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Alhambra Theatre of Variety

The Alhambra Theatre of Variety was a popular music hall located at Leicester Square, in the West End of London, England. It was built as the Royal Panopticon of Science and Arts opening on 18 March 1854; the Alhambra Theatre of Variety became a model for Parisian music halls. Some years before the Folies-Bergere it staged circus attractions alongside popular ballets in 55 new productions between 1864 and 1870; the Alhambra Theatre of Variety was predominantly used for the popular entertainment of the day. The usual music hall acts were performed, as well as the début of Jules Léotard performing his aerial act, above the heads of diners in May 1861. Other entertainments included "patriotic demonstrations" celebrating the British Empire and British military successes; the theatre staged ballet and light opera. In the 1860s, John Hollingshead made it famous for its corps de ballet. Early films were a part of the entertainment, with Robert W. Paul, a former collaborator of Birt Acres, presenting his first theatrical programme on 25 March 1896.

The Alhambra Theatre of Variety moved into 23–27 Leicester Square, where the Royal Panopticon of Science and Art was housed for two years. The Alhambra Theatre of Variety opened 3 April 1858. Inside the building a central rotunda. There was a secondary entrance to the rear on Charing Cross Road

Gabriele M√ľnter

Gabriele Münter was a German expressionist painter, at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. She studied and lived with the painter Wassily Kandinsky and was a founding member of the expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter. Münter was born to upper middle-class parents in Berlin. Regardless of the times, her family supported her desires to become an artist, she began to draw as a child. As she was growing up, she had a private tutor. In 1897, at the age of twenty, Münter received artistic training in the Düsseldorf studio of artist Ernst Bosch and at the Damenschule of Willy Platz. By the time she was 21 years old, both of her parents had died and she was living at home with no occupation. In 1898, she decided to take a trip to America with her sister to visit extended family, they stayed in America for more than two years in the states of Texas and Missouri. Both girls had inherited a large amount of money, allowing them to live and independently, her childhood and early adulthood impacted her future artistic career.

She had a free and unrestricted life, unconstrained by convention. Living in America and Europe gave Münter social exposure. Münter studied woodcut techniques, sculpture and printmaking. In 1901, she attended the beginners' classes of Maximilian Dasio at the Damenakademie of the Münchener Künstlerinnenverein. Münter studied at the Phalanx School in Munich, an avant-garde institution founded by Russian artist, Wassily Kandinsky. At the Phalanx School, Münter attended. Münter studied outside the official art academies in Munich and Düsseldorf, as these were closed to women. At the Phalanx School, Münter was introduced to Post-Impressionism and the marking techniques of a palette knife and a brush, her vivid colors and bold outlines were somewhat derived from Gauguin and the Fauves whom she admired. Along with this, Münter was inspired by Bavarian folk art the technique of reverse-glass painting. Soon after she began taking classes, Münter became professionally involved with Kandinsky; this turned into a personal relationship that lasted for over a decade.

Kandinsky was the first teacher that had taken Münter's painting abilities seriously. In the summer of 1902, Kandinsky invited Münter to join him at his summer painting classes just south of Munich in the Alps, she accepted. At first I experienced great difficulty with my brushwork – I mean with what the French call la touche de pinceau. So Kandinsky taught me how to achieve the effects that I wanted with a palette knife... My main difficulty was. My pictures are all moments of life – I mean instantaneous visual experiences noted rapidly and spontaneously; when I begin to paint, it's like leaping into deep waters, I never know beforehand whether I will be able to swim. Well, it was Kandinsky. I mean that he has taught me to work fast enough, with enough self-assurance, to be able to achieve this kind of rapid and spontaneous recording of moments of life. Münter was focused on German Expressionism, she worked in various mediums, including a significant output in wood- and linocuts, she documented her journeys with a state-of-the-art camera.

She was familiar with many of the more famous artists of the time. Münter was part of a small subgroup of artists active in transforming late Impressionist, Neo-Impressionist, Jugendstil painting into the more radical, non-naturalistic art now identified as Expressionism. Early on, Münter developed a great interest in landscapes. Münter's landscape paintings employ a radical Jugendstil simplicity and suggestive symbolism with muted colors, collapsed pictorial space and flattened forms, she enjoyed exploring the world of children. By 1908, her work began to change. Influenced by Matisse and Fauvism and van Gogh, Münter's work became more representative and she took refuge in the small Bavarian market town of Murnau, a village untouched by industrialization and technology. Münter spent much of her life there, it was here, in Münter's landscape paintings, that she emphasized nature, imaginative landscapes and an opposition to German modernism. Münter's landscapes are unusual in their use of blues, greens and pinks.

Color is used to evoke feelings: picturesque, inviting and rich in fantasy. In Münter's landscapes, she presents the countryside as manifestations of human life. Münter and Kandinsky's relationship affected Kandinsky's work, he began to adopt Münter's use of abstract expressionist style. Münter and Kandinsky traveled through Europe including the Netherlands and France, as well as North Africa, it was during this time that they met Matisse. Münter and Kandinsky helped establish the Munich-based avant-garde group called the New Artists’ Association, she contributed to a number of the most significant avant-garde exhibitions in Germany up till World War I. In 1911 Mün

Agricultural policy of the United States

The agricultural policy of the United States is composed of the periodically renewed federal U. S. farm bills. The Farm Bills have a rich history which sought to provide income and price support to US farmers and prevent them from adverse global as well as local supply and demand shocks; this implied an elaborate subsidy program which supports domestic production by either direct payments or through price support measures. The former incentivizes farmers to grow certain crops which are eligible for such payments through environmentally conscientious practices of farming; the latter protects farmers from vagaries of price fluctuations by ensuring a minimum price and fulfilling their shortfalls in revenue upon a fall in price. There are other measures through which the government encourages crop insurance and pays part of the premium for such insurance against various unanticipated outcomes in agriculture. According to the United States Department of Agriculture"U. S. agricultural policy—often called farm policy—generally follows a 5-year legislative cycle that produces a wide-ranging “Farm Bill.”

Farm Bills, or Farm Acts, govern programs related to farming and nutrition, rural communities, as well as aspects of bioenergy and forestry. The most recent of these Farm Bills, the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, authorizes policies in the areas of commodity programs and crop insurance, conservation on agricultural lands, agricultural trade, farm credit, rural economic development, agricultural research and private forestry and horticulture and organic agriculture; the 2018 Farm Bill replaces the 2014 Farm Bill, in place from 2014 through 2018." Until the 1920s, the first 150 years of agricultural policy in the US was dominated by policies directed at developing and supporting family farms and the inputs of the total agricultural sector, such as land and human labor. Developmental policy included such legislation as the Land Act of 1820, the Homestead Act, which granted 160-acre townships, the Morrill Act of 1862, which initiated the land-grant college system, one in a long series of acts that provided public support for agricultural research and education.

In 1933, with many farmers losing money because of the Great Depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration; the AAA began to regulate agricultural production by destroying crops and artificially reducing supplies. It offered subsidies to farmers to encourage them to willingly limit their production of crops; the Supreme Court struck down the AAA as unconstitutional, so in 1938 the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was passed, which created a similar organization for distributing farmer subsidies. At the end of World War I, the destructive effects of the war and the surrender burdens enforced on the Central Powers of Europe bankrupted much of Europe, closing major export markets in the United States and beginning a series of events that would lead to the development of agricultural price and income support policies. United States price and income support, known otherwise as agricultural subsidy, grew out of acute farm income and financial crises, which led to widespread political beliefs that the market system was not adequately rewarding farm people for their agricultural commodities.

Beginning with the 1921 Packers and Stockyards Act and 1922 Capper–Volstead Act, which regulated livestock and protected farmer cooperatives against anti-trust suits, United States agricultural policy began to become more and more comprehensive. In reaction to falling grain prices and the widespread economic turmoil of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, three bills led the United States into permanent price subsidies for farmers: the 1922 Grain Futures Act, the June 1929 Agricultural Marketing Act, the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act – the first comprehensive food policy legislation. Out of these bills grew a system of government-controlled agricultural commodity prices and government supply control. Supply control would continue to be used to decrease overproduction, leading to over 50,000,000 acres to be set aside during times of low commodity prices; the practice was ended by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. Over time, a variety of related topics began to be addressed by agricultural policy: soil conservation, surplus crops as food aid, much wetlands and habitat conservation and organic food labeling.

During this time, agricultural financial support increased, through raised price supports, export subsidies, increased crop insurance, expanding price supports to different crops, offering more guaranteed federal loans, through the replacement of some price supports with fixed payments. Beginning with the administration of Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, the United States had moved to curb overproduction. However, in the early 1970s, under Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz, farmers were encouraged to "get big or ge