Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland. Alkmaar is well-known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination; the earliest mention of the name Alkmaar is in a 10th-century document. As the village grew into a town, it was granted city rights in 1254; the oldest part of Alkmaar lies on an ancient sand bank that afforded some protection from inundation during medieval times. So, it is only a couple of metres above the surrounding region, which consists of some of the oldest polders in existence. Older spellings include Alckmar. In 1573 the city underwent a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Don Fadrique, son of the Duke of Alva; the citizens sent urgent messages for help to the Prince of Orange. Some of his dispatches fell into the hands of Don Fadrique, with the waters beginning to rise, the Spaniards raised the siege and fled, it was a turning point in the Eighty Years War and gave rise to the expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie.

The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day. In 1799, during the French Revolutionary Wars, an Anglo-Russian expeditionary force captured the city but was defeated in the Battle of Castricum. After that battle, on 18 October 1799, the two opposing sides held the Convention of Alkmaar which met to determine the fate of the defeated Anglo-Russian force; the French victory was commemorated on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris as "Alkmaer". The North Holland Canal, opened in 1824, was dug through Alkmaar. In 1865 and 1867 the railways between Alkmaar and Den Helder and between Alkmaar and Haarlem were built respectively. In the second half of the 20th century, Alkmaar expanded with development of new neighbourhoods. On 1 October 1972, the town of Oudorp and the southern portions of Koedijk and Sint Pancras were added to the municipality of Alkmaar; the municipality of Alkmaar consists of the following cities, towns and districts: Alkmaar, Daalmeer, De Hoef, De Horn, De Nollen, Het Rak, Koedijk, Overdie and Omval.

On 1 January 2015 the municipalities of Graft-De Schermer were merged into Alkmaar. The historical village of De Rijp is thus since a part of Alkmaar; these once separate villages are now all linked together by the suburban sprawl of buildings that arose between the late 1970s and early 1990s. During this time, the population of Alkmaar doubled; the municipal council of Alkmaar consists of 39 seats, which are divided as follows after the 2018 elections: PvdA – 4 seats OPA – 6 seats CDA – 4 seats VVD – 6 seats GroenLinks – 6 seats Leefbaar Alkmaar – 2 seats D66 – 4 seats BAS – 2 seats Senior's Party of Alkmaar – 2 seats ChristenUnie - 1 seat Partij voor de Dieren - 2 seats The A9 motorway runs from Amsterdam to Alkmaar continues on to Den Helder as the N9. There are direct trains to Den Helder, Zaandam, Utrecht, Arnhem, Nijmegen,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven and Haarlem. For exact details see Alkmaar railway station. Alkmaar has two railway stations: Alkmaar Alkmaar NoordThe waterway Noordhollandsch Kanaal, which opened in 1824, runs through Alkmaar.

As of 2017. It can be crossed Koedijkervlotbrug and Rekervlotbrug. Alkmaar has many medieval buildings that are still intact, most notably the tall tower of the Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk, where many people from Alkmaar hold their wedding ceremony; the other main attraction in the summer months, is Alkmaar's cheese market at the Waagplein, one of the country's most popular tourist attractions. The cheese market traditionally takes place from the first Friday in April through the first Friday in September; every Friday morning the Waagplein is the backdrop for this traditional cheese market. After the old-fashioned way of the hand clap and carriers will weigh the cheeses, it is one of only four traditional Dutch cheese markets still in existence. The traditional fare of this cheese market is those cheeses made in the local area, as opposed to the well-known brands of Dutch cheeses, including the Edam and Gouda cheeses, it is not possible to buy cheese at the market itself, only a demonstration of how this merchants' market operated in times gone by.

However, the demonstration, which takes place in front of the medieval weighing house, is surrounded by many specialized stalls where it is possible to buy all kinds of cheese related products. The Waag is home to the local tourist office and a cheese museum. Alkmaar has 399 registered rijksmonuments. Alkmaar has a big cinema. A red light district is situated at the Achterdam, Alkmaar has a nightlife scene as well which takes place in the pubs in front of the cheesemarket; every year, at the end of May Alkmaar hosts the four-day event Alkmaar Pride, which has a canal pride parade on Saturday. Beatles Museum – dedicated to The Beatles, as John Lennon's first guitar was made in Alkmaar Holland Cheese Museum – located in the historic weigh house National Beer Museum "De Boom" Op ArtMuseum City Museum Alkmaar – for history of the city Alkmaar is home to the professional football team AZ. In 2006, the club moved to a new 17,000 capacity stadium, the DSB Stadion, now named the AFAS Stadion. In 2008–2009, AZ won

Islamic glass

The influence of the Islamic world to the history of glass is reflected by its distribution around the world, from Europe to China, from Russia to East Africa. Islamic glass developed a unique expression, characterized by the introduction of new techniques and the innovation of old traditions. Islamic glass did not begin to develop a recognizable expression until the late 8th or early 9th century AD, despite Islam spreading across the Middle East and North Africa during the mid-7th century AD. Despite bringing enormous religious and socio-political changes to the region, this event appears to have not drastically affected the day-to-day workings of craft industries, nor did it cause "extensive destruction or long-lasting disruption"; the Roman and Sassanian glassmaking industries continued in much the same way they had for centuries. Following the unification of the entire region, the interaction of ideas and techniques was facilitated, allowing for the fusion of these two separate traditions with new ideas leading to the Islamic glass industry.

Roman glassmaking traditions that are important in the Islamic period include the application of glass trails as a surface embellishment, while stylistic techniques adopted from the Sassanian Empire include various styles of glass cutting. This may have developed out of the long-standing hardstone carving traditions in Persia and Mesopotamia. In regards to glass-making technology, tank furnaces used in the Levant to produce slabs of raw glass for export during the Classical Period were used during the Early Islamic Period in the same region until the 10th or 11th centuries AD. During the first centuries of Islamic rule, glassmakers in the Eastern Mediterranean continued to use the Roman recipe consisting of calcium-rich sand and mineral natron from the Wādi el-Natrūn in Egypt, examples of natron-based Islamic glass have been found in the Levant up to the late 9th century AD. Archaeological evidence has shown that the use of natron ceased, plant ash became the source of soda for all Islamic glass in the following centuries.

The reasons for this technological transition remain unclear, although it has been postulated that civil unrest in Egypt during the early 9th century AD led to a cut-off in the natron supply, thus forcing Islamic glassmakers to look for alternate soda sources. Evidence of experimentation with the basic glass recipe at Beth She'arim during the early 9th century AD further supports this argument. A glass slab made from a tank mold from the site contained an excess amount of lime, may be the result of mixing sand with plant ash. Although the raw glass would have been unusable due to its composition, it does suggest that at this time, Islamic glassmakers in the Levant were combining aspects of Sassanian and Roman traditions in an effort to solve the problem created by the lack of access to mineral natron; the use of plant ash from halophytic plants, which were plentiful in the Middle East due to the climate, was well known in Persia and Mesopotamia. It undoubtedly would not take long for the glassmakers in the Near East to correct their manufacturing errors and begin using the plant ash-based recipe used further east.

The glass industry in the Early Islamic Period can be characterized as a continuation of older traditions, coinciding with the Umayyad Caliphate, the first Islamic dynasty. Following the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD, the capital of the Islamic world was moved from Damascus in the Levant to Baghdad in Mesopotamia; this led to a cultural shift away from the influences of Classical traditions, allowed for the development of an'Islamic' expression. The production of glass during this period is concentrated in three main regions of the Islamic world. Firstly, the Eastern Mediterranean remained a centre of glass production, as it had been for centuries. Excavations at Qal'at Sem'an in northern Syria, Tyre in Lebanon, Beth She'arim and Bet Eli'ezer in Israel, at Fustat in Egypt have all shown evidence for glass production, including numerous vessels, raw glass, their associated furnaces. Adding to our understanding of the glass industry in this region is the aforementioned shipwreck at Serçe Liman.

In Persia, a Sassanian region, archaeological activity has located a number of sites with large deposits of Early Islamic Glass, including Nishapur and Susa. Numerous kilns suggest Nishapur was an important production centre, the identification of a local type of glass at Siraf suggests the same for that site. In Mesopotamia, excavations at Samarra, a temporary capital of the Abbasid Caliphate during the mid-9th century AD, produced a wide range of glass vessels, while work at al-Madā'in and Raqqa provide evidence for glass production in the region. However, it is difficult to identify the place in which a glass piece was manufactured without the presence of wastes, which indicate that the location was a site of glassmaking. Furthermore, during the Abbasid caliphate, both glassmakers and their products moved throughout the empire, leading to dispersion of glassware and "universality of style", which further prevents the identification of a piece's birthplace; as the Seljuk empire arose from Seljuk generals conquering lands under the Abbasid flag only nominally, it is that glass technology and trade might have continued under the Seljuks as it did under the Abbasids.

Despite the increasing ability and style of Islamic glassmakers during this time, few pieces were signed or dated, making identification of a piece's location of o

Free (Negativland album)

Free is a 1993 Negativland album. In the wake of leaving SST Records, Negativland revived their self-owned Seeland Records label, signed a distribution deal with Mordam Records, released this album; the main topics are about liberty, the media, what it means to be free. "Free" has found sounds and songs about a well-known convenience store, the quality of urban life, firearms, the bible, interstate trucking, geriatric discomfort, big dogs, bicycle safety, alcohol consumption, driving in circles, organ buttons, religious dialectics, the truth about The Star-Spangled Banner. "Freedom's Waiting" – 2:21 "Cityman" – 5:56 "The Gun and the Bible" – 2:48 "Truck Stop Drip Drop" – 4:00 "The Bottom Line" – 3:25 "Crumpled Farm" – 4:23 "Happy the Harmonica" – 10:01 "Pip Digs Pep" – 4:51 "We Are Driven" – 7:04 "View to the Sun" – 3:58 "I Am God" – 5:19 "Our National Anthem" – 4:51 Free on the Negativland official discography. Free entry at Allmusic