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Alicia Keys

Alicia Augello-Cook Dean, known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American musician, singer and actress. A classically-trained pianist, Keys was composing songs by age 12 and was signed at 15 years old by Columbia Records. After disputes with the label, she signed with Arista Records, released her debut album, Songs in A Minor, with J Records in 2001; the album was critically and commercially successful, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "Fallin'" and selling over 16 million copies worldwide. The album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002, her second album, The Diary of Alicia Keys, was a critical and commercial success, spawning successful singles "You Don't Know My Name", "If I Ain't Got You", "Diary", selling eight million copies worldwide. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards, her duet "My Boo" with Usher became her second number-one single in 2004. Keys released her first live album and became the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one.

Alicia Keys was given the honor of hosting the Grammys two times in a row. Her third album, As I Am, produced the Hot 100 number-one single "No One", selling 7 million copies worldwide and earning an additional three Grammy Awards. In 2007, Keys made her film debut in the action-thriller film Smokin' Aces. She, along with Jack White, recorded "Another Way to Die", her fourth album, The Element of Freedom, became her first chart-topping album in the UK, sold 4 million copies worldwide. In 2009, Keys collaborated with Jay Z on "Empire State of Mind", which became her fourth number-one single and won the Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Girl on Fire was her fifth Billboard 200 topping album, spawning the successful title track, won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album. In 2013, VH1 Storytellers was released as her second live album, her sixth studio album, became her seventh US R&B/Hip-Hop chart topping album. Keys has received numerous accolades in her career, including 15 competitive Grammy Awards, 17 NAACP Image Awards, 12 ASCAP Awards, an award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame and National Music Publishers Association.

She has sold over 65 million records worldwide. Considered a musical icon, Keys was named by Billboard the top R&B artist of the 2000s decade and placed number 10 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years. VH1 included her on their 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and 100 Greatest Women in Music lists, while Time has named her in their 100 list of most influential people in 2005 and 2017. Keys is acclaimed for her humanitarian work and activism, she co-founded and is the Global Ambassador of the nonprofit HIV/AIDS-fighting organization Keep a Child Alive. Alicia Augello Cook was born on January 25, 1981, in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City's Manhattan borough, she is the only child of Teresa, a paralegal and part-time actress, one of three children of Craig Cook, a flight attendant. Keys' father is of Jamaican descent and her mother is of Italian descent. Keys states she has some Scottish or Irish ancestry. Named after her Puerto Rican godmother, Keys expressed that she was comfortable with her multiracial heritage because she felt she was able to "relate to different cultures".

Keys' father left when she was two and she was subsequently raised by her mother during her formative years in Hell's Kitchen. Keys said her parents never had a relationship, her father was not in her life. Although she did not like to speak about her father in order to not feed stereotypes, Keys remarked in 2001: "I'm not in contact with him. That's fine; when I was younger, I minded about that. Made me angry, but it helped show me what a strong woman my mother was, made me want to be strong like her. It was better for me this way." Keys and her mother lived in a one-room apartment. Her mother worked three jobs to provide for Keys, who "learned how to survive" from her mother's example of tenacity and self-reliance. From a young age, Alicia struggled with self-esteem issues, "hiding" little by little when her differences made her vulnerable to judgement, uninvited sexual attention. Living in the rough neighborhood of Hell's Kitchen, she was, from an early age exposed to street violence, drugs and subjected to sexual propositions in the sex trade- and crime-riddled area.

"I saw a variety of people growing up, lifestyles and highs. I think it makes you realise right away what you want and what you don't want", Keys said. Keys recalled feeling fearful early on of the "animal instinct" she witnessed, feeling "high" due to recurrent harassment, her experiences in the streets had led her to carry a homemade knife for protection. She became wary guarded, she began wearing gender-neutral clothing and what would become her trademark cornrows. Keys explained that she is grateful for growing up where she did as it prepared her for the parallels in the music industry as she was a teenager starting out, she credits her "tough" mother for anchoring her on a right path as opposed to many people she knew who ended up on the wrong path and in jail. Keys attributed her unusual maturity as a young girl to her mother, who depended on her to be responsible while she worked to provide for them and give Keys as many opportunities as possible. Keys loved singing from early childhood.

She recalled her mother playing jazz records of artists lik

Rudolf van Diepholt

Rudolf van Diepholt or Rudolf of Diepholz was a bishop of Utrecht from 1423 to 1455 and bishop of Osnabrück from 1454 to 1455. Rudolf van Diepholt was one of the most influential Prince-Bishops of Utrecht in the late Middle Ages. Rudolf was the son of Johann III, Lord of Diepholz, Countess Kunigunde von Oldenburg. Before his appointment as bishop, Rudolf van Diepholt was Canon in Cologne. After the death of Frederick of Blankenheim in 1423, Rudolf was elected bishop by the chapters thanks to support from the towns and nobles. Utrecht was divided by a factional struggle between the Lokhorsten. Rudolf was a candidate of the Lichtenbergers, the Lokhorsten refused to cease the support of their candidate Zweder van Culemborg. Pope Martin V attempted to resolve the conflict on 7 June 1424, by appointed his own favourite. Rhabanus did not want the appointment, withdrew, at which the pope appointed Zweder on 6 February 1425 as bishop of Utrecht; this period is called the Utrecht Schism. Zweder used violence to gain control of the bishopric, but he was driven out of the city in 1426 by the Lichtenbergers.

Rudolf was excommunicated by the pope, but he managed to maintain himself though Zweder was supported by the duke of Guelders and duke Philip the Good count of Holland. Rudolf, was able to sign agreements with both neighbouring rulers; when Martin V's successor, pope Eugene IV recognised Rudolf as bishop on 10 December 1432, Rudolf was able to make his official entrance as bishop in 1433. Zweder van Culemborg died the same year, but his claim was picked up by Walraven van Meurs, supported by the Council of Basel. Walraven retracted his claim in 1448, ending the Utrecht Schism. Rudolf was now universally recognised, but in the same year he was driven out of the city by his subjects, who were unhappy with his tax-policies. In 1449 Rudolf violently returned, he held his position until his death in 1455; when Hendrik van Meurs, bishop of Osnabruck died in 1450, Rudolf involved himself in a succession struggle, the Münster Diocesan Feud, that lasted for years. Rudolf attempted to put his nephew Conrad of Diepholz, provost at Osnabrück, on the ecclesiastical seat.

But in 1454 Rudolf dealt a heavy blow to his opponents, after which he became bishop of Osnabrück himself. After his death his nephew succeeded him as bishop of Osnabrück. Rudolf van Diepholt advanced the construction of the Dom Church, he was interred in a chapel that carries his name. Herman Selderhuis. Handbook of Dutch Church History. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Pp. 108–. ISBN 978-3-525-55787-7. Richard Vaughan. Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy. Boydell Press. Pp. 227–. ISBN 978-0-85115-917-1

Amniotic fluid embolism

An amniotic fluid embolism is a uncommon childbirth emergency in which amniotic fluid enters the blood stream of the mother to trigger a serious reaction. This reaction results in cardiorespiratory collapse and massive bleeding; the rate at which it occurs is 1 instance per 20,000 births and it comprises 10% of all maternal deaths. Amniotic fluid embolism is suspected when a woman giving birth experiences sudden insufficient oxygen to body tissues, low blood pressure, profuse bleeding due to defects in blood coagulation. Though symptoms and signs can be profound, they can be absent. There is much variation in. AFE is rare and complex; the disorder occurs during the last stages of labor when amniotic fluid enters the circulatory system of the mother via tears in the placental membrane or uterine vein rupture. Upon analysis, fetal cells are found in the maternal circulation; when the fetal cells and amniotic fluid enter the bloodstream, reactions occur that cause severe changes in the mechanisms that affect blood clotting.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation results in serious bleeding. The condition can develop after elective abortion, cesarean delivery or trauma. Small lacerations in the lower reproductive tract are associated with AFE. According to one study, induction of labor may double the risk of AFE. However, other studies have refuted this claim. A maternal age of 35 years or older is associated with AFE. AFE is diagnosed; the presence of fetal squamous cells or other fetal tissues, including meconium, have been found in the maternal circulation after the event. Diagnosis is based upon the signs and symptoms observed during the birth or procedures. Treatment is supportive. Since the circumstances that lead to this complication are difficult to influence, treatment to resolve the symptoms and deteriorating vascular conditions can improve outcomes. Amniotic fluid embolism is uncommon and the rate at which it occurs is 1 instance per 20,000 births. Though rare, it comprises 10% of all maternal deaths; this rare complication has been recorded seventeen times prior to 1950.

It was first described in Brazil in the 1920s