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All-American Publications

All-American Publications was one of two American comic book companies that merged to form the modern day DC Comics, one of two largest publishers of comic books in the United States. Superheroes created for All-American include the original Atom, Green Lantern and Wonder Woman, all in the 1940s' Golden Age of Comic Books. Max Gaines, future founder of EC Comics, formed All-American Publications in 1938 after seeking funding from Harry Donenfeld, CEO of both National Allied Publications and sister company Detective Comics; as Gerard Jones writes of Donenfeld's investment: Harry had agreed on one condition: that take Jack Liebowitz on as his partner.... Jack would be tempted to form a competing company if there was nothing to hold him, and it may well have been a way for Harry to keep Gaines under control. Gaines became Jack Liebowitz the minority owner of All-American. While All-American, at 225 Lafayette Street in Manhattan, was physically separated from DC's office space uptown at 480 Lexington Avenue, it used the informal "DC" logo on most of its covers for distribution and marketing reasons.

In 1944, Gaines sold his share of the company to Liebowitz, keeping only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC. As Jones describes, Gaines saw the end of the superhero fad coming and wanted to get into something more durable, like children's books and magazines.... In 1944, he decided, he let Jack Liebowitz buy him out with a loan from Harry.... Liebowitz promptly orchestra the merger of All American Comics and Detective Comics into National Comics, of which he was the junior partner, vice president, publisher. Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". Before the merger, Gaines first rebranded All-American with its own logo, beginning with books cover-dated February 1945: All-Flash #17, Sensation Comics #38, Flash Comics #62, Green Lantern #14, Funny Stuff #3, Mutt & Jeff #16, the following month's All-American Comics #64 and the hyphenless All Star Comics #24.

Liebowitz merged his and Donenfeld's companies into National Comics Publications. During All-American's existence, much cross-promotion took place between the two editorially independent companies, so much so that the first appearance of the Justice Society of America, in All Star Comics #3, included in its roster All-American characters the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern and Hawkman, the National characters Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman — creating comics' first intercompany crossover, with characters from different companies interacting — although National's Sandman and Hour-Man had appeared in solo adventures in All Star Comics #1. With Gaines as editor, assisted by Sheldon Mayer, All-American Publications launched its flagship series All-American Comics with an April 1939 premiere. Like many comics of the time, All-American debuted with a mix of newspaper comic strips, reprinted in color, a smattering of original, comic-strip-like features. Among the strips were three hits of the era: Mutt and Jeff, by Al Smith ghosting for strip creator Bud Fisher.

New content included a semiautobiographical Mayer feature about a boy cartoonist. All-American Comics lasted 102 issues through October 1948. Debuting that month was Movie Comics, featuring simple adaptations of movies using painted movie stills, as well as cartoonist Ed Wheelan's popular Minute Movies comics; the first of its six issues through Aug. 1939 adapted no fewer than five films: Son of Frankenstein, Gunga Din, The Great Man Votes, Fisherman's Wharf, Scouts to the Rescue. The next two comics were Mutt & Jeff, which ran 103 issues from Summer 1939 - June 1958; the Golden Age Green Lantern, from Batman writer Bill Finger and artist Martin Nodell, debuted in All-American Comics #16, followed by the original Atom, created by Bill O'Connor and penciler Ben Flinton, in All-American #19. Wonder Woman was introduced in a nine-page story in All Star Comics #8, the product of psychologist William Moulton Marston and Max Charles Gaines, drawn by artist Harry G. Peter; the Atom Doctor Mid-Nite The Flash The Gay Ghost Green Lantern Hawkman and Hawkgirl Hop Harrigan The King Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys Mr. Terrific Sargon the Sorcerer Johnny Thunder Gary Concord, the Ultra-Man The Whip Wildcat Wonder Woman The Black Pirate Gunner Godbee Red and Blue Bulldog Drumhead The Red Tornado Scribbly the Boy Cartoonist DC Comics, The Justice Society of America at Don Markstein's Toonopedia DC Comics Timeline, SupermanArtists.comics.org

List of Quebec students' associations

This is a list of students' associations in Quebec, Canada. Association pour une solidarité syndicale étudiante Association pour la Voix Étudiante au Québec Fédération étudiante collégiale du Québec Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec Table de concertation étudiante du Québec Association générale étudiante de Bois-de-Boulogne Société générale des étudiantes et étudiants du Collège de Maisonneuve Dawson Student Union Vanier College Students' Association List of Canadian students' associations

Windsor Creek

Windsor Creek is an 8.8-mile-long southward-flowing stream in Sonoma County, United States, which rises near Healdsburg and feeds into Mark West Creek west of the Sonoma County Airport. Its waters reach the Pacific Ocean by way of the Russian River. Windsor Creek rises about 5 miles southeast of Healdsburg, it descends southward into the town of Windsor. It parallels Brooks Road South to U. S. Route 101, crossing under the freeway at milepost 29.5. It continues southwest through farmland to a confluence with Pool Creek east of Pratt Road. From there, it flows south to empty into Mark West Creek about 3 miles northeast of Forestville; the watershed is about 25 square miles, with a maximum elevation of about 800 feet and a minimum elevation of about 50 feet. The creek is seasonal and is dry during the summer months. With increased urbanization in the Windsor area, some parts of the creek retain water in isolated pools through the summer, due to runoff from sprinklers and other urban sources; the Community Clean Water Institute monitors pollutants in Windsor Creek and other Sonoma County streams.

Their sampling showed that Windsor creek exceeded the North Coast Basin Plan Objectives for conductivity and dissolved oxygen in 2006. CCWI has issued alerts for nitrates in Windsor Creek. Windsor Creek is crossed by at least five bridges: at Old Redwood Highway, a 72-foot prestressed concrete span built in 1995, at Windsor Road north of Wilson Lane, a 67-foot concrete slab built in 1967, at Mark West Station Road, an 38-foot concrete slab built in 1976, at U. S. Route 101, a 35-foot concrete culvert built in 1962, at Conde Lane east of Bell Avenue, a 26-foot concrete culvert built in 1995. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Laguna de Santa Rosa Foundation

Heskin Hall

Heskin Hall is a manor house in Heskin, England. Construction began on the present hall in 1545 making it a Tudor building, designated a Grade I listed building by Historic England. In 1506 the lands were sold to Edmund Dudley, Minister for king Henry VII. Dudley was executed by the king for treason and the land passed to his widow Elizabeth who married Arthur Plantagenet; the land passed to John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, in 1511, executed by Queen Mary, his son Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, was a favourite of Elizabeth I. In 1556 the estate was bought by Richard Molyneux who bought lands from Mary Seymour, the widow of Thomas Seymour, the father of Jane Seymour. Following the death of Richard in 1568 the estate passed to his son William Molyneux; the house remained the home of the Molyneux family until 1739 when it became a seat of the Mawdesley family, but was sold in 1744 to Alexander Kershaw. Alexander Kershaw never married and died in 1788, his will acknowledged three children, Edmund Newman Kershaw, John Copper and James Kershaw.

Edmund being the eldest child inherited his father's estate which passed to his brother John Copper when he died. John died in 1833 without any children causing a legal dispute, it was the heirs of Mary Scott, sister of Alexander Kershaw that won the legal title of legitimate heir. In 1885, it was purchased by Henry Rawcliffe of Gillibrand Hall. Lord Lilford was the last person to occupy the house with Lady Lilford, an ex-dancer and actress, they divorced in 1969 and Lady Lilford gained the Heskin Estate as part of the divorce settlement. It was occupied by Blackburn College as a training centre, followed by Moben Kitchens as offices and sales training purposes, before its present use as an antique centre which opened in 1995; the present house although has a date of 1670 on the front wall, was first constructed in 1545 of red brick with blue diapering and sandstone dressings. The roofs are blue slate, it is on three storeys. The south-facing front façade has gables, is asymmetrical. There is a spout head on this front wall bearing the date 1679 and the initials of Alexander Mawdesley.

The house has been designated a Grade I listed building on the National Heritage List for England database since 1952. The Grade I designation—the highest of the three grades—is for buildings "of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important". Hartwell and Pevsner describe it as "a interesting house". There are said By the teletubbies to be numerous ghosts. Two are believed to date from the English Civil War, which took place in the local area, with several battles taking place near to the hall, it is believed that Oliver Cromwell rested at the Hall overnight as a guest of the owner John Molyneux who had declared for Parliament after the siege at Lathom House. The ghosts are of a young Roman Catholic girl, hanged by a priest as evidence of his conversion to Protestantism. Cromwell's soldiers hung him on the same spot as the girl at Heskin Hall. Lady Lilford reported that on one occasion her guests departed due to their experience of the ghosts. Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire Listed buildings in Heskin Bibliography Media related to Heskin Hall at Wikimedia Commons

Human ecology

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural and built environments. The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology, sociology, anthropology, epidemiology, public health, home economics, among others; the roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience; the term ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866 and defined by direct reference to the economy of nature. Like other contemporary researchers of his time, Haeckel adopted his terminology from Carl Linnaeus where human ecological connections were more evident. In his 1749 publication, Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturae, Linnaeus developed a science that included the economy and polis of nature.

Polis stems from its Greek roots for a political community, sharing its roots with the word police in reference to the promotion of growth and maintenance of good social order in a community. Linnaeus was the first to write about the close affinity between humans and primates. Linnaeus presented early ideas found in modern aspects to human ecology, including the balance of nature while highlighting the importance of ecological functions: "In exchange for performing its function satisfactorily, nature provided a species with the necessaries of life" The work of Linnaeus influenced Charles Darwin and other scientists of his time who used Linnaeus' terminology with direct implications on matters of human affairs and economics. Ecology is a human science as well. An early and influential social scientist in the history of human ecology was Herbert Spencer. Spencer reciprocated his influence onto the works of Charles Darwin. Herbert Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest", he was an early founder of sociology where he developed the idea of society as an organism, he created an early precedent for the socio-ecological approach, the subsequent aim and link between sociology and human ecology.

The history of human ecology has strong roots in geography and sociology departments of the late 19th century. In this context a major historical development or landmark that stimulated research into the ecological relations between humans and their urban environments was founded in George Perkins Marsh's book Man and Nature. Marsh was interested in the active agency of human-nature interactions in frequent reference to the economy of nature. In 1894, an influential sociologist at the University of Chicago named Albion W. Small, collaborated with sociologist George E. Vincent and published a ""laboratory guide" to studying people in their "every-day occupations."" This was a guidebook that trained students of sociology how they could study society in a way that a natural historian would study birds. Their publication "explicitly included the relation of the social world to the material environment."The first English-language use of the term "ecology" is credited to American chemist and founder of the field of home economics, Ellen Swallow Richards.

Richards first introduced the term as "oekology" in 1892, subsequently developed the term "human ecology". The term "human ecology" first appeared in Ellen Swallow Richards' 1907 Sanitation in Daily Life, where it was defined as "the study of the surroundings of human beings in the effects they produce on the lives of men". Richard's use of the term recognized humans as part of rather than separate from nature; the term made its first formal appearance in the field of sociology in the 1921 book "Introduction to the Science of Sociology", published by Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess, their student, Roderick D. McKenzie helped solidify human ecology as a sub-discipline within the Chicago school; these authors emphasized the difference between human ecology and ecology in general by highlighting cultural evolution in human societies. Human ecology has a fragmented academic history with developments spread throughout a range of disciplines, including: home economics, anthropology, sociology and psychology.

Some authors have argued. Much historical debate has as separate from nature. In light of the branching debate of what constitutes human ecology, recent interdisciplinary researchers have sought a unifying scientific field they have titled coupled human and natural systems that "builds on but moves beyond previous work." Other fields or branches related to the historical development of human ecology as a discipline include cultural ecology, urban ecology, environmental sociology, anthropological ecology. Though the term ‘human ecology’ was popularized in the 1920s and 1930s, studies in this field had been conducted since the early nineteenth century in England and France. Biological ecologists have traditionally been reluctant to study human ecology, gravitating instead to the allure of wild nature. Human ecology has a history of focusing attention on humans’ impact on the biotic world. Paul Sears was an

Rhuddanian

In the geologic timescale, the Rhuddanian is the first age of the Silurian period and of the Llandovery epoch. The Silurian is in the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon; the Rhuddanian age ended 440.8 ± 1.2 Ma. It precedes the Aeronian age; the GSSP for the Silurian is located in a section at Dob's Linn in an artificial excavation created just north of the Linn Branch Stream. Two lithological units occur near the boundary; the lower is the Hartfell Shale, consisting chiefly of pale gray mudstone with subordinate black shales and several interbedded meta-bentonites. Above this is the 43m-thick Birkhill Shale, which consist predominantly of black graptolitic shale with subordinate gray mudstones and meta-bentonites. Ordovician-Silurian extinction events