The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. They are beryllium, calcium, strontium and radium; the elements have similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. Structurally, they have in common an outer s-orbital, full. All the discovered alkaline earth metals occur in nature, although radium occurs only through the decay chain of uranium and thorium and not as a primordial element. There have been experiments, all unsuccessful, to try to synthesize element 120, the next potential member of the group; as with other groups, the members of this family show patterns in their electronic configuration the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior: Most of the chemistry has been observed only for the first five members of the group. The chemistry of radium is not well-established due to its radioactivity; the alkaline earth metals are all silver-colored and soft, have low densities, melting points, boiling points.
In chemical terms, all of the alkaline earth metals react with the halogens to form the alkaline earth metal halides, all of which are ionic crystalline compounds. All the alkaline earth metals except beryllium react with water to form alkaline hydroxides and, should be handled with great care; the heavier alkaline earth metals react more vigorously than the lighter ones. The alkaline earth metals have the second-lowest first ionization energies in their respective periods of the periodic table because of their somewhat low effective nuclear charges and the ability to attain a full outer shell configuration by losing just two electrons; the second ionization energy of all of the alkaline metals is somewhat low. Beryllium is an exception: It does not react with water or steam, its halides are covalent. If beryllium did form compounds with an ionization state of +2, it would polarize electron clouds that are near it strongly and would cause extensive orbital overlap, since beryllium has a high charge density.
All compounds that include beryllium have a covalent bond. The compound beryllium fluoride, the most ionic beryllium compound, has a low melting point and a low electrical conductivity when melted. All the alkaline earth metals have two electrons in their valence shell, so the energetically preferred state of achieving a filled electron shell is to lose two electrons to form doubly charged positive ions; the alkaline earth metals all react with the halogens to form ionic halides, such as calcium chloride, as well as reacting with oxygen to form oxides such as strontium oxide. Calcium and barium react with water to produce hydrogen gas and their respective hydroxides, undergo transmetalation reactions to exchange ligands; the table below is a summary of the key atomic properties of the alkaline earth metals. Of the six alkaline earth metals, calcium and radium have at least one occurring radioisotope. Beryllium-7, beryllium-10, calcium-41 are trace radioisotopes. Calcium-48 is the lightest nuclide to undergo double beta decay.
Calcium and barium are weakly radioactive: calcium contains about 0.1874% calcium-48, barium contains about 0.1062% barium-130. The longest lived isotope of radium is radium-226 with a half-life of 1600 years; the alkaline earth metals are named after their oxides, the alkaline earths, whose old-fashioned names were beryllia, lime and baryta. These oxides are basic. "Earth" is an old term applied by early chemists to nonmetallic substances that are insoluble in water and resistant to heating—properties shared by these oxides. The realization that these earths were not elements but compounds is attributed to the chemist Antoine Lavoisier. In his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie of 1789 he called them salt-forming earth elements, he suggested that the alkaline earths might be metal oxides, but admitted that this was mere conjecture. In 1808, acting on Lavoisier's idea, Humphry Davy became the first to obtain samples of the metals by electrolysis of their molten earths, thus supporting Lavoisier's hypothesis and causing the group to be named the alkaline earth metals.
The calcium compounds calcite and lime have been used since prehistoric times. The same is true for the beryllium compounds emerald; the other compounds of the alkaline earth metals were discovered starting in the early 15th century. The magnesium compound magnesium sulfate was first discovered in 1618 by a farmer at Epsom in England. Strontium carbonate was discovered in minerals in the Scottish village of Strontian in 1790; the last element is the least abundant: radioactive radium, extracted from uraninite in 1898. All elements except beryllium were isolated by electrolysis of molten compounds. Magnesium and strontium were first produced by Humphry Davy in 1808, whereas beryllium was independently isolated by Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy in 1828 by reacting beryllium compounds with potassium. In 1910, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and And
The Longueuil Public Libraries Network is the public library system of Longueuil, Canada. There are 10 branches of the Longueul Public Libraries Network. Bibliothèque Claude-Henri-Grignon – 1660 rue Bourassa, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Fatima – 2130 rue Jean-Louis, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Georges-Dor – 2760 chemin de Chambly, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Hubert-Perron – 1100 rue Beauregard, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Jacques-Ferron – 100 rue Saint-Laurent Ouest, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Joseph-de-Sérigny – 1000 chemin du Lac, Le Vieux-Longueuil Bibliothèque Joseph-William-Gendron – École Mgr-A.-M.-Parent 3875 Grande Allée, Saint-Hubert Bibliothèque Raymond-Lévesque – 7025 boulevard Cousineau, Saint-Hubert Bibliothèque Saint-Jean-Baptiste – 700 rue Duvernay, Le Vieux-Longueuil Greenfield Park Library – 225 Empire Street, Greenfield ParkThe Longueuil Public Libraries Network has a reciprocity agreement with Collège Édouard-Montpetit CEGEP, which grants library members access to Collège Édouard-Montpetit's library.
An emotional or behavioral disability is a disability that impacts a person's ability to recognize, interpret and express fundamental emotions. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 characterizes the group of disabilities as Emotional Disturbance; this term is controversial as it is seen by some as excluding or discriminating students with behavior issues and just focuses on the emotional aspects. This group of disabilities are difficult to classify as generalizations occur that may lead to some students who do not fit specific diagnostic criteria, but are still disabled, not determined eligible for special education services. Broadly, the group can be broken down to internal behaviors, external behaviors and low incidence behaviors. Internal behaviors are observed in students who are depressed and anxious. External behaviors are seen in students who act out; such behavior would be classified as Disruptive Behavioral Disorder. Low incidence behaviors are behaviors that occur only in particular environmental triggers, such as a specific person or phrase.
Note, some students may have only one category, some have mixed. Students with an ED have an early diagnosis among school districts; this is. The DSM-IV is used by a school psychologist, whom may conduct interviews and distribute surveys as part of the social-emotional evaluation; when determined ED the student will receive an Individualized Education Plan. Students can receive certain supports under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to as a 504 plan; this includes goals towards appropriate behavior, productive coping strategies and academic skills. Effective services should focus on these, can mandate an educational assistant for support in regular education classes, access to a resource room for individualized instruction, medication management provided by a mental health professional, as well as individual counseling. Students with ED are considered at-risk for dropping out of school and criminal activity, as well as being diagnosed with a learning disability. Nonetheless, with the appropriate supports in place, students with ED have been shown to have enormous potential to succeed.
Emotional Disturbances via the IDEA. Learning disability Resource Room Special Education Bipolar disorder
Annie Groovie, is a Québécois writer and illustrator of children's literature. She is notable for her series of books and comic strips featuring a young male cyclops. At three years of age, her family moved to Sainte-Foy. Groovie earned a degree in Plastic Arts and a Bachelor's Degree in Graphic Communications at Université Laval, before pursuing a career as a commercial designer for Cossette, Inc. for several years in Montreal, where she has lived since 1994. Adept at gymnastics and circus performance, Groovie was selected in 1997 by the World Circus to spend three months in Chile to teach circus skills to street children, her travels took her to several countries around the world, including France, Chile, Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, Cuba and the United States. In 2003, Groovie created a male cyclops with a shaggy hairdo; the format of these books were part-comic book, part children's book, in which the adventures of Léon are drawn out in a series of adventures, riddles and fake advertisement parodies.
In 2006, she left her advertising career to work full-time on Léon. Beginning the fall of 2007, Radio-Canada television and CBC Television debuted a series of sixty-second shorts featuring Léon and friends, which aired between programs during their children's blocks. A weekly Léon strip was published Saturdays in Le Petit Journal, a weekly children's supplement included with Le Journal de Montréal and associated newspapers. Léon's books have since been translated to Arabic, Italian and Chinese. Groovie has been a four-time winner of the Hackmatack Awards, awarded to the favourite Canadian children's books as nominated by readers in Atlantic Canada, she was the Guest of Honor at the 2010 Salon international du livre de Québec in Quebec City. On October 10, 2014, Groovie's publisher, La courte échelle, declared bankruptcy. On January 31, 2015, Groovie announced that her Léon-related works would be self-published under her own imprint, Groovie éditions, shortly after repossessing the rights and stock of her books and creations from La courte échelle.
Her Missions à réaliser line of books, which were introduced shortly before La courte échelle's bankruptcy, would be transferred to another publisher, Éditions les Malins. Collection Rigolons avec Léon – The first Léon book series, in which, through a series of single-page comic stories, Léon explores a particular topic, followed by a brief description on that topic; each book in the series was published in two versions -- a single-volume version. Léon et les expressions Léon et les superstitions Léon et les bonnes manières Léon et l'environnement Léon et les grands mystères Léon et les inventions Léon et les traditions Léon et les émotions Léon et les dictions Collection Jouons avec Léon – This series is a board book series for young, pre-school readers, featuring Léon presenting items associated with the subject. Jouons avec Léon: les émotions Jouons avec Léon: les sports Jouons avec Léon: les métiers Jouons avec Léon: les animaux Jouons avec Léon: les aliments Jouons avec Léon: le cirque Collection Délirons avec Léon – A popular series featuring comic strips featuring Léon and his friends, plus jokes, puzzles, interviews of interesting people, fake TV ads – starring Groovie herself, in photonovel fashion.
29 volumes and three special editions were published to date. Léon à son meilleur – features only the comic strips featured in the Délirons series. Six volumes were published to date. À vos crayons! – 60-page activity and colouring book featuring Léon and friends.50 missions à réaliser avant la fin de l'été - Groovie's first non-Leon book, featuring summer activities for children. This was her final book, published by La courte échelle before the publisher declared bankruptcy. 25 missions à réaliser durant les temps des fêtes - Groovie's second activity book, about children's activities during the winter holidays published by Les Malins. Nourris ton Génie - a series of books about science written by Alexandra Hontoy and illustrated by Groovie, under the Groovie éditions imprint; the first two books focused on "La Lumière" and "L'eau". Site officiel de Léon Blog d'Annie Groovie EDT: Léon
In computing, MIMD is a technique employed to achieve parallelism. Machines using MIMD have a number of processors and independently. At any time, different processors may be executing different instructions on different pieces of data. MIMD architectures may be used in a number of application areas such as computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, modeling, as communication switches. MIMD machines can be of distributed memory categories; these classifications are based on. Shared memory machines may be of the extended, or hierarchical type. Distributed memory machines may have mesh interconnection schemes. An example of MIMD system is Intel Xeon Phi, descended from Larrabee microarchitecture; these processors have multiple processing cores that can execute different instructions on different data. Most parallel computers, as of 2013, are MIMD systems; the processors are all connected to a "globally available" memory, via either software or hardware means. The operating system maintains its memory coherence.
From a programmer's point of view, this memory model is better understood than the distributed memory model. Another advantage is that memory coherence is managed by the operating system and not the written program. Two known disadvantages are: scalability beyond thirty-two processors is difficult, the shared memory model is less flexible than the distributed memory model. There are many examples of shared memory: UMA, COMA. MIMD machines with shared memory have processors which share a central memory. In the simplest form, all processors are attached to a bus; this means that every machine with shared memory shares a specific CM, common bus system for all the clients. For example, if we consider a bus with clients A, B, C connected on one side and P, Q, R connected on the opposite side, any one of the clients will communicate with the other by means of the bus interface between them. MIMD machines with hierarchical shared memory use a hierarchy of buses to give processors access to each other's memory.
Processors on different boards may communicate through inter-nodal buses. Buses support communication between boards. With this type of architecture, the machine may support over nine thousand processors. In distributed memory MIMD machines, each processor has its own individual memory location; each processor has no direct knowledge about other processor's memory. For data to be shared, it must be passed from one processor to another as a message. Since there is no shared memory, contention is not as great a problem with these machines, it is not economically feasible to connect a large number of processors directly to each other. A way to avoid this multitude of direct connections is to connect each processor to just a few others; this type of design can be inefficient because of the added time required to pass a message from one processor to another along the message path. The amount of time required for processors to perform simple message routing can be substantial. Systems were designed to reduce this time loss and hypercube and mesh are among two of the popular interconnection schemes.
Examples of distributed memory include MPP, COW and NUMA. The former is complex and expensive: lots of super-computers coupled by broad-band networks. Examples include mesh interconnections. COW is the "home-made" version for a fraction of the price. In an MIMD distributed memory machine with a hypercube system interconnection network containing four processors, a processor and a memory module are placed at each vertex of a square; the diameter of the system is the minimum number of steps it takes for one processor to send a message to the processor, the farthest away. So, for example, the diameter of a 2-cube is 2. In a hypercube system with eight processors and each processor and memory module being placed in the vertex of a cube, the diameter is 3. In general, a system that contains 2^N processors with each processor directly connected to N other processors, the diameter of the system is N. One disadvantage of a hypercube system is that it must be configured in powers of two, so a machine must be built that could have many more processors than is needed for the application.
In an MIMD distributed memory machine with a mesh interconnection network, processors are placed in a two-dimensional grid. Each processor is connected to its four immediate neighbors. Wrap around connections may be provided at the edges of the mesh. One advantage of the mesh interconnection network over the hypercube is that the mesh system need not be configured in powers of two. A disadvantage is that the diameter of the mesh network is greater than the hypercube for systems with more than four processors. SMP NUMA Torus interconnect Flynn's taxonomy SPMD Superscalar Very long instruction word
Billing is a performing arts term used in referring to the order and other aspects of how credits are presented for plays, television, or other creative works. Information given in billing consists of the companies, directors and other crew members. From the beginning of motion pictures in the 1900s to the early 1920s, the moguls that owned or managed big film studios did not want to bill the actors appearing in their films because they did not want to recreate the star system, prevalent on Broadway at that time, they feared that, once actors were billed on film, they would be more popular and would seek large salaries. Actors themselves did not want to reveal their film careers to their stage counterparts via billing on film, because at that time working in the movies was unacceptable to stage actors; as late as the 1910s, stars as famous as Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin were not known by name to moviegoers. According to Mary Pickford's biography Doug and Mary, she was referred to by the public as "the Biograph girl" in all of her films before 1905.
Before Mary Pickford, the public used to call Florence Lawrence the "Biograph girl". In 1910, Lawrence was lured away from Biograph by Carl Laemmle when he started the Independent Motion Picture Company. Laemmle wanted Lawrence to be his star attraction, so he offered her more money and marquee billing, something Biograph did not allow, she signed on. From on, actors received billing on film. Originating during that time was the system of billing above and below the title, to delineate the status of the players. Big stars such as Pickford and Chaplin were billed above the title, while lesser stars and supporting players were billed below the title. During the era of the studio system, on-screen billing was presented at the beginning of a film; the studios still followed the billing system of the silent era. After the studio system's collapse in the 1950s, actors and their agents fought for billing on a film-by-film basis. This, combined with changes in union contracts and copyright laws, led to more actors and crew members being included in the credits sequence, expanding its size significantly.
As a result, since the late 1960s, a significant amount of the billing is reserved for the closing credits of the film, which includes a recap of the billing shown at the beginning. In addition, more stars began to demand top billing. Billing demands extended to publicity materials, down to the height of the letters and the position of names. By the 1990s, some films had moved all billing to the film's end, with the exception of company logos and the title. Although popularised by the Star Wars series and used sporadically in films such as The Godfather and Ghostbusters, this "title-only" billing became an established form for summer blockbusters in 1989, with Ghostbusters II, Lethal Weapon 2, The Abyss following the practice; the title is left to the end, such as in The Passion of the Christ, Avatar and the "Dark Knight" trilogy. The order in which credits are billed signify their importance. While there are numerous variations, most opening credits use some variation of the following basic order.
In the absence of opening credits, these roles will be credited in reverse order at the beginning of the closing credits. Name of the film studio Production company Possessory credits Above-title billed actor Film title Main cast Last billed actor Casting director Composer Visual effects supervisor Costume designer Film editor Production designer Director of Photography Producer and Executive Producer Screenwriter Director The name of the studio, credited is the one that distributed the film. However, a studio may not be the party that produced it. Instead, a separate production company may have made the film or financed a substantial part of the film. Depending on their standing, the director may be granted an extra, prominent credit before the film's title. Sometimes the producer or writer may get a possessory credit. Up until the establishment of the director's possessive credit, in the early 1970s, some directors were so regarded that they received what seems to be a producer's credit if they did not produce the film.
Victor Fleming was one such director: his films featured the credit "A Victor Fleming Production" when someone else produced the film. James Whale was credited. Director Kevin Smith refuses to use a possessory credit, such as "A Kevin Smith Film", feeling that a movie is made by everyone involved and not the product of just the director; the actors whose names appear first are said to have "top billing". They play the principal characters in the film and have the most screen time. Top-billed actors are named in advertising material such as trailers, billboards, TV spots; the two or three top-billed actors in a movie will be announced prior to the title of the movie. For an actor to receive it, he/she will have to be well-established, with box-office drawing power; those introduced afterward are considered to be the suppo