Alkaloids are a class of occurring organic compounds that contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group includes some related compounds with neutral and weakly acidic properties; some synthetic compounds of similar structure may be termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon and nitrogen, alkaloids may contain oxygen, sulfur and, more other elements such as chlorine and phosphorus. Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi and animals, they can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction, or solvent extractions followed by silica-gel column chromatography. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial, anticancer, vasodilatory, analgesic and antihyperglycemic activities. Many have found use as starting points for drug discovery. Other alkaloids possess psychotropic and stimulant activities, have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. Alkaloids can be toxic too. Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals, they uniformly evoke a bitter taste.
The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut. Compounds like amino acid peptides, nucleotides, nucleic acid and antibiotics are not called alkaloids. Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position are classified as amines rather than as alkaloids; some authors, consider alkaloids a special case of amines. The name "alkaloids" was introduced in 1819 by the German chemist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meißner, is derived from late Latin root alkali and the suffix -οειδής -. However, the term came into wide use only after the publication of a review article, by Oscar Jacobsen in the chemical dictionary of Albert Ladenburg in the 1880s. There is no unique method for naming alkaloids. Many individual names are formed by adding the suffix "ine" to the genus name. For example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Where several alkaloids are extracted from one plant their names are distinguished by variations in the suffix: "idine", "anine", "aline", "inine" etc.
There are at least 86 alkaloids whose names contain the root "vin" because they are extracted from vinca plants such as Vinca rosea. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. For example, medicinal plants have been known in Mesopotamia from about 2000 BC; the Odyssey of Homer referred to a gift given to Helen by the Egyptian queen, a drug bringing oblivion. It is believed. A Chinese book on houseplants written in 1st–3rd centuries BC mentioned a medical use of ephedra and opium poppies. Coca leaves have been used by South American Indians since ancient times. Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows. Studies of alkaloids began in the 19th century. In 1804, the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner isolated from opium a "soporific principle", which he called "morphium", referring to Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams; the term "morphine", used in English and French, was given by the French physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac.
A significant contribution to the chemistry of alkaloids in the early years of its development was made by the French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, who discovered quinine and strychnine. Several other alkaloids were discovered around that time, including xanthine, caffeine, nicotine, colchicine and cocaine; the development of the chemistry of alkaloids was accelerated by the emergence of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods in the 20th century, so that by 2008 more than 12,000 alkaloids had been identified. The first complete synthesis of an alkaloid was achieved in 1886 by the German chemist Albert Ladenburg, he produced coniine by reacting 2-methylpyridine with acetaldehyde and reducing the resulting 2-propenyl pyridine with sodium. Compared with most other classes of natural compounds, alkaloids are characterized by a great structural diversity. There is no uniform classification; when knowledge of chemical structures was lacking, botanical classification of the source plants was relied on.
This classification is now considered obsolete. More recent classifications are based on similarity of the carbon biochemical precursor. However, they require compromises in borderline cases. Alkaloids are divided into the following major groups: "True alkaloids" contain nitrogen in the heterocycle and originate from amino acids, their cha
Zamani Ibrahim known as Zamani Slam is a popular male singer in Malaysia. He started his singing career through the famous 1990s pop group, Slam from 1993 to 1999, he launched a solo music career in 2002 and is now one of the best singers in Malaysia and Indonesia as well as regional countries. His powerful and unique vocals has gained him fans from all ages until he was placed on a par with the best vocalists in the country. Beginning in 2015, the Malaysian music industry were shocked by the news of his arrest, he have been tried with drug possession charges. He was released on bail and have been admitted to a local rehabilitation center. After several months of treatment, he was declared free from drugs and began returned to stage in 2016. Syair Si Pari-Pari Kala Hujan Terima Kasih Isabella'98 – with Jamal Abdillah and Saleem Syair Si Pari-Pari Kala Hujan Tak Keruan – with Sharifah Zarina Cahaya Asmara Tambatan Hati Aduh Lima Aksara - with Ezad Lazim Bara Syair Si Pari-Pari Hantu Celak Pak Andam Voice of Asia 1997 Bronze Award Anugerah Musik Indonesia 1999 Special Award Anugerah Era 2002 Best Male VocalGegar Vaganza 5 2nd place
Dumbo's Circus is a live action/puppet television series that aired on The Disney Channel beginning on May 6, 1985, featured the character of Dumbo from the original film. Reruns continued to air until February 28, 1997; the cast members are human-sized anthropomorphic animals played by people in puppet suits using technology developed by Ken Forsse, the creator of Teddy Ruxpin. The same production technique was used for Welcome to Pooh Corner. Unlike Pooh Corner, the show never had NTSC VHS releases. Many of the show's cast went on to star in Adventures in Odyssey; the wagon used in the show was seen in the late 1980s and early 1990s on the vehicle boneyard lot of the Studio Backlot Tour at Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. When the series first started, Sebastian is seen wearing only his hat and short pants. After a few episodes, he is given a white T-shirt to go with it; some of the puppets that were used for audience members in the circus were used for Mother Goose's Treasury.
In the show, Dumbo has grown up, is able to speak, has struck out on his own to begin his own circus. He and a cast of characters fly from town to town, in a wagon pulled through the air by Dumbo, performing their "greatest little show on earth". Other than Dumbo, none of the characters from the original film appeared in the show; each character would perform a particular talent, which ranged from dancing and singing to telling knock knock jokes. Dumbo - Also known as the "World's Only Flying Elephant". Star of the circus, Dumbo still relies on his magic feather to help him fly, he can be seen pulling the Circus wagon from place to place up in the sky. Breaks the fourth wall towards the boys and girls watching the show, telling them when it's time for a song or for the sideshow. Being an elephant, Dumbo's memory is very good, his hearing is sharp and sometimes his sneezes are strong - strong enough to cause some wind. Lionel - A high-pitched Brooklyn accented lion who serves as Dumbo's right-hand partner, popcorn vendor, ticket taker. and sideshow barker.
He has a knot in his tail. Lionel was inspired by the character of Timothy Q. Mouse from the 1941 film and says goodbye to the viewers at the end of several episodes. Lionel's voice is similar to Timothy Q. Mouse as well. Unlike Timothy Q. Mouse, who wears a red drum major's uniform, Lionel wears a blue uniform. Fair Dinkum - Also known as "Dink" for short, he is a koala who serves as ringmaster of the circus; as he is from Australia, he has the accent. There are a few things that Dink is afraid of - heights and drowning in the water being a few of them, his name comes from the Australian phrase, "fair dinkum". Barnaby Bowser - A goofy dog, the circus clown and magician as "Barnaby the Great". Known for saying "Ah-hee-ee-ee-ee-ee" whenever he laughs, sounds like he's from the south, his magic tricks don't always work out the way. Good friends with Lionel and Q. T, he gets scared easily. Hums his signature song "I'm Just a Lucky Dog". Comes from a big family - Edison Bowser, Isadoga Bowser, Julia Bowser and his famous Uncle Lattimer Bowser, III.
Barnaby shares a trait with Rabbit from Welcome to Pooh Corner - both are gifted magicians. The only difference is that Rabbit's tricks work well, whereas Barnaby's doesn't always work the way he wants them to. Lilli - The only female character before Matilda appeared, Lilli is a beautiful cat who serves as a tightrope walker in the circus. Sometimes wears glasses because of her bad eyesight - to see things that are close like books, signs and to play checkers. Likes pretty things. Q. T. - A slow-witted, but good-natured orangutan, the resident strongman and calliope player. In earlier episodes, he was accompanied by a small pink creature while playing the calliope, he makes friends and has other talents, like kite making. Sometimes doesn't know his own strength. Sebastian - A purple alley cat, reduced to janitorial duties and likes to nap any chance he gets. Sometimes tricks others to do his own work. In the side show, Sebastian has a ventriloquism dummy. Flip & Flap - A duo who are seen during the side show, telling each other jokes.
They are identifiable by their appearances - Flip has long rabbit ears, Flap has a red afro and a pig-like nose & cat-like ears, resembling a vampire bat. Rinkum Dinkum - A addition to the series, Rinkum is Fair Dinkum's older twin brother. In contrast to Fair Dinkum, Rinkum doesn't scare easily. Like his brother, Rinkum speaks in an Australian accent, he joins the circus as the resident stunt performer. During the Side Show, Rinkum puts on a show in which the audience has to guess what country he once visited and is pretending to be from. Matilda Dinkum - Another addition to the series, Matilda is Rinkum and Fair Dinkum's younger sister and loves to dance. Known as "Matty". Like her brothers, she speaks with an Australian accent, her name comes from the famous Australian song "Waltzing Matilda". Lattimer Bowser, III - Barnaby's u