Alice B. Toklas

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Alice B. Toklas
Alice B. Toklas, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1949
Alice B. Toklas, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1949
Born Alice Babette Toklas
(1877-04-30)April 30, 1877
San Francisco, California
Died March 7, 1967(1967-03-07) (aged 89)
Paris, France
Resting place Père Lachaise Cemetery[1]
Nationality American
Education University of Washington
Occupation Avant-garde
Partner(s) Gertrude Stein (1907-1946)

Alice B. Toklas (April 30, 1877 – March 7, 1967) was an American-born member of the Parisian avant-garde of the early 20th century, and the life partner of American writer Gertrude Stein.

Early life[edit]

Born Alice Babette Toklas in San Francisco, California, into a middle-class Polish Jewish family. Her father had been a Polish army[which?]officer[which?]),[2] she attended schools in both San Francisco and Seattle[which?], and for a short time studied music at the University of Washington.

Relationship with Gertrude Stein[edit]

Toklas met Gertrude Stein in Paris on September 8, 1907, the day she arrived there from San Francisco after the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Together they hosted a salon in the home they shared that attracted expatriate American writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, Paul Bowles, Thornton Wilder, and Sherwood Anderson; and avant-garde painters, including Picasso, Matisse, and Braque.

Acting as Stein's confidante, lover, cook, secretary, muse, editor, critic, and general organizer, Toklas remained a background figure, chiefly living in the shadow of Stein, until the publication by Stein of Toklas' "memoirs" in 1933 under the teasing title The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. It became Stein's best-selling book.[3]

W. G. Rogers wrote in his memoir of the couple, published in 1946, that Toklas "was a little stooped, somewhat retiring and self-effacing, she doesn't sit in a chair, she hides in it; she doesn't look at you, but up at you; she is always standing just half a step outside the circle. She gives the appearance, in short, not of a drudge, but of a poor relation, someone invited to the wedding but not to the wedding feast."[4] James Merrill wrote that before meeting Toklas "one knew about the tiny stature, the sandals, the mustache, the eyes," but he had not anticipated "the enchantment of her speaking voice—like a viola at dusk."[2]

Toklas and Stein remained a couple until Stein's death in 1946.[5]

Later life, after Stein's death[edit]

Although Gertrude Stein willed much of her estate to Toklas, including their shared art collection (some of them Picassos) housed in their apartment at 5, rue Christine, the couple's relationship had no legal recognition. As many of the paintings appreciated greatly in value, Stein's relatives took action to claim them, eventually removing them from Toklas's residence and placing them in a bank vault while she was away on vacation. Toklas then relied on contributions from friends as well as her writing to make a living.[6]

In 1954 Toklas published The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook, a book that mixes reminiscences and recipes. The most famous recipe, contributed by her friend Brion Gysin, is for "Haschich Fudge", a mixture of fruit, nuts, spices, and "canibus sativa" [sic] or marijuana. Her name was later lent to the range of cannabis concoctions called "Alice B. Toklas brownies" (despite the fact that the "Haschich Fudge" recipe did not originate with Toklas, nor is there any record that she ever made it herself), the cookbook has been translated into numerous languages. A second cookbook followed in 1958, Aromas and Flavors of Past and Present. However, Toklas did not approve of it, as it was heavily annotated by Poppy Cannon, an editor at House Beautiful magazine. Toklas also wrote articles for several magazines and newspapers, including The New Republic and the New York Times.

In 1963 Toklas published her autobiography What Is Remembered, which ends abruptly with the death of Gertrude Stein.

Toklas's later years were very difficult because of poor health and financial problems, she became a Roman Catholic in old age. She died in poverty at the age of 89, and is buried next to Stein in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France;[7] her name is engraved on the back of Stein's headstone.[8]


I Love You, Alice B. Toklas, a movie starring Peter Sellers that was released in 1968, is named for Toklas's cannabis brownies, which play a significant role in the plot.

The Alice B. Toklas LGBT Democratic Club is a political organization founded in San Francisco in 1971.

Samuel Steward, who met Toklas and Stein in the 1930s, edited Dear Sammy: Letters from Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas (1977), and also wrote two mystery novels featuring Stein and Toklas as characters: Murder Is Murder Is Murder (1985) and The Caravaggio Shawl (1989).

The San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted in 1989 to rename a block of Myrtle Street between Polk Street and Van Ness Avenue in San Francisco as Alice B. Toklas Place, since Toklas was born one block away on O'Farrell Street.[9][10]


  1. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 44876-44877). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
  2. ^ a b Merrill, James. A Different Person: A Memoir, New York: Alfred P. Knopf, 1993, p. 75.
  3. ^ Souhami, Diana - Gertrude and Alice: Gertrude Stein and Alice B.Toklas, London: Pandora, 1991. ISBN 978-0044408338
  4. ^ Rogers, W. G. When This You See Remember Me: GERTRUDE STEIN in Person, New York: Rinehart & Co., 1946.
  5. ^ "Alice B. Toklas Life Stories, Books, & Links". Archived from the original on 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  6. ^ Wagner-Martin, Linda - Favored Strangers: Gertrude Stein and Her Family, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995, p. 269.
  7. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 44876-44877). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  8. ^ Linzie, Anna (2006), The True Story of Alice B. Toklas: A Study of Three Autobiographies, University of Iowa Press, ISBN 978-0-87745-985-9 
  9. ^ Herscher, Elaine (1998-07-01), "Paving the Way for Gays: S.F. may name street for lesbian Alice B. Toklas", San Francisco Chronicle, retrieved 2009-11-08 
  10. ^ "Board of Supervisors : September 22, 1998". City and County of San Francisco. 1998-09-22. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Simon, Linda. The Biography of Alice B. Toklas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0803292031
  • Souhami, Diana. Gertrude and Alice. London: Pandora, 1991. ISBN 978-0044408338
  • Stendhal, Renate (ed.). Gertrude Stein In Words and Pictures: A Photobiography. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1989. ISBN 0-945575-99-8; ISBN 978-0-945575-99-3

External links[edit]