Alizarin is an organic compound with formula C14H8O4, used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics. It was derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. In 1869, it became the first natural dye to be produced synthetically. Alizarin is the main ingredient for the manufacture of the madder lake pigments known to painters as Rose madder and Alizarin crimson. Alizarin in the most common usage of the term has a deep red color, but the term is part of the name for several related non-red dyes, such as Alizarine Cyanine Green and Alizarine Brilliant Blue. A notable use of alizarin in modern times is as a staining agent in biological research because it stains free calcium and certain calcium compounds a red or light purple color. Alizarin continues to be used commercially as a red textile dye, but to a lesser extent than in the past. Madder has been cultivated as a dyestuff since antiquity in central Asia and Egypt, where it was grown as early as 1500 BC.
Cloth dyed with madder root pigment was found in the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun and in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Corinth. In the Middle Ages, Charlemagne encouraged madder cultivation. Madder was used as a dye in Western Europe in the Late Medieval centuries. In 17th century England, alizarin was used as a red dye for the clothing of the parliamentary New Model Army; the distinctive red color would continue to be worn for centuries, giving English and British soldiers the nickname of "redcoats". The madder dyestuff is combined with a dye mordant. According to which mordant used, the resulting color may be anywhere from pink through purple to dark brown. In the 18th century the most valued color was a bright red known as "Turkey Red"; the combination of mordants and overall technique used to obtain the Turkey Red originated in the Middle East or Turkey. It was a complex and multi-step technique in its Middle Eastern formulation, some parts of which were unnecessary; the process was simplified in late 18th-century Europe.
By 1804, a dye maker George Field in Britain had refined a technique to make lake madder by treating it with alum, an alkali, that converts the water-soluble madder extract into a solid, insoluble pigment. This resulting madder lake has a longer-lasting color, can be used more efficaciously, for example by blending it into a paint. Over the following years, it was found that other metal salts, including those containing iron and chromium, could be used in place of alum to give madder-based pigments of various other colors; this general method of preparing lakes has been known for centuries but was simplified in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1826, the French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet found that madder root contained two colorants, the red alizarin and the more fading purpurin; the alizarin component became the first natural dye to be synthetically duplicated in 1868 when the German chemists Carl Graebe and Carl Liebermann, working for BASF, found a way to produce it from anthracene.
About the same time, the English dye chemist William Henry Perkin independently discovered the same synthesis, although the BASF group filed their patent before Perkin by one day. The subsequent discovery that anthracene could be abstracted from coal tar further advanced the importance and affordability of alizarin's artificial synthesis; the synthetic alizarin could be produced for a fraction of the cost of the natural product, the market for madder collapsed overnight. The principal synthesis entailed oxidation of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid with sodium nitrate in concentrated sodium hydroxide. Alizarin itself has been in turn replaced today by the more light-resistant quinacridone pigments developed at DuPont in 1958. Alizarin is one of ten dihydroxyanthraquinone isomers, it is soluble in hexane and chloroform, can be obtained from the latter as red-purple crystals, melting point 277–278 °C. Alizarin changes color depending on the pH of the solution it is in, thereby making it a pH indicator.
Alizarin Red is used in a biochemical assay to determine, quantitatively by colorimetry, the presence of calcific deposition by cells of an osteogenic lineage. As such it is an early stage marker of matrix mineralization, a crucial step towards the formation of calcified extracellular matrix associated with true bone. Alizarin's abilities as a biological stain were first noted in 1567, when it was observed that when fed to animals, it stained their teeth and bones red; the chemical is now used in medical studies involving calcium. Free calcium forms precipitates with alizarin, tissue block containing calcium stain red when immersed in alizarin. Thus, both pure calcium and calcium in bones and other tissues can be stained; these alizarin-stained elements can be better visualized under fluorescent lights, excited by 440–460 nm. The process of staining calcium with alizarin works best. In clinical practice, it is used to stain synovial fluid to assess for basic calcium phosphate crystals. Alizarin has been used in studies involving bone growth, bone marrow, calcium deposits in the vascular system, cellular signaling, gene expression, tissue engineering, mesenchymal stem cells.
In geology, it is used as a stain to differentiate the calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite in thin section or polished surfaces. Madder lake had been in use as a red pigment in paintings since antiquity. 1,2,4-Trihydroxyanthraquino
The American Equal Rights Association was formed in 1866 in the United States. According to its constitution, its purpose was "to secure Equal Rights to all American citizens the right of suffrage, irrespective of race, color or sex." Some of the more prominent reform activists of that time were members, including women and men and whites. The AERA was created by the Eleventh National Women's Rights Convention, which transformed itself into the new organization. Leaders of the women's movement had earlier suggested the creation of a similar equal rights organization through a merger of their movement with the American Anti-Slavery Society, but that organization did not accept their proposal; the AERA conducted two major campaigns during 1867. In New York, in the process of revising its state constitution, AERA workers collected petitions in support of women's suffrage and the removal of property requirements that discriminated against black voters. In Kansas they campaigned for referenda that would enfranchise African women.
In both places they encountered increasing resistance to the campaign for women's suffrage from former abolitionist allies who viewed it as a hindrance to the immediate goal of winning suffrage for African American men. The Kansas campaign ended in disarray and recrimination, creating divisions between those who worked for the rights of African Americans and those who worked for the rights of women, creating divisions within the women's movement itself; the AERA continued to hold annual meetings after the failure of the Kansas campaign, but growing differences made it difficult for its members to work together. Disagreement about the proposed Fifteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which would prohibit the denial of suffrage because of race, was sharp because it did not prohibit the denial of suffrage because of sex; the acrimonious AERA meeting in 1869 signaled the end of the organization and led to the formation of two competing women's suffrage organizations. The bitter disagreements that led to the demise of the AERA continued to influence the women's movement in subsequent years.
The people who played significant roles in the AERA included some of the more prominent reform activists of that time, many of them acquainted with one another as veterans of the anti-slavery and women's rights movements: Lucretia Mott, the president of the AERA, was an abolitionist, prevented from participating in the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 because she was a woman. She was the main attraction and one of the organizers of the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention. Elizabeth Cady Stanton attended the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention as an observer, accompanying her husband Henry B. Stanton, who had worked as an agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society. There she and Mott became friends and vowed to organize a women's rights convention in the United States. Stanton was an organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and the primary author of its Declaration of Sentiments. Lucy Stone was a pioneering worker for women's rights and an organizer of the first National Women's Rights Convention in 1850.
She became a paid representative of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1848 under an arrangement by which she could lecture on women's rights but without pay. Susan B. Anthony became a paid representative of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1856 with the understanding that she would continue to campaign for women's rights. Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave and abolitionist leader who played a pivotal role in the Seneca Falls women's rights convention, he and Anthony both lived in Rochester, NY, were family friends. Abby Kelley Foster and her husband Stephen Symonds Foster were abolitionists who had encouraged Anthony to become active in the Anti-Slavery Society. Henry Blackwell, married to Lucy Stone, worked against slavery and for women's rights. Although still small, the women's rights movement had grown in the years before the American Civil War, aided by the introduction of women to social activism through the abolitionist movement; the American Anti-Slavery Society, led by William Lloyd Garrison, was encouraging to those who championed women's rights.
The planning committee for the first National Women's Rights Convention in October 1850 was formed by people who were attending a convention of the Anti-Slavery Society earlier that year. The women's movement was loosely structured during this period, with legislative campaigns and speaking tours organized by a small group of women acting on personal initiative. An informal coordinating committee organized national women's rights conventions, but there were only a few state associations and no formal national organization; the movement disappeared from public notice during the Civil War as women's rights activists focused their energy on the campaign against slavery. In 1863 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony organized the Women's Loyal National League, the first national women's political organization in the U. S. to campaign for an amendment to the U. S. Constitution that would abolish slavery. After slavery in the U. S. was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865, Wendell Phillips was elected president of the Anti-Slavery Society and began to direct its resources toward winning political rights for blacks.
He told women's rights activists that he continued to support women's suffrage but thought it best to set aside that demand until voting rights for African American men were assured. The women's movement began to revive when proposals for a Fourteenth Amendment began circulating that would secure citizenship for African Americans; some of the
The 1941 Hawaii Deans football team was an American football team that represented the University of Hawaii during the 1941 college football season. The team compiled an 8–1 record and outscored opponents by a total of 280 to 83; the season was shortened by two games following the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Tom Kaulukukui and Eugene Gill were co-head coaches, it was Kaulukukui's first year as a head coach. During a September 24 game against Pacific in Stockton, California, a distressed army flying cadet tried to land his plane at the stadium, diving for 30 minutes "a few feet over the heads of terrified spectators and players and clipped the stadium power line, darkening the field." The cadet landed his plane safely in the stadium parking lot. On the afternoon of December 6, 1941, in the Shrine Football Classic, Hawaii defeated Willamette at Honolulu Stadium; the game drew a crowd of 25,000 persons, the largest paid attendance in Hawaii history to that point. The attendees included Territorial Governor Joseph Poindexter, Honolulu Mayor Lester Petrie, Lt. Gen. Walter Short, the U.
S. military commander responsible for the defense of U. S. military installations in Hawaii. S. Marine band and bands from the University of Hawaii, Royal Hawaiian, McKinley High, St. Louis College, Roosevelt High, Punahou Academy, Honolulu Plantation Co. and others. Early the following morning, the Attack on Pearl Harbor occurred; the team's remaining game against San Jose State and Nevada were cancelled. The San Jose State team was in Honolulu at the time of the attack; the San Jose State and Willamette players were stranded in Hawaii due to the emergency following the attack. The Hawaii and San Jose State football teams all volunteered to perform special police duties during the emergency; the Hawaii football program was suspended for the duration of the war