Rufaida Al-Aslamia was an Islamic medical and social worker recognized as the first female Muslim nurse and the first female surgeon in Islam. Among the first people in Madina to accept Islam, Rufaida Al-Aslamia was born into the Bani Aslam tribe of the Khazraj tribal confederation in Medina, gained fame for her contribution with other Ansar women who welcomed the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, on arrival in Medina. Rufaida Al-Aslamia is depicted as empathetic nurse and a good organizer. With her clinical skills, she trained other women, Including the famous female companions of Muhammad- Khadijah, Ayesha, to be nurses and to work in the area of health care, she worked as a social worker, helping to solve social problems associated with the disease. In addition, she helped children in need and took care of orphans and the poor. Born into a family with strong ties to the medical community, Rufaida's father, Sa`ad Al Aslamy, was a physician and mentor under whom Rufaida obtained clinical experience.
Devoting herself to nursing and taking care of sick people, Rufaida Al-Aslamia became an expert healer. Although not given responsibilities held by men such as surgeries and amputations, Rufaida Al-Aslamia practiced her skills in field hospitals in her tent during many battles as Muhammadصلى الله عليه وسلم used to order all casualties to be carried to her tent so that she might treat them with medical expertise, it has been documented that Rufaida provided care to injured soldiers during the jihad, as well as providing shelter from the wind and heat of the harsh desert for the dying. Presented within the context of Muhammad, the historical development of female nursing and surgery in Arabia from the Islamic Period to the modern times boasts a tumultuous history laden with cultural barriers and public pressures. Though sparse documentation exists pertaining to the history of nursing in the Pre-Islamic period, a proper understanding of societal and religious paradigms during the reign of Muhammad lends significant insight into the roles and expectation of nurses in antiquity.
In marked contrast to the pervading Christian interpretation of disease as a divine punishment for man, Muslims place an high value on the ritual cleansing of the body, daily prayer schedules, strict dietary regiments. An era in history defined by a number of holy wars, medicinal treatment during the times of Muhammad was performed by doctors, who would visit the patient to diagnose abnormalities and provide medications to those who were in need. Placing the bulk of the biological and physiological responsibilities of a patient on the doctor alone, nurses were limited in their duties to providing physical comfort and emotional support. With the diminishing intensity of holy wars and mass civil unrest that defined the climate of Islamic culture during the reign of Muhammad, advancements in technology and architecture resulted in the construction of many new hospitals and methods for treating the sick. Though nurses in this period of time were still relegated to rudimentary and noninvasive duties like serving food to patients and administering medicinal liquids and social norms of the times necessitated the segregation of hospital wards based on gender, with males treating males and females treating females.
While there has been some relaxation of segregation in contemporary times, the values of many traditional Islamic people are for hospitals and their policies to reflect these past segregational practices. Though still limited in the invasiveness of their work, a shift in accepted cultural expectations regarding a woman's role in the hospital provided many the opportunity to emerge as leaders in a field dominated by men. A charismatic and capable leader, published records testify that Rufaida Al-Aslamia, who practiced at the time of Muhammad, was the first Muslim nurse. While there is slight controversy in, "technically" the first surgeon and nurse in history, Middle Eastern countries attribute the status of the first nurse to Rufaida, a Muslim surgeon and nurse. Rufaida Al-Aslamia implemented her clinical skills and medical experience into developing the first documented mobile care units that were able to meet the medical needs of the community; the scope of the majority of her work in her organized medical command units consisted in hygiene and stabilizing patients prior to further and more invasive medical procedures.
During military expeditions, Rufaida Al-Aslamia led groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battlefield and treated the casualties. She participated in the battles of Badr, Khandaq and others. During times of peace, Rufaida Al-Aslamia continued her involvement with humanitarian efforts by providing assistance to Muslims who were in need. Rufaidah had trained a group of women companions as nurses; when Muhammad's army was getting ready to go to the battle of Khaibar and the group of volunteer nurses went to Muhammad. They asked him for permission "O Messenger of Allah, we want to go out with you to the battle and treat the injured and help Muslims as much as we can". Muhammad gave them permission to go; the nurse volunteers did such a good job. Her share was equivalent to that of soldiers who had fought; this was in recognition of her medical and nursing work. Each year the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland at the University of Bahrain awards one student the coveted and prestigious Rufaida Al-Aslamia Prize in Nursing.
The award winner determined by a panel of senior clinical medical staff members, the Rufaida Al-Asla
Medicine in the medieval Islamic world
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization. Islamic medicine preserved and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity, including the major traditions of Hippocrates and Dioscorides. During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of ancient Greek and Persian medicine as well as the ancient Indian tradition of Ayurveda, while making numerous advances and innovations. Islamic medicine, along with knowledge of classical medicine, was adopted in the medieval medicine of Western Europe, after European physicians became familiar with Islamic medical authors during the Renaissance of the 12th century. Medieval Islamic physicians retained their authority until the rise of medicine as a part of the natural sciences, beginning with the Age of Enlightenment, nearly six hundred years after their textbooks were opened by many people.
Aspects of their writings remain of interest to physicians today. Medicine was a central part of medieval Islamic culture. Responding to circumstances of time and place/location, Islamic physicians and scholars developed a large and complex medical literature exploring and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine Islamic medicine was built on tradition, chiefly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Arabia and was known at Muhammad's time, ancient Hellenistic medicine such as Unani, ancient Indian medicine such as Ayurveda, the ancient Iranian Medicine of the Academy of Gundishapur; the works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates and Dioscorides had a lasting impact on Islamic medicine. Ophthalmology has been described as the most successful branch of medicine researched at the time, with the works of Ibn al-Haytham remaining an authority in the field until early modern times; the adoption by the newly forming Islamic society of the medical knowledge of the surrounding, or newly conquered, "heathen" civilizations had to be justified as being in accordance with the beliefs of Islam.
Early on, the study and practice of medicine was understood as an act of piety, founded on the principles of Imaan and Tawakkul. The Prophet not only instructed sick people to take medicine, but he himself invited expert physicians for this purpose. Muhammad's opinions on health issues, habits with regard to leading a healthy life, were collected early on, edited as a separate corpus of writings under the title Ṭibb an-Nabī. In the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun, in his work Muqaddimah provides a brief overview over what he called "the art and craft of medicine", separating the science of medicine from religion: You'll have to know that the origin of all maladies goes back to nutrition, as the Prophet – God bless him! – says with regard to the entire medical tradition, as known by all physicians if this is contested by the religious scholars. These are his words: "The stomach is the House of Illness, abstinence is the most important medicine; the cause of every illness is a poor digestion." The Sahih al-Bukhari, a collection of prophetic traditions, or hadith by Muhammad al-Bukhari refers to a collection of Muhammad's opinions on medicine, by his younger contemporary Anas bin-Malik.
Anas writes about two physicians who had treated him by cauterization and mentions that the prophet wanted to avoid this treatment and had asked for alternative treatments. On, there are reports of the caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān fixing his teeth with a wire made of gold, he mentions that the habit of cleaning one's teeth with a small wooden toothpick dates back to pre-islamic times. The "Prophetic medicine" was mentioned by the classical authors of Islamic medicine, but lived on in the materia medica for some centuries. In his Kitab as-Ṣaidana from the 10./11. Century, Al-Biruni refers to collected poems and other works dealing with, commenting on, the materia medica of the old Arabs; the most famous physician was Al-Ḥariṯ ben-Kalada aṯ-Ṯaqafī, who lived at the same time as the prophet. He is supposed to have been in touch with the Academy of Gondishapur he was trained there, he had a conversation once with Khosrow I Anushirvan about medical topics. Most the Arabian physicians became familiar with the Graeco-Roman and late Hellenistic medicine through direct contact with physicians who were practicing in the newly conquered regions rather than by reading the original or translated works.
The translation of the capital of the emerging Islamic world to Damascus may have facilitated this contact, as Syrian medicine was part of that ancient tradition. The names of two Christian physicians are known: Ibn Aṯāl worked at the court of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty; the caliph abused his knowledge. Abu l-Ḥakam, responsible for the preparation of drugs, was employed by Muawiah, his son and great-grandson were serving the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphate. These sources testify to the fact that the physicians of the emerging islamic society were familiar with the classical medical traditions at the times of the Umayyads; the medical knowledge arrived from Alexandria, was transferred by Syrian scholars, or translators, finding its way into the Islamic world. Few sources provide information about how the expanding Islamic society received any medical knowledge. A physician called Abdalmalik ben Abgar al-Kinānī from Kufa in Iraq is supposed to have worked at the medical school of Alexandria before he joined ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz's court
Ibn Butlan was an Arab Nestorian Christian physician, active in Baghdad during the Islamic Golden Age. He wrote the Taqwim al-Sihhah; the work treated matters of hygiene and exercise. It emphasized the benefits of regular attention to the personal physical and mental well-being; the continued popularity and publication of this medieval text of Middle Eastern origin into the sixteenth century is thought to demonstrate the influence that Arabic culture had on early modern Europe. One of his Greek sources was Dioscorides. Al-taghvim al-seha'at Da'avat al-ateba' Al-maghalat al-Mokhtarat fi tadbir al-amraz al-a'rezat al-aksar bel taghziat Ma'loofat Resalat fi shari al-raghigh va taghlib al-bai'd Maghalat fi an al-foroj ahar men al-farkh Al-maghalat al-mesriat fi monaghezat ali ebne rezvan Maghal fi al-gorban al-moghadas Arnaldez, R.. "Ibn Buṭlān, Abuʾl-Ḥasan Al-Mukhtār Ibn ʿAbdūn Ibn SaʿDūn". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com
Giza is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, 4.9 km southwest of central Cairo. Along with Cairo Governorate, Shubra El Kheima, Helwan, 6th October City and Obour, the five form Greater Cairo metropolis. Giza lies less than 20 km north of "Mn Nefer", which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Roman language, and, the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh Narmer. Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt's history due to its location close to Memphis, the ancient Pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom, its St. George cathedral is the episcopal; the "city" of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, is located near the northeast border of this governorate.
The city's population was reported as 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census, without specifying what the city is. The former figure corresponds to the sum of 9 kisms. Technically, Giza may not be an incorporated municipal unit at all. In a typical Egyptian fashion, there are two districts within the Governorate with the same name: a kism/qasm and associated markiz; some 9 urban kisms of Giza Governorate form collectively a contiguous area of 98.4km2 directly opposite side of the Nile from Cairo, recorded a preliminary count of 4,146,340 in 2017 census count, not including the Al-Ḥawāmidiyah kism separated by Giza markiz. It's unclear. Notes:2018 CAPMAS projection based on 2017 revised census figures, may differ from 2017 census preliminary tabulations; the 9 kisms were reported as Giza city by CAPMAS in 2006 but given explosive growth definitions informal, may have change or may be set to change. Giza's most famous land form and archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, is home to the Great Sphinx.
Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern day Cairo. The Giza Plateau is home to Egyptian monuments such as the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty; the Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude. Giza experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate, its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 to 20 °C, while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C. In summer, the highs are 40 °C, the lows can drop to about 20 °C. Rain is infrequent in Giza. Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C on 8 January 1966.
Dokki District: 93,660 93,025 Agouza District: 174,460 162,851 Giza District: 180,568 246,325, Kism Al Jizah 238,567 248,897 Bulaq ad Dakrur: 453,884 564,791 Imbabah: 287,357 389,049, Kism Imbabah 523,265 597,160 Haram District: 200,076 295,704 Omrania Monib Kafr TuhurmusThe centre of the city is Giza Square. Faisal district The area in what is now Giza served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the 2nd millennium BC. Three of these tombs, in the form of giant pyramids, are what is now the famed Three Pyramids of Giza; as ancient Egypt passed under several conquests under the Persians, Greeks and Byzantines, so did the area in what is now Giza. A Byzantine village named Teresa, located south of Giza, existed before the Muslim conquest of the region. Native Egyptians called the area Tiperses, which may correspond to Persians, but the exact origin of this name remains unclear; as Muslims of the fledgling Islamic caliphate went on with their conquest of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire beginning in 639 AD, three years after their victory at the battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD, they conquered all of the land by the time they have captured the city of Alexandria in 641 AD.
A year in 642 AD, they founded the city of Giza. Its name, al-Jizzah in Arabic, means "the valley" or "the plateau", pertaining to the area's topography. Giza has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during the different occupations of Egypt by various rulers, including the British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the construction of roads and buildings in the area. Giza is a thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite populated, with many facilities and buildings in the current area. Giza saw much attention
Ancient Greek medicine
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were expanding through new ideologies and trials. Many components were considered in ancient Greek medicine, intertwining the spiritual with the physical; the ancient Greeks believed health was affected by the humors, geographic location, social class, trauma and mindset. Early on the ancient Greeks believed that illnesses were "divine punishments" and that healing was a "gift from the Gods"; as trials continued wherein theories were tested against symptoms and results, the pure spiritual beliefs regarding "punishments" and "gifts" were replaced with a foundation based in the physical, i.e. cause and effect. Humorism refers to blood, yellow bile and black bile, it was theorized that sex played a role in medicine because some diseases and treatments were different for females than for males. Moreover, geographic location and social class affected the living conditions of the people and might subject them to different environmental issues such as mosquitoes and availability of clean drinking water.
Diet was thought to be an issue as well and might be affected by a lack of access to adequate nourishment. Trauma, such as that suffered by gladiators, from dog bites or other injuries, played a role in theories relating to understanding anatomy and infections. Additionally, there was significant focus on the beliefs and mindset of the patient in the diagnosis and treatment theories, it was recognized that the mind played a role in healing, or that it might be the sole basis for the illness. Ancient Greek medicine began to revolve around the theory of humors; the humoral theory states that good health comes from a perfect balance of the four humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile. Poor health resulted from improper balance of the four humors. Hippocrates, known as the "Father of Modern Medicine", established a medical school at Cos and is the most important figure in ancient Greek medicine. Hippocrates and his students documented numerous illnesses in the Hippocratic Corpus, developed the Hippocratic Oath for physicians, still in use today.
The contributions to ancient Greek medicine of Hippocrates and others had a lasting influence on Islamic medicine and medieval European medicine until many of their findings became obsolete in the 14th century. The earliest known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in 700 BC. Alcmaeon, author of the first anatomical compilation, worked at this school, it was here that the practice of observing patients was established. Despite their known respect for Egyptian medicine, attempts to discern any particular influence on Greek practice at this early time have not been successful because of the lack of sources and the challenge of understanding ancient medical terminology, it is clear, that the Greeks imported Egyptian substances into their pharmacopoeia, the influence became more pronounced after the establishment of a school of Greek medicine in Alexandria. Asclepius was espoused as the first physician, myth placed him as the son of Apollo. Temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia, functioned as centers of medical advice and healing.
At these shrines, patients would enter a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" not unlike anesthesia, in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery. Asclepeia provided controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing; the Temple of Asclepius in Pergamum had a spring that flowed down into an underground room in the Temple. People would come to drink the waters and to bathe in them because they were believed to have medicinal properties. Mud baths and hot teas such as chamomile were used to calm them or peppermint tea to soothe their headaches, still a home remedy used by many today; the patients were encouraged to sleep in the facilities too. Their dreams were interpreted by the doctors and their symptoms were reviewed. Dogs would be brought in to lick open wounds for assistance in their healing. In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there.
Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium. The Rod of Asclepius is a universal symbol for medicine to this day. However, it is confused with Caduceus, a staff wielded by the god Hermes; the Rod of Asclepius embodies one snake with no wings whereas Caduceus is represented by two snakes and a pair of wings depicting the swiftness of Hermes. Ancient Greek physicians regarded disease as being of supernatural origin, brought about from the dissatisfaction of the gods or from demonic possession; the fault of the ailment was placed on the patient and the role of the physician was to conciliate with the gods or exorcise the demon with prayers and sacrifices. The Hippocratic Corpus opposes ancient beliefs, offering biologically based approaches to disease instead of magical intervention.
The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of about seventy early medical works from ancient Greece that are associated with Hippocrates and his students. Although once thought to have been written by Hippocrates himself, many scholars today believe that these texts were writ
An astronomical clock, horologium, or orloj is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, zodiacal constellations, sometimes major planets. The term is loosely used to refer to any clock that shows, in addition to the time of day, astronomical information; this could include the location of the sun and moon in the sky, the age and Lunar phases, the position of the sun on the ecliptic and the current zodiac sign, the sidereal time, other astronomical data such as the moon's nodes or a rotating star map. The term should not be confused with astronomical regulator, a high precision but otherwise ordinary pendulum clock used in observatories. Astronomical clocks represent the solar system using the geocentric model; the center of the dial is marked with a disc or sphere representing the earth, located at the center of the solar system. The sun is represented by a golden sphere, shown rotating around the earth once a day around a 24-hour analog dial.
This view accorded both with the daily experience and with the philosophical world view of pre-Copernican Europe. Research in 2011 and 2012 led an expert group of researchers to posit that European astronomical clocks are descended from the technology of the Antikythera mechanism. In the 11th century, the Song dynasty Chinese horologist, mechanical engineer, astronomer Su Song created a water-driven astronomical clock for his clock-tower of Kaifeng City. Su Song is noted for having incorporated an escapement mechanism and earliest known endless power-transmitting chain drive for his clock-tower and armillary sphere to function. Contemporary Muslim astronomers and engineers constructed a variety of accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories, such as the castle clock by Al-Jazari in 1206, the astrolabic clock by Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century; the early development of mechanical clocks in Europe is not understood, but there is general agreement that by 1300–1330 there existed mechanical clocks which were intended for two main purposes: for signalling and notification, for modelling the solar system.
The latter is an inevitable development, because the astrolabe was used both by astronomers and astrologers, it was natural to apply a clockwork drive to the rotating plate to produce a working model of the solar system. American historian Lynn White Jr. of Princeton University wrote: The astronomical clocks developed by the English mathematician and cleric Richard of Wallingford in St Albans during the 1330s, by medieval Italian physician and astronomer Giovanni de Dondi in Padua between 1348 and 1364 are masterpieces of their type. They no longer exist, but detailed descriptions of their design and construction survive, modern reproductions have been made. Wallingford's clock may have shown the sun, moon and planets, had, in addition, a wheel of fortune and an indicator of the state of the tide at London Bridge. De Dondi's clock was a seven-faced construction with 107 moving parts, showing the positions of the sun and five planets, as well as religious feast days. Both these clocks, others like them, were less accurate than their designers would have wished.
The gear ratios may have been exquisitely calculated, but their manufacture was somewhat beyond the mechanical abilities of the time, they never worked reliably. Furthermore, in contrast to the intricate advanced wheelwork, the timekeeping mechanism in nearly all these clocks until the 16th century was the simple verge and foliot escapement, which had errors of at least half an hour a day. Astronomical clocks were built as demonstration or exhibition pieces, to impress as much as to educate or inform; the challenge of building these masterpieces meant that clockmakers would continue to produce them, to demonstrate their technical skill and their patrons' wealth. The philosophical message of an ordered, heavenly-ordained universe, which accorded with the Gothic era view of the world, helps explain their popularity; the growing interest in astronomy during the 18th century revived interest in astronomical clocks, less for the philosophical message, more for the accurate astronomical information that pendulum-regulated clocks could display.
Le Gros Horloge in Rouen is one of the earliest known astronomical clocks. The clock is installed in a Renaissance arch crossing the Rue du Gros-Horloge; the mechanism is one of the oldest in France. Construction of the clock was started by Jourdain del Leche, who lacked the necessary expertise to finish the task, so the work was completed by Jean de Felain, who became the first to hold the position of governor of the clock; the clock was constructed without a dial, with one revolution of the hour-hand representing twenty-four hours. The movement is cast in wrought iron, at twice the size of the Wells Cathedral clock, it is the largest such mechanism still extant. A facade was added in 1529; the Renaissance facade represents a golden sun with 24 rays on a starry blue background. The dial measures 2.5 metres in diameter. The phases of the moon are shown in the oculus of the upper part of the dial, it completes a full rotation in 29 days. The week days are shown in an opening at the base of the dial with allegorical subjects for each day of the week.
The Science Museum has a scale model of the'Cosmic Engine', which Su Sung, a Chinese polymath, designed a
Astrology in medieval Islam
The medieval Muslims took a keen interest in the study of astrology: because they considered the celestial bodies to be essential because the dwellers of desert-regions travelled at night, relied upon knowledge of the constellations for guidance in their journeys. After the advent of Islam, the Muslims needed to determine the time of the prayers, the direction of the Kaaba, the correct orientation of the mosque, all of which helped give a religious impetus to the study of astronomy and contributed towards the belief that the heavenly bodies were influential upon terrestrial affairs as well as the human condition; the science dealing with such influences was termed astrology, a discipline contained within the field of astronomy. The principles of these studies were rooted in Arabian, Babylonian and Indian traditions and both were developed by the Arabs following their establishment of a magnificent observatory and library of astronomical and astrological texts at Baghdad in the 8th century.
Throughout the medieval period the practical application of astrology was subject to deep philosophical debate by Muslim religious scholars and scientists. Astrological prognostications required a fair amount of exact scientific expertise and the quest for such knowledge within this era helped to provide the incentive for the study and development of astronomy. Medieval Islamic astrology and astronomy continued Hellenistic and Roman era traditions based on Ptolemy's Almagest. Centres of learning in medicine and astronomy/astrology were set up in Baghdad and Damascus, the Caliph Al-Mansur of Baghdad established a major observatory and library in the city, making it the world's astronomical centre. During this time knowledge of astronomy was increased, the astrolabe was invented by Al Fazari. Many modern star names are derived from their Persian names. Albumasur or Abu Ma'shar was one of the most influential Islamic astrologers, his treatise Introductorium in Astronomiam spoke of how'"only by observing the great diversity of planetary motions can we comprehend the unnumbered varieties of change in this world".
The Introductorium was one of the first books to find its way in translation through Spain and into Europe in the Middle Ages, was influential in the revival of astrology and astronomy there. Persians combined the disciplines of medicine and astrology by linking the curative properties of herbs with specific zodiac signs and planets. Mars, for instance, was considered hot and dry and so ruled plants with a hot or pungent taste, like hellebore, tobacco or mustard; these beliefs were adopted by European herbalists like Culpeper right up until the development of modern medicine. The Persians developed a system, by which the difference between the ascendant and each planet of the zodiac was calculated; this new position became a'part' of some kind. For example, the'part of fortune' is found by taking the difference between the sun and the ascendant and adding it to the moon. If the'part' thus calculated was in the 10th House in Libra, for instance, it suggested that money could be made from some kind of partnership.
The calendar introduced by Omar Khayyám Neyshabouri, based on the classical zodiac, remains in effect in Afghanistan and Iran as the official Persian calendar. The Almagest, together with the original contributions of 9th to 10th century Persian astronomy such as the astrolabe, was introduced to Christian Europe beginning in the 11th century, by contact with Islamic Spain. Another notable Persian astrologer and astronomer was Qutb al-Din al Shirazi born in Shiraz, he wrote critiques of Ptolemy's Almagest and produced two prominent works on astronomy:'The Limit of Accomplishment Concerning Knowledge of the Heavens' in 1281 and'The Royal Present' in 1284, both of which commented upon and improved on Ptolemy's work in the field of planetary motion. Al-Shirazi was the first person to give the correct scientific explanation for the formation of a rainbow. Ulugh Beyg was a fifteenth-century Timurid Sultan and a mathematician and astronomer, he built an observatory in 1428 and produced the first original star map since Ptolemy, which corrected the position of many stars and included many new ones.
Some of the principles of astrology were refuted by several medieval Islamic astronomers such as Al-Farabi, Ibn al-Haytham, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were due to both scientific and religious reasons; however these refutations concerned the judicial branches of astrology rather than the natural principles of it. For example, Avicenna's refutation of astrology revealed support for its overarching principles, he stated that it was true that each planet had some influence on the earth, but his argument was the difficulty of astrologers being able to determine the exact effect of it. In essence, Avicenna did not refute astrology, but denied man’s limited capacity to be able to know the precise effects of the stars on the sublunar matter. With that, he did not refute the essential dogma of astrology, but only refuted our ability to understand it. Another Damascene scientist Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, in his Miftah Dar al-Sa'adah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute the judicial practice of astrology, most aligned to divination