The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium, potassium, rubidium and francium. Together with hydrogen they comprise group 1. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour; this family of elements is known as the lithium family after its leading element. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1, they can all be cut with a knife due to their softness, exposing a shiny surface that tarnishes in air due to oxidation by atmospheric moisture and oxygen. Because of their high reactivity, they must be stored under oil to prevent reaction with air, are found only in salts and never as the free elements.
Caesium, the fifth alkali metal, is the most reactive of all the metals. All the alkali metals react with water, with the heavier alkali metals reacting more vigorously than the lighter ones. All of the discovered alkali metals occur in nature as their compounds: in order of abundance, sodium is the most abundant, followed by potassium, rubidium and francium, rare due to its high radioactivity. Experiments have been conducted to attempt the synthesis of ununennium, to be the next member of the group, but they have all met with failure. However, ununennium may not be an alkali metal due to relativistic effects, which are predicted to have a large influence on the chemical properties of superheavy elements. Most alkali metals have many different applications. One of the best-known applications of the pure elements is the use of rubidium and caesium in atomic clocks, of which caesium atomic clocks form the basis of the second. A common application of the compounds of sodium is the sodium-vapour lamp, which emits light efficiently.
Table salt, or sodium chloride, has been used since antiquity. Lithium finds use as an anode in lithium batteries. Sodium and potassium are essential elements, having major biological roles as electrolytes, although the other alkali metals are not essential, they have various effects on the body, both beneficial and harmful. Sodium compounds have been known since ancient times. While potash has been used since ancient times, it was not understood for most of its history to be a fundamentally different substance from sodium mineral salts. Georg Ernst Stahl obtained experimental evidence which led him to suggest the fundamental difference of sodium and potassium salts in 1702, Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau was able to prove this difference in 1736; the exact chemical composition of potassium and sodium compounds, the status as chemical element of potassium and sodium, was not known and thus Antoine Lavoisier did not include either alkali in his list of chemical elements in 1789. Pure potassium was first isolated in 1807 in England by Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly invented voltaic pile.
Previous attempts at electrolysis of the aqueous salt were unsuccessful due to potassium's extreme reactivity. Potassium was the first metal, isolated by electrolysis; that same year, Davy reported extraction of sodium from the similar substance caustic soda by a similar technique, demonstrating the elements, thus the salts, to be different. Petalite was discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian chemist José Bonifácio de Andrada in a mine on the island of Utö, Sweden. However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson working in the laboratory of the chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, detected the presence of a new element while analysing petalite ore; this new element was noted by him to form compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less soluble in water and more alkaline than the other alkali metals. Berzelius gave the unknown material the name "lithion/lithina", from the Greek word λιθoς, to reflect its discovery in a solid mineral, as opposed to potassium, discovered in plant ashes, sodium, known for its high abundance in animal blood.
He named the metal inside the material "lithium". Lithium and potassium were part of the discovery of periodicity, as they are among a series of triads of elements in the same group that were noted by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1850 as having similar properties. Rubidium and caesium were the first elements to be discovered using the spectroscope, invented in 1859 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff; the next year, they discovered caesium in the mineral water from Germany. Their discovery of rubidium came the following year in Heidelberg, finding it in the mineral lepidolite; the names of rubidium and caesium come from the most prominent lines
City Nord is a shopping center located at Stormyra in Bodø, Norway. Measuring 40,000 square meters and with more than 100 stores, it is the largest shopping center in Northern Norway; the shopping center opened in 1994 and has been expanded several times, first in 2008. The center suffered minor damage in a fire in December 2008. In 2010–11, the center was expanded from 18,000 square meters to 40,000 square meters at a cost of 550 million kr, leading to concerns that the center might out-compete shops in the center of Bodø; these fears appeared to be allayed with the trade balance in the town evening out. The expanded center was opened on 10 November 2011 by the mayor of Bodø, Ole-Henrik Hjartøy, the CEO of Coop Nordland, Lars Arve Jakobsen; the owner bought three surrounding lots for 65 million kr in 2013 and plans to expand the shopping center to between 63,000 square meters and 64,000 square meters, with construction starting in March 2014 and estimated to be completed before the Christmas shopping season of 2015.
The cost of the renewed expansion is estimated by Coop Nordland at 440 million kr. By the completion of the 2014–2015 expansion, City Nord will be among the ten largest shopping centers in Norway. In 2014, City Nord management announced that by November 2015, the mall will measure 65,000 square meters, equalling the size of Jekta Storsenter. City Nord is aimed at a customer base from both Bodø, the rest of the Salten region of Nordland. City Nord has a 18,000 square meters multi-storey car park, with capacity in excess of 800 cars. Media related to City Nord at Wikimedia Commons
James Richard Bullington is a retired American diplomat and ambassador to Burundi. Bullington is a native of Tennessee and received his bachelor's degree from Auburn University in 1962 where he was a member of Sigma Pi fraternity and editor of the student newspaper, The Plainsman; as editor of The Plainsman, Bullington wrote an article calling for the need for desegregation at Auburn University in 1962, which cause criticism from the Governor of Alabama, John Patterson, who threatened to cut Auburn's appropriations were the article not removed. The American Association of University Professors stepped in to intervene and this made national news. Bullington's early career focused on the war in Vietnam. From 1965 to 1966 he was the Vice Consul for the consulate in Huế. In May 1966 the consulate was burned by a mob, his actions during the event earned him the State Department's Superior Honor Award.. Bullington's experience during the Tet Offensive have been chronicled in several articles. After the events in Hue he became the aid to U.
S. Ambassador to Vietnam, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr, at the U. S. Embassy in Saigon. From 1967 to 1968 he was assigned to the Quảng Trị Province to work with CORDS, the joint civil-military counterinsurgency program. During the 1968 Tet Offensive he was trapped behind enemy lines and disguised himself as a French priest to escape, he earned his Masters in Public Administration degree from Harvard University in 1969. From 1969 to 1970 he was assigned to Washington D. C. as the Political Analyst for Vietnam for the Bureau of Intelligence and Research at the Department of State. During this time he was awarded his second Superior Honor Award. From 1973 to 1975 he was the Chief Political Officer for the Vietnam Working Group. Bullington was assigned to Rangoon, Burma from 1976 to 1978 as the Counselor for the Political and Economic Affairs for the U. S. Embassy. In 1978-79, he was a student at the U. S. Army War College. From 1979 to 1980 he was the deputy chief of mission at the U. S. Embassy in N’Djamena, he was awarded his third Superior Honor Award in 1980 when he led the evacuation of Americans from Chad during the civil war.
That year he was moved to Cotonou, Benin where he was permanent charge d'affaires and chief of mission. In 1982 he became Senior Advisor on African Affairs to the U. S. delegation at the United Nations. Bullington was appointed Ambassador to Burundi in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan, he held the post until 1986. From 1986 until his retirement in 1989 he was the State Department's Senior Seminar Dean. After retiring from 27 years in the U. S. Foreign Service he has kept busy holding several posts. In 1989 he became the Director of International Affairs for Dallas, TX before becoming the Director for the Center for Global Business and a professor at Old Dominion University in 1993, he became country director for Peace Corps in Niger. He came out of retirement to lead a U. S. State Department "expeditionary diplomacy" effort to help resolve the long-running Casamance conflict in Senegal, he published an autobiographical memoir in 2017: Global Adventures on Less-Traveled Roads: A Foreign Service Memoir
Munich School is the name given to a group of painters who worked in Munich or were trained at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich between 1850 and 1918. In the second half of the 19th century the Academy became one of the most important institutions in Europe for training artists and attracted students from across Europe and the United States. Munich was an important center of painting and visual art in the period between 1850 and 1914; the mid-century movement away from the Romanticism and emphasis on fresco painting of the earlier Munich school was led by Karl von Piloty, a professor at the Munich Academy from 1856 and became its director in 1874. Piloty's approach to history painting was influenced by the French academician Paul Delaroche, by the painterly colorism of Rubens and the Venetians. Besides Piloty, other influential teachers at the Academy were Wilhelm von Diez, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Arthur von Ramberg. and Nikolaos Gyzis. Artists of the Munich School include Anton Braith, Alfred Kowalski, Hans Makart, Gabriel Max, Victor Müller, Fritz Osswald, Franz von Lenbach, Friedrich Kaulbach, Wilhelm Leibl, Wilhelm Trübner, the genre painters Franz Defregger, Eduard von Grützner and Hermann von Kaulbach. and Miroslav Kraljević.
The last generation of students of the Munich School included nearly all the major figures of the German avantgarde, such as Lovis Corinth, Ernst Oppler, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Franz Marc. There were notable schools of Munich-trained painters active outside of Germany; the formative influence of teachers and examples of the Munich School shaped the academic naturalism in many European countries, e.g. the Greek academic art of the 19th century. Due to the historical affinity between Bavaria and Greece—Prince Otto I was from 1832 to 1862 the first King of Greece—many Greek artists were trained in Munich; the Munich School in Greek art is the most important artistic movement of Greek Art in the 19th century with strong influences from the Academy of Munich. Among the leading artists of this school were Konstantinos Volanakis, Georgios Roilos, Nikolaos Gyzis, Polychronis Lembesis, Nikolaos Vokos, Nikiphoros Lytras and Georgios Jakobides. Most of the artists of the Hungarian Nagybanya school of art, such as Gyula Aggházy, were educated in Munich.
Poland was represented by, among others, Józef Chełmoński, Józef Brandt, Władysław Czachórski, Julian Fałat, Aleksander Gierymski, Maksymilian Gierymski and Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski. The Swedish painters Johan Christoffer Boklund and Johan Fredrik Höckert studied in Munich. Frank Duveneck and William Merritt Chase were the most prominent exemplars of the Munich School in American art. Other American artists who studied in Munich include Harry Chase, John Henry Twachtman and Walter Shirlaw; the Munich school is characterized by dark chiaroscuro. Typical subjects are landscape, genre, still-life, history painting. Brooklyn Museum, Triumph of Realism: an exhibition of European and American realist paintings,1850–1910. University of California, 1967. Greenville County Museum of Art, Martha R. Severens. Greenville County Museum of Art: The Southern Collection. New York: Hudson Hills Press, in association with the Greenville County Museum of Art, 1995. ISBN 1-55595-102-3 Norman, Nineteenth-Century Painters and Painting: A Dictionary.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. ISBN 0-520-03328-0 Münchner Schule Münchner Schule bei Ketterer
The Training Ship Mercury, or TS Mercury, was a shore-based naval training establishment at Hamble in Hampshire. The Training Ship Mercury was one of a number of similar static training ships located round the coasts of Britain and founded during the Victorian period to provide boy recruits for the Royal Navy and mercantile marine, it was founded in 1885 as a charitable venture by Charles Arthur Richard Hoare, a partner in the banking firm of C. Hoare & Co, with the objective of rescuing poor boys of good character and training them for naval service; the facility was based at Binstead on the Isle of Wight where the boys lived in the barque Illovo. Over the years the establishment was managed by Charles Hoare's mistress Beatrice Holme Sumner, with whom he was to have a son and a daughter; the entire establishment was moved from Binstead to Hamble near Southampton in 1892. In June 1898, Beatrice Holme-Sumner married C. B. Fry, the great England cricketer and all-round sportsman, in 1908, after the death of Hoare, Fry became the Mercury's Captain-Superintendent.
In 1914, the former Royal Navy sloop HMS Gannet was loaned from the Admiralty for use as a floating dormitory and the old Illovo was sold in 1916. In 1950 C. B. Fry handed over command of TS Mercury to Commander Matthew Bradby RN Rtd, its last Captain Superintendent was Commander R. F. Hoyle RNR who took charge in 1960 and operated it for eight years before TS Mercury was closed in 1968; the 45-acre shore establishment was cleared for a housing development. Memorials to TS Mercury and the 5,000 boys it trained for service at sea in both the Royal and Merchant Navies are located at Hamble Parish Church and near the former TS Mercury slipway. HMS Gannet was towed out of the Hamble River in 1970 and is now restored and preserved at the Chatham Historic Dockyard. White, A. L; the Training Ship Mercury. S. Mercury Old Boys' Association, 2003 ISBN 0-9548009-0-7 Morris, R; the Indomitable Beatie, Sutton Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7509-3710-6 Mercury old boys' association
The Taunton Stop Line was a World War II defensive line in south west England. It was designed "to stop an enemy's advance from the west and in particular a rapid advance supported by armoured fighting vehicles which may have broken through the forward defences." The Taunton Stop Line was one of more than 50 similar defensive lines that were constructed around England, all designed to compartmentalise the country to contain any breakthrough until reinforcements could arrive. Stop Lines used a combination of construction to make continuous defences; the innermost and longest was the GHQ Line. They were constructed as part of a package of field fortifications planned under the leadership of General Sir Edmund Ironside, the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces; the Taunton Stop Line ran north–south for nearly 50 miles through Somerset and Devon from Axminster to Chard along the River Axe along the Great Western Railway to Ilminster, the railway and Chard Canal to Taunton, the Bridgwater and Taunton Canal to Bridgwater, the River Parrett to the coast near Highbridge.
Highbridge was the starting point for the east–west GHQ Line. Aside from the obstacles created by canals and railway embankments, by early 1942 the line was defended by 309 light machine gun pillboxes, 61 medium machine gun emplacements, 21 static anti-tank gun emplacements, along with numerous anti-tank obstacles in the form of concrete posts and pyramids, while charge chambers were cut into bridges ready for demolition. Other armaments used included Boys Anti-tank Rifle and mobile QF 2 pounder guns. To reinforce the line and deny access to the major east–west routes that passed through the line, in 1941 12 "Defensive Islands" were added to the line under a plan devised by General Brooke, who succeeded General Sir Edmund Ironside; these included Creech St Michael. Two divisions from GHQ Home Forces Reserve were assigned to man the line, although from the autumn of 1940 the Home Guard were used. Many pillboxes can still be seen along the length of the line. British anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II GHQ Line Coquet Stop Line Outer London Defence Ring Bridgwater and Taunton Canal Ringwood West Line UK Invasion Defence Remains "The Stop Line Way Multi-user Path Seaton to Colyford and Cloakham Lawn to Weycroft East Devon" – An Archaeological Desk-based Assessment and "Land off Morton Way, Devon – A Limited Archaeological Excavation and Recording Programme".
Archaeology Data Service. Context One Archaeological Services 2010. 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2011