Ann Shoemaker was an American actress who appeared in 70 films and TV movies between 1928 and 1976. She portrayed Sara Roosevelt, mother of Franklin D. Roosevelt, in both the stage and film versions of Sunrise at Campobello, she was married to actor Henry Stephenson. Shoemaker's Broadway credits include Half a Sixpence, Sunrise at Campobello, The Living Room, Twilight Walk, Dream Girl, Woman Bites Dog, The Rich Full Life, Proof Thro' the Night, Ah, Wilderness!, Black Sheep, The Silent Witness, The Novice and the Duke, Button, To-Night at 12, Speak Easy, We All Do, The Noose, The Great God Brown. Ann Shoemaker on IMDb Ann Shoemaker at the Internet Broadway Database Ann Shoemaker at Find a Grave
Harry Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist, short-story writer, playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters." His works are known for their insightful and critical views of American capitalism and materialism between the wars. He is respected for his strong characterizations of modern working women. H. L. Mencken wrote of him, " there was a novelist among us with an authentic call to the trade... it is this red-haired tornado from the Minnesota wilds." He has been honored by the U. S. Postal Service with a postage stamp in the Great Americans series. Born February 7, 1885, in the village of Sauk Centre, Sinclair Lewis began reading books at a young age and kept a diary, he had two siblings and Claude. His father, Edwin J. Lewis, was a physician and a stern disciplinarian who had difficulty relating to his sensitive, unathletic third son.
Lewis's mother, Emma Kermott Lewis, died in 1891. The following year, Edwin Lewis married Isabel Warner, whose company young Lewis enjoyed. Throughout his lonely boyhood, the ungainly Lewis—tall thin, stricken with acne and somewhat pop-eyed—had trouble gaining friends and pined after various local girls. At the age of 13 he unsuccessfully ran away from home, wanting to become a drummer boy in the Spanish–American War. In late 1902 Lewis left home for a year at Oberlin Academy to qualify for acceptance by Yale University. While at Oberlin, he developed a religious enthusiasm that waxed and waned for much of his remaining teenage years, he entered Yale in 1903 but did not receive his bachelor's degree until 1908, having taken time off to work at Helicon Home Colony, Upton Sinclair's cooperative-living colony in Englewood, New Jersey, to travel to Panama. Lewis's unprepossessing looks, "fresh" country manners and self-important loquacity made it difficult for him to win and keep friends at Oberlin and Yale.
He did initiate a few long-lived friendships among students and professors, some of whom recognized his promise as a writer. Lewis became an atheist. Lewis's earliest published creative work—romantic poetry and short sketches—appeared in the Yale Courant and the Yale Literary Magazine, of which he became an editor. After graduation Lewis moved from job to job and from place to place in an effort to make ends meet, write fiction for publication and to chase away boredom. While working for newspapers and publishing houses, he developed a facility for turning out shallow, popular stories that were purchased by a variety of magazines, he earned money by selling plots to Jack London, including one for the latter's unfinished novel The Assassination Bureau, Ltd. Lewis's first published book was Hike and the Aeroplane, a Tom Swift-style potboiler that appeared in 1912 under the pseudonym Tom Graham. Sinclair Lewis's first serious novel, Our Mr. Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man, appeared in 1914, followed by The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life and The Job.
That same year saw the publication of another potboiler, The Innocents: A Story for Lovers, an expanded version of a serial story that had appeared in Woman's Home Companion. Free Air, another refurbished serial story, was published in 1919. In 1914 Lewis married Grace Livingston Hegger, an editor at Vogue magazine, they had Wells Lewis, named after British author H. G. Wells. Serving as a U. S. Army lieutenant during World War II, Wells Lewis was killed in action on October 29 amid Allied efforts to rescue the "Lost Battalion" in France. Dean Acheson, the future Secretary of State, was a neighbor and family friend in Washington, observed that Sinclair's literary "success was not good for that marriage, or for either of the parties to it, or for Lewis's work" and the family moved out of town. Lewis divorced Grace in 1925. On May 14, 1928, he married a political newspaper columnist. In 1928, he and Dorothy purchased a second home in rural Vermont, they had a son, Michael Lewis, in 1930. Their marriage had ended by 1937, they divorced in 1942.
Michael Lewis became an actor, who suffered with alcoholism, died in 1975 of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Michael had two sons, John Paul and Gregory Claude, with wife Bernadette Nanse, a daughter, with wife Valerie Cardew. Upon moving to Washington, D. C. Lewis devoted himself to writing; as early as 1916, he began taking notes for a realistic novel about small-town life. Work on that novel continued through mid-1920, when he completed Main Street, published on October 23, 1920, his biographer Mark Schorer wrote that the phenomenal success of Main Street "was the most sensational event in twentieth-century American publishing history". Lewis's agent had the most optimistic projection of sales at 25,000 copies. In its first six months, Main Street sold 180,000 copies, within a few years, sales were estimated at two million. According to biographer Richard Lingeman, "Main Street made rich—earning him three million current dollars". Lewis followed up this first great success with Babbitt, a novel that satirized the American commercial culture and boosterism.
The story was set in the fictional Midwestern town of Zenith, Winnemac, a setting to which Lewis returned in future novels, including Gideon Planish and Dodsworth. Lewis continued his success in the 1920s with Arrowsmith, a novel about the chall
Pearl S. Buck
Pearl Sydenstricker Buck was an American writer and novelist. As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in China, her novel The Good Earth was the best-selling fiction book in the United States in 1931 and 1932 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for her rich and epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces", she was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. After returning to the United States in 1935, she continued writing prolifically, became a prominent advocate of the rights of women and minority groups, wrote on Chinese and Asian cultures, becoming well known for her efforts on behalf of Asian and mixed-race adoption. Named Comfort by her parents, Pearl Sydenstricker was born in Hillsboro, West Virginia, to Caroline Maude and Absalom Sydenstricker, her parents, Southern Presbyterian missionaries, traveled to China soon after their marriage on July 8, 1880, but returned to the United States for Pearl's birth.
When Pearl was five months old, the family arrived in China, first in Huai'an and in 1896 moved to Zhenjiang, near Nanking. Of her siblings who survived into adulthood, Edgar Sydenstricker had a distinguished career with the United States Public Health Service and the Milbank Memorial Fund and Grace Sydenstricker Yaukey was a writer who wrote young adult books and books about Asia under the pen name Cornelia Spencer, she recalled in her memoir that she lived in "several worlds", one a "small, clean Presbyterian world of my parents", the other the "big, loving merry not-too-clean Chinese world", there was no communication between them. The Boxer Uprising affected the family, her father, convinced that no Chinese could wish him harm, stayed behind as the rest of the family went to Shanghai for safety. A few years Pearl was enrolled in Miss Jewell's School there, was dismayed at the racist attitudes of the other students, few of whom could speak any Chinese. Both of her parents felt that Chinese were their equals, she was raised in a bilingual environment: tutored in English by her mother, in the local dialect by her Chinese playmates, in classical Chinese by a Chinese scholar named Mr. Kung.
She read voraciously in spite of her father's disapproval, the novels of Charles Dickens, which she said she read through once a year for the rest of her life. In 1911, Pearl left China to attend Randolph-Macon Woman's College in Lynchburg, Virginia, in the United States, graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1914 and a member of Kappa Delta Sorority. Although she had not intended to return to China, much less become a missionary, she applied to the Presbyterian Board when her father wrote that her mother was ill. From 1914 to 1932, she served as a Presbyterian missionary, but her views became controversial during the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, leading to her resignation. In 1914, Pearl returned to China, she married an agricultural economist missionary, John Lossing Buck, on May 30, 1917, they moved to Suzhou, Anhui Province, a small town on the Huai River. This region she describes in her books Sons. From 1920 to 1933, the Bucks made their home in Nanjing, on the campus of the University of Nanking, where they both had teaching positions.
She taught English literature at the private, church-run University of Nanking, Ginling College and at the National Central University. In 1920, the Bucks had a daughter, afflicted with phenylketonuria. In 1921, Buck's mother died of a tropical disease and shortly afterward her father moved in. In 1924, they left China for John Buck's year of sabbatical and returned to the United States for a short time, during which Pearl Buck earned her master's degree from Cornell University. In 1925, the Bucks adopted Janice; that autumn, they returned to China. The tragedies and dislocations that Buck suffered in the 1920s reached a climax in March 1927, during the "Nanking Incident". In a confused battle involving elements of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist troops, Communist forces, assorted warlords, several Westerners were murdered. Since her father Absalom insisted, as he had in 1900 in the face of the Boxers, the family decided to stay in Nanjing until the battle reached the city; when violence broke out, a poor Chinese family invited them to hide in their hut while the family house was looted.
The family spent a day terrified and in hiding. They traveled to Shanghai and sailed to Japan, where they stayed for a year, after which they moved back to Nanjing. Buck said that this year in Japan showed her that not all Japanese were militarists; when she returned from Japan in late 1927, Buck devoted herself in earnest to the vocation of writing. Friendly relations with prominent Chinese writers of the time, such as Xu Zhimo and Lin Yutang, encouraged her to think of herself as a professional writer, she wanted to fulfill the ambitions denied to her mother, but she needed money to support herself if she left her marriage, which had become lonely, since the mission board could not provide it, she needed money for Carol's specialized care. Buck went once more to the States in 1929 to find long-term care for Carol, while
One of Ours
One of Ours is a novel by Willa Cather that won the 1923 Pulitzer Prize for the Novel. It tells the story of the life of Claude Wheeler, a Nebraska native around the turn of the 20th century; the son of a successful farmer and an intensely pious mother, he is guaranteed a comfortable livelihood. Wheeler views himself as a victim of his father's success and his own inexplicable malaise. Cather's cousin Grosvenor was born and raised on the farm that adjoined her own family's, she combined parts of her own personality with Grosvenor's in the character of Claude. Cather explained in a letter to Dorothy Canfield Fisher: We were much alike, different, he could never escape from the misery of being himself, except in action, whatever he put his hand to turned out either ugly or ridiculous.... I was staying on his father's farm. We spent the first week hauling wheat to town. On those long rides on the wheat, we talked for the first time in years, I saw some of the things that were in the back of his mind....
I had no more thought of writing a story about him than of writing about my own nose. It was all too painfully familiar, it was just to escape from his kind that I wrote at all. Grosvenor was killed in 1918 in France. Cather learned of his death, she wrote: From that on, he was in my mind. The too-personal-ness, the embarrassment of kinship, was gone, but he was in my mind so much that I couldn't get through him to other things... some of me was buried with him in France, some of him was left alive in me. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and a Silver Star citation for bravery under fire, of which Cather wrote: That anything so glorious could have happened to anyone so disinherited of hope. Timidly, angrily, he used to ask me about the geography of France on the wheat wagon. Well, he learned it, you see. Cather was unhappy that the novel "will be classed as a war story", not her intention, she departed from her previous practice of writing about the western life she knew well to write this story set in military life and overseas only because "it stood between me and anything else."Cather was working on the novel during a visit to Canada in the summer of 1919 and finished it in Toronto in 1921.
She used her cousin's letters and those of David Hochstein, a New York violinist who served as the model for Claude's wartime friend David Gerhardt. She interviewed veterans and wounded soldiers in hospitals, focusing on the experience of rural Nebraskans she profiled in a magazine article, "Roll Call on the Prairie", she visited the French battlefields as well. While attending Temple College, Claude tried to convince his parents that attending the State University would give him a better education, his parents ignore his pleas and Claude continues at the Christian college. After a football game, Claude meets and befriends the Erlich family adapting his own world perception to the Erlichs' love of music, free-thinking, debate, his career at university and his friendship with the Erlichs are interrupted, when his father expands the family farm and Claude is obligated to leave university and operate part of the family farm. Once pinned to the farm, Claude marries a childhood friend, his notions of love and marriage are devastated when it becomes apparent that Enid is more interested in political activism and Christian missionary work than she is in loving and caring for Claude.
When Enid departs for China to care for her missionary sister, who has fallen ill, Claude moves back to his family's farm. As World War I begins in Europe, the family is fixated on every development from overseas; when the United States decides to enter the war, Claude enlists in the US Army. Believing he has found a purpose in life - beyond the drudgery of farming and marriage - Claude revels in his freedom and new responsibilities. Despite an influenza epidemic and the continuing hardships of the battlefield, Claude Wheeler nonetheless has never felt as though he has mattered more, his pursuit of vague notions of purpose and principle culminates in a ferocious front-line encounter with an overwhelming German onslaught. The novel is divided into two parts: the first half in Nebraska, where Claude Wheeler struggles to find his life's purpose and is left disappointed, the second in France, where his pursuit of purpose is vindicated. A romantic unfulfilled by marriage and an idealist without an ideal to cling to, Wheeler fulfills his romantic idealism on the brutal battlefields of 1918 France.
One of Ours is a portrait of a peculiarly American personality, a young man born after the American frontier has vanished, whose quintessentially American restlessness seeks redemption on a frontier far bloodier and more distant than that which his forefathers tamed. Sinclair Lewis praised the Nebraska portion of the work—"truth does guide the first part of the book"—but wrote that in the second half Cather had produced a "romance of violinists gallantly turned soldiers, of self-sacrificing sergeants, sallies at midnight, all the commonplaces of ordinary war novels". H. L. Mencken, who had praised her earlier work, wrote that in depicting the war Cather's effort "drops precipitately to the level of a serial in The Lady's Home Journal...fought out not in France, but on a Hollywood movie-lot." Ernest Hemingway thought it overrated despite its sales and in a letter to Edmund Wilson made an observation that a critic has called "blatantly chauvinistic": "Wasn't that last scene in the lines wonderful?
Do you know where it came from? The battle scene in Birth of a Nation. I identified episode after Catherized. Poor woman, she had to get her war experience so
Arrowsmith is a novel by American author Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1925. It won the 1926 Pulitzer Prize. Lewis was assisted in its preparation by science writer Paul de Kruif, who received 25% of the royalties on sales, although Lewis was listed as the sole author. Arrowsmith is an early major novel dealing with the culture of science, it was written in the period after the reforms of medical education flowing from the Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1910, which had called on medical schools in the United States to adhere to mainstream science in their teaching and research. Arrowsmith tells the story of bright and scientifically minded Martin Arrowsmith as he makes his way from a small town in the Midwest to the upper echelons of the scientific community. Along the way he experiences medical school, he becomes engaged to one woman, cheats on her with another woman, becomes engaged to the second woman and finally invites both women to a lunch to settle the issue.
He insults his mentor, Max Gottlieb, is suspended from medical school. He takes up life as an ordinary worker marries Leora with her family supporting him based on the promise that he would take up private practice as the only doctor in tiny Wheatsylvania, North Dakota. Frustrated with private practice, he becomes a public health official in Iowa and becomes romantically involved with the young daughter of the public health director. After a series of political disputes, he resigns and joins the staff of an exclusive private hospital in Chicago. Arrowsmith is recognized by his former medical school mentor, Max Gottlieb, for a scientific paper he has written and is invited to take a post with a prestigious research institute in New York; the book's climax deals with Arrowsmith's discovery of a phage that destroys bacteria and his experiences as he faces an outbreak of bubonic plague on a fictional Caribbean island. His scientific principles demand. Rigorous scientific understanding of the phage is more important than any lives on the Island lost due to lack of treatment.
After his wife and all the other people who came with him from the institute to the island die of plague, he reluctantly abandons rigorous science and begins to treat everyone on the island with the phage. While on the island, he becomes romantically involved with a wealthy socialite whom he marries, he considers his actions on the island to have been a complete betrayal of science and his principles. After his return to New York, he is treated as a public hero for his actions on the island, he is first promoted within the lab and offered the directorship of the entire institute. He turns down the promotion, he abandons his new wife and infant son to work in the backwoods of Vermont as an independent scientist. When his wife offers to move to Vermont to be close to him, he tells her that he wants nothing to do with her and she should just go away; the book contains considerable social commentary on the state and prospects of medicine in the United States in the 1920s. Arrowsmith is a progressive something of a rebel, challenges the existing state of things when he finds it wanting.
This novel has been inspirational for several generations of medical students. There is much agonizing along the way concerning life decisions. While detailing Arrowsmith's pursuit of the noble ideals of medical research for the benefit of mankind and of selfless devotion to the care of patients, Lewis throws many less noble temptations and self-deceptions in Arrowsmith's path; the attractions of financial security, recognition wealth and power distract Arrowsmith from his original plan to follow in the footsteps of his first mentor, Max Gottlieb, a brilliant but abrasive bacteriologist. In the course of the novel Lewis describes many aspects of medical training, medical practice, scientific research, scientific fraud, medical ethics, public health, of personal/professional conflicts that are still relevant today. Professional jealousy, institutional pressures, greed and negligence are all satirically depicted, Arrowsmith himself is exasperatingly self-involved, but there is tireless dedication, respect for the scientific method and intellectual honesty.
Martin Arrowsmith shares some biographical elements with Félix d'Herelle, identified in the novel as a co-discoverer of the bacteriophage and represented as having beaten Arrowsmith into publication with his results. Because of the detailed and gripping portrayal of experimental laboratory research as a practice, a profession, an ideology, a worldview, a “prominent strand in modern culture, a way of life”, Arrowsmith is acknowledged as a classic'science novel', focusing on moral dilemmas bio-medical researchers may encounter Arrowsmith has been compared with The Citadel by A. J. Cronin, which deals with the life experiences of a young idealistic doctor who tries to challenge and improve the existing system of medical practice. De Kruif drew inspiration for characters in Arrowsmith from specific sources; the labwork and experimental process of Max Gottlieb was based on the careers of Frederick George Novy and Jacques Loeb. Loeb and De Kruif both worked at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York and Novy was De Kruif's longtime mentor.
A writer in Public Health Reports commented in 2001 that the novel predicted many of the successes and problems affecting today's medical profession, such as the c
Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary is a 1928 novel by Julia Peterkin. It won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1929; the book was banned at the public library in Gaffney, South Carolina. The Gaffney Ledger newspaper, serially published the complete book. Dr. Richard S. Burton, the chairperson of Pulitzer's fiction-literature jury, recommended that the first prize go to the novel Victim and Victor by John Rathbone Oliver, his nomination was superseded by the School of Journalism's choice of Peterkin's book. Evidently in protest, Burton resigned from the jury. Ethel Barrymore had the dramatic rights to the novel, in 1930 starred on Broadway in a blackface performance, whose cast included Estelle Winwood and Barrymore's teenaged daughter, Ethel Barrymore Colt, in her stage debut. Scarlet Sister Mary is set among the Gullah people of the Low Country in South Carolina; the date is never established, but appears to be around the beginning of the twentieth century. The title character, was an orphan on an abandoned plantation, raised by Auntie Maum Hannah and her crippled son Budda Ben.
The description of Mary as "Scarlet Sister" reflects the basic conflict in the novel as Mary is torn between her desire to be a member in good standing in the church and a desire to live a life of sin and pleasure. "Burton Quits Jury on Pulitzer Award", The New York Times, May 17, 1929, p. 12. Scarlet Sister Mary, Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1928, First Edition of Scarlet Sister Mary "The Press: Scarlet in South Carolina", June 10, 1929
His Family is a novel by Ernest Poole published in 1917 about the life of a New York widower and his three daughters in the 1910s. It received the first Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1918, his Family tells the story of a middle-class family in New York City in the 1910s. The family's patriarch, widower Roger Gale, struggles to deal with the way his daughters and grandchildren respond to the changing society; each of his daughters responds in a distinctively different way to the circumstances of their lives, forcing Roger into attempting to calm the challenging family disputes that erupt. The story begins in the spring of 1913 with Roger Gale, a New York businessman and a widower, owner of a media monitoring service, reflecting on the changes that have come to New York since his arrival in the city as a young man from a New Hampshire farm somewhere near the time of the Civil War, he is driven by his wife's dying request to remain close to their three daughters, yet he feels distant from them—this despite the fact that the younger two live in the family home with him, Edith, married with four children, visits him regularly.
The early conflicts within the family surround Laura's sudden announcement of her engagement to Hal Sloane, a young businessman, unknown to the family, Edith's pregnancy, as her fifth child arrives weeks before his due date, endangering her life. After the baby's birth and Laura's wedding, Roger's concerns turn to the one daughter remaining at home. Deborah works at her school, spends her free hours agitating for reforms and financial support to help the families living in the tenements. Roger is disturbed by this given his prejudices against the immigrant families Deborah works with, but a visit to Deborah's school changes his perspective, he takes a crippled Irish boy named John into his care, providing him with lodging and a job in Roger's news clipping office downtown. When summer arrives, the family goes to spend most of it on the old family farm in New Hampshire. At the farm, Edith's oldest son, George, is happiest, pursuing his interest in becoming a farmer someday; that following winter, Roger becomes concerned about his daughter, whose suitor Allan Baird, a doctor and friend of the family, seems to be giving up hope of marriage.
Roger conspires with his daughter Edith and her husband Bruce to pressure Deborah, she accepts Allan's proposal. Before the date of the wedding is reached, Bruce is struck by a taxi while standing next to his car in the street. After his death and her children are forced to return to the family home, until Roger arranges for their return to New Hampshire and the family farm. Deborah's wedding to Allan is delayed as a consequence—she asks him to wait until August; the end of July, brings the onset of World War I, Roger's business loses many of its clients. As a result, he can afford to support the family, taking out a mortgage on the home to make ends meet, Deborah chooses to delay her wedding again until the spring. Given the family's financial straits, Edith's children have to be removed from their expensive private school and tutored from home by Edith herself. After weeks of this, Edith resolves to sell most of her possessions, use the money for the children's school tuition. Edith discovers that John, the Irish boy living in the home, has tuberculosis and orders Roger to send him away, which Deborah arranges for her father.
Laura, absent from family affairs, returns to the house, arriving with luggage and refusing to see anyone but her sister, Deborah. Her husband, Hal Sloane, has made a large amount of money through war profiteering, but she has fallen in love with his business partner, an Italian, Hal intends to divorce her, publicly or as a detective has brought him "proofs" that Laura has been unfaithful to him. Roger, who resists the divorce, relents when he learns of his daughter's indiscretions, she elopes with her lover soon thereafter; as their money troubles worsen, Roger is forced to sell his antique ring collection to cover the family's bills, tensions increase between Deborah and Edith over money: Deborah raises large amounts of money for "her family" of tenement schoolchildren, Edith feels it's wrong of her not to devote her energies to the care of her niece and nephews. Edith is very hostile to Deborah's "modern" ideas about women's suffrage, the resulting arguments are stressful on Roger; when Roger learns that Deborah has ended her engagement to Allan Baird, he intervenes, informing her that he is fatally ill, pleading with her to make a life for herself beyond her school.
He intends to sell the family home, use most of the funds to set up the family farm in New Hampshire so that George can become a farmer and support his mother and siblings, prepare for death. After she agrees to marry Allan, Roger finds good fortune at last: John, the Irish boy who works for him, discovers a new source of clients and saves the business. Roger lives out the end of his days watching Deborah and Allan settle down together and have their first child. John, who a doctor had said would never live past 30, falls ill and passes away and soon thereafter, Roger falls ill for the final time himself. All of his daughters return to him to make their peace (even Laura, whose new husband allows her to find and reacquire Roger's prized collection of