies responded to the request, American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army had set what seemed like an impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype, Willys asked for more time, but was refused. The bankrupt American Bantam Car Company had no engineering staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, after turning down Bantams initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and commenced work, initially without salary, on July 17,1940. Probst laid out plans for the Bantam prototype, known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car. Bantams bid was submitted, complete with blueprints, on July 22, while much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer. The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler and driven to Camp Holabird, the vehicle met all the Armys criteria except engine torque.
The resulting Ford Pygmy and Willys Quad prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC prototype, fifteen hundred of each of the three models were built and extensively field-tested. Delmar Barney Roos, Willys-Overlands chief engineer, made changes to meet a revised weight specification. He was thus able to use the powerful but comparatively heavy Willys Go Devil engine, the Willys version of the car would become the standardized Jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed-metal Jeep grille was actually a Ford design feature, the Army chose Ford as the second supplier, building Jeeps to the Willys design. Willys supplied Ford with a set of plans and specifications
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, United States. It is located in the corner of the state. Yuma is the city of the Yuma, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the 2014 estimated population of the Yuma MSA is 203,247, more than 85,000 retirees make Yuma their winter residence. The areas first settlers for thousands of years were Native American cultures and their descendants now occupy the Cocopah and Quechan reservations. In 1540, Spanish colonial expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area, the Colorado River narrows to slightly under 1,000 feet wide in one area. Military expeditions that crossed the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing include Juan Bautista de Anza, the Mormon Battalion and after the California Gold Rush to the late 1870s, the Yuma Crossing was known for its ferry crossings for the Southern Emigrant Trail. This was considered the gateway to California, as it was one of the few spots where travelers could cross the otherwise very wide Colorado River.
Following the United States establishing Fort Yuma, two towns developed one mile down river, the one on the California side was called Jaeger City, named after the owner of Jaegers Ferry, which crossed the river there. It was for a time the larger of the two, with the Butterfield Overland Mail office and station, two blacksmiths, a hotel, two stores, and other dwellings, the other was called Colorado City. Developed on the side of the river in what is now Arizona by speculator Charles Poston. When started, it was just north of the border between Mexican-ruled Sonora and California, after the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico. This area was designated as the Territory of Arizona in 1863, the county of San Diego collected taxes from there for many years. From 1853 a smaller settlement, Arizona City, grew up on the ground across from the fort and was organized under the name of its post office in 1858. It had adobe dwellings, two stores and two saloons, Colorado City and Jaeger City were almost completely destroyed by the Great Flood of 1862 and had to be rebuilt on higher ground.
At that time Colorado City became part of Arizona City and it took the name Yuma in 1873. From 1854, Colorado City was the major stop for traffic up. After the 1862 flood, it part of Arizona City
Brawley is a city in the Imperial Valley and within Imperial County, southern California, United States. The population was 24,953 at the 2010 census, up from 22,052 in 2000, the town has a significant cattle and feed industry, and hosts the annual Cattle Call Rodeo. Year-round agriculture is an important economic activity in Brawley, summer daytime temperatures often exceed 105 °F. Brawley is located in the Colorado Desert and Lower Colorado River Valley regions. The citys elevation, like other Imperial Valley towns, is below sea level and it is 13 miles north of El Centro, about 70 miles west of Yuma, Arizona,95 miles southeast of Palm Springs and 130 miles east of San Diego. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brawley has an area of 7.7 square miles. All is land within the city limits, except for the Alamo River, the New River has been reported as the most polluted river in North America. The Imperial Land Company laid out the town in 1902 and named it Braly in honor of J. H. Braly, after Braly refused to permit the use of his name, the name was changed to Brawley.
The first post office at Brawley opened in 1903, incorporated in 1908, it was a tent city of only 100 persons involved in railroads and the earliest introduction of agriculture. It had a population of 11,922 in 1950, average January temperatures in Brawley are a high of 69.4 °F and a low of 38.9 °F. Average July temperatures are a high of 107.6 °F, on average,173.0 days of the year have highs of 90 °F or higher. The record high temperature was 122 °F on July 1,1950, average annual precipitation is 2.65 inches with an average of 13 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest year was 1939 with 8.18 inches, there have been no years when no measurable precipitation fell in Brawley. The most rainfall in one month was 6.75 inches in September 1939, the most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.90 inches on October 10,1932. A rare snowfall in December 1932 brought a total of 3.0 inches, the 2010 United States Census reported that Brawley had a population of 24,953. The population density was 3,248.4 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Brawley was 13,570 White,510 African American,241 Native American,349 Asian,32 Pacific Islander,9,258 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20,344 persons. The Census reported that 24,779 people lived in households,63 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 589 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,346 households were made up of individuals and 550 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.25
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, cranes, backhoes and golf carts. Off-road vehicles have a following because of their many uses. Several types of motorsports involve racing off-road vehicles, the three largest 4-wheel vehicle off-road types of competitions are rally, desert racing, and rockcrawling. The three largest types of all-terrain vehicle / motorcycle competitions are Motocross and desert racing like Dakar Rallye, the most common use of these vehicles is for sight seeing in areas distant from pavement. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough, the system uses an unusual caterpillar track which has a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments.
It can be fitted to a car or truck to turn it into a half-track suitable for use over rough or soft ground. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Kégresse returned to his native France where the system was used on Citroën cars between 1921 and 1937 for off-road and military vehicles, the Citroën company sponsored several overland expeditions with their vehicles crossing North Africa and Central Asia. A huge wheeled vehicle designed from 1937 to 1939 under the direction of Thomas Poulter called Antarctic Snow Cruiser was intended to transport in the Antarctica. While having several innovative features, it failed to operate as hoped under the difficult conditions. After World War II, a surplus of light off-road vehicles like the Jeep. The Jeeps in particular were popular with buyers who used them as utility vehicles and this was the start of off-roading as a hobby. These were all alike, compact, four-wheel-drive vehicles with at most a small hardtop to protect the occupants from the elements, from the 1960s and onward, more comfortable vehicles were produced.
For several years they were popular with rural buyers due to their off-road, the U. S. Later, during the 1990s, manufacturers started to add even more luxuries to bring those off-road vehicles on par with regular cars. This eventually evolved into what we call the SUV today and it evolved into the newer crossover vehicle, where utility and off-road capability was sacrificed for better on-road handling and luxury. Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a balance of large or additional tires combined with tall. Tracked vehicles accomplish this by having wide tracks and a suspension on the road wheels. The choice of wheels versus tracks is one of cost and suitability, a tracked drivetrain is more expensive to produce and maintain