Tullamore is the county town of County Offaly, in the midlands of Ireland, is located in the centre of the county. It is the fourth most populous town in the midlands region with a population of 14,607 in the 2016 census; the town retained Gold Medal status in the National Tidy Town Awards in 2015 and played host to the World Sheep Dog Trials in 2005 which attracted international interest in the region. The Tullamore Show is held near the town every year; the town's most famous export is Tullamore Dew – an Irish whiskey distilled by Tullamore Distillery – that can be traced back to 1829. The original distillery was shut down in 1954, with the brand being resurrected and produced at the Midleton Distillery, in Cork. However, the brand's new owners, William Grant & Sons, invested in a new distillery near Tullamore, bringing whiskey production back to the town in 2014. In ancient Gaelic Ireland, Tullamore was located in what was known as the landfill territory of Firceall ruled by the O'Molloy clan.
Firceall was part of the ancient Kingdom of Meath. Following the plantation of Offaly in the 16th and 17th centuries, Firceall was divided into the baronies of Ballycowan and Eglish, with Tullamore located in Ballycowan. Tullamore was part of the first English plantation of Offaly in the 1570s. By the mid-1500s the lands that were ruled by the O'Molloy clan were securely "planted" and in the hands of the Moore family. From this point on a dynasty was established which endured into the late nineteenth century, commencing with the grant of the Tullamore area, comprising some 5000 acres, to Sir John Moore in 1622. At that time the Tullamore estate included ten cottages and two water mills. Sir Robert Forth, who leased the lands from Thomas Moore, built a mansion house c.1641 in what is now the Charleville demesne. Charles Moore, Lord Tullamore, grandson of Thomas regained possession of the estate and when he died in 1674 it went via his sister to Charles William Bury. Charles William was created the 1st Earl of Charleville in a second creation of the title.
On 10 May 1785, the town was damaged when the crash of a hot air balloon resulted in a fire that burned down as many as 130 homes, giving the town the distinction of being the location of the world's first known aviation disaster. To this day, the town shield depicts a phoenix rising from the ashes; the event is yearly commemorated by the Phoenix festival which celebrates Tullamore's resurrection from the ashes following the accident. The Grand Canal linked Tullamore to Dublin in 1798. During the Napoleonic Wars, a clash between troops of the King's German Legion and a regiment of British Light Infantry who were both stationed in the town, became known as the Battle of Tullamore. Tullamore became county town of County Offaly in 1835. Tullamore has a long history of whiskey distilling, with two distilleries known to have operated in the town in the 1780s, though closed some years later. Subsequently, a new distillery, was established by Michael Molloy, one the site of one of the old distilleries in 1829.
When Molloy died, the distillery first passed to his brother Anthony, before making its way into the hands of his nephew, Bernard Daly. When Daly died, his son, Captain Bernard Daly took ownership of the business. With an estate in Terenure, Captain Daly left the day-to-day running of the business to Daniel E. Williams, the distillery's general manager, under whose careful watch the distillery grew and prospered, launched Tullamore Dew, the whiskey which bears his initials. Williams brought electricity to Tullamore in 1893; the distillery introduced motorised transport. Williams ran various commercial businesses throughout the Irish midlands – drinks businesses, tea importing and grain retail, a network of 26 general stores. Following this period, Prohibition in the United States, an economic war with Britain in the 1930s, World War II all harmed the industry. Tullamore was one of many Irish distilleries affected by a general decline in Irish whiskey sales worldwide. After World War II, Desmond Williams, grandson of Daniel E. Williams, used modern marketing techniques to re-establish Irish whiskey in world markets.
In 1947, Desmond Williams developed Irish Mist, an Irish liqueur made from a blend of whiskey and honey, using a recipe alleged to have disappeared in the late 17th century and to have been rediscovered in a manuscript 250 years later. Williams capitalised on the Irish coffee concept, promoted blended whiskies; the Tullamore Phoenix Festival was an annual celebration of extreme, art and heritage first held in August 2000. The festival held many events including – Hot Air Balloons, Sky Diving, Live Outdoor Concerts, Street Entertainment, Fire Parade and much more; the Queen of the Land Festival takes place in Tullamore each year on the second weekend in November. A personality contest, it seeks to find the best examples of a modern Irish woman, it is organised by Offaly Macra Na Feirme. Each year about 25 girls between the age of 17 and 35 compete to be crowned Queen of the Land; the festival provides a host of entertainment throughout the town over the weekend at night. An annual Tullamore Show takes place on second Sunday of August every year.
It has grown over the past number of years and is now the largest one day show in the country. It was cancelled in 07 and 08 due to heavy rain, though it did run again in 2009. Agriculture was the show's main focus, but this has broadened over the years to adapt to Irelands changing culture, with entertainment, crafts, lifestyle including
County Tipperary is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster; the county is named after the town of Tipperary, was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the county was 159,553 at the 2016 census; the largest towns are Clonmel and Thurles. Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Between 1838 and 2014 county Tipperary was divided into two ridings/counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, which were unified under the Local Government Reform Act 2014, which came into effect following the 2014 local elections on 3 June 2014. Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 12th largest by population, it is the third largest of the third largest by population. It is the largest landlocked county in Ireland; the region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diverse terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains.
Most of the county is drained by the River Suir. No part of the county touches the coast; the centre is known as'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork. There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty and Offa East and Offa West, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, Middle Third, Ormond Lower, Ormond Upper and Arra and Slievardagh. Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony; the civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was claimed as a lordship.
By 1210, the sheriffdom of Munster shired into the shires of Limerick. In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as liberty; the grant excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the church lands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715; the county was divided once again in 1838. The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; when the Local Government Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils.
Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as "counties". The Local Government Reform Act 2014 has amalgamated the two counties and restored a single county of Tipperary. Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county; the authority is a merger of two separate authorities North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated up until June 2014. The local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the constituency used is: Tipperary, it returns five deputies to the Dáil. Tipperary is referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows".
Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British army during World War I; the song "Slievenamon", traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, is sung at sporting fixtures involving the county. There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary attending the five Gaelscoileanna and two Gaelcholáistí; the area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: to the east of the town the manufacturers Bulmers and Merck & Co.. There is much fertile land in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Dairy farming and cattle raising are the principal occupations. Other industries are the manufacture of meal and flour. Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred
Athy is a market town at the meeting of the River Barrow and the Grand Canal in south-west County Kildare, Ireland, 72 kilometres southwest of Dublin. A population of 9,677 makes it the sixth largest town in Kildare and the 50th largest in the Republic of Ireland, with a growth rate of 60% since the 2002 census. Athy or Baile Átha Í is named after a 2nd-century Celtic chieftain, Ae, said to have been killed on the river crossing, thus giving the town its name "the town of Ae's ford". According to Elizabethan historian William Camden, Ptolemy's map of Ireland circa 150 AD names the Rheban district along the River Barrow as Ῥαίβα. Modern chartography, dismisses the claim by using triangulation and flocking algorithms; this method establishes that Ptolemy's Ῥαίβα was located at Rathcroghan, the traditional capital of the Connachta. A castle existed at Rheban from the Norman period onward; the town at Athy developed from a 12th-century Anglo-Norman settlement to an important stronghold on the local estates of the FitzGerald earls of Kildare, who built and owned the town for centuries.
Athy Priory, a Dominican monastery, was founded in 1253. The Confederate Wars of the 1640s were played out in many arenas throughout Ireland and Athy – for a period of eight years – was one of the centres of war involving the Royalists and the Confederates; the town was bombarded by cannon fire many times and the Dominican Monastery, the local castles and the town's bridge all succumbed to the destructive forces of the cannonball. The current bridge, the Crom-a-Boo Bridge, was built in 1796; the first town charter dates from 1515 and the town hall was constructed in the early 18th century. The completion of the Grand Canal in 1791, linking here with the River Barrow, the arrival of the railway in 1846, illustrate the importance of the town as a commercial centre. From early on in its history Athy was a garrison town loyal to the Crown. English garrisons stayed in the barracks in Barrack Lane after the Crimean War and contributed to the town's commerce. Home for centuries to English soldiers, Athy gave more volunteer soldiers to the Great War of 1914–18 than any other of similar sized town in Ireland.
Athy has evolved as a centre for Hiberno-English, the mix of the Irish and English language traditions. A dialect starting with old Irish beginnings, evolved through Norman and English influences, dominated by a church whose first language was Latin and educated through Irish. Athy in particular was a mixing pot of languages that led to modern Hiberno-English. Positioned at the edge of the Pale, sandwiched between the Irish and English speaking partitions, Athy traded language between the landed gentry, the middle class merchants, the English working class garrison soldiers and the local peasantry. Many locals words borrow from the Irish tradition, such as "bokety", "fooster" or "sleeveen", while words like "kip", "cop-on" or "grinds" have their origins in Old or Middle English; this tradition of spoken word led to a lyrical approach to composition and explains the disproportionate number of writers Athy has produced. Athy becomes subject and object of creative endeavours – the traditional folk song, "Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye", is a prime example.
Other songs in this tradition include "Lanigan's Ball" and "Maid of Athy". Another song of note from the area is called "The Curragh Of Kildare", the first song collected by Robbie Burns. Athy is the surname of a minor character in James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, who tells Stephen Dedalus, the protagonist, that they both have strange surnames and makes a joke about County Kildare being like a pair of breeches because it has Athy in it. Patrick Kavanagh alludes to Athy in his poem Lines Written on a Seat on the Grand Canal, Dublin: "And look! A barge comes bringing from Athy / And other far-flung towns mythologies." On Thursday, 2 July 1903 the Gordon Bennett Cup race was routed through Athy. It was the first international motor race to be held in United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, an honorific to Selwyn Edge who had won the 1902 event in Paris driving a Napier; the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland wanted the race to be hosted in the British Isles, their secretary, Claude Johnson, suggested Ireland as the venue because racing was illegal on British public roads.
The editor of the Dublin Motor News, Richard J. Mecredy, suggested an area in County Kildare and letters were sent to 102 Irish MPs, 90 Irish peers, 300 newspapers, 34 chairmen of county and local councils, 34 County secretaries, 26 mayors, 41 railway companies, 460 hoteliers, 13 PPs, plus the Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, Patrick Foley, who pronounced himself in favour. Local laws had to be adjusted, ergo the'Light Locomotives Bill' was passed on 27 March 1903. Kildare and other local councils drew attention to their areas, whilst Queen's County declared That every facility will be given and the roads placed at the disposal of motorists during the proposed race. Kildare was chosen on the grounds that the straightness of the roads would be a safety benefit; the route consisted of two loops. The first was a 52-mile loop that included Kilcullen, The Curragh, Monasterevin and Athy, followed by a 40-mile loop through Castledermot and Athy again; the race started at the Ballyshannon cross-roads near Calverstown on the contemporary N78 heading north followed the N9 north.
Competitors were started at seven-
Edenderry is a town in east County Offaly, Ireland. It is near the borders with Counties Kildare and Westmeath; the Grand Canal runs along the south of Edenderry, through the Bog of Allen, there is a short spur to the town centre. The R401 road from Kinnegad to the north and the R402 from Enfield to the east meet at the northeastern end of the Main Street. At the Grand Canal they split, with the R402 continuing westwards towards Tullamore and the R401 heads south to Rathangan and Kildare Town; the town enjoyed some growth in the 1950s and 60's with the building of peat burning power stations at Rhode and Portarlington by the Electricity Supply Board ESB. Board Na Mona BNM built peat briquette factories at Mountlucas. In addition they harvested on a seasonal basis peat at Derrygreenagh and Lullymore and harvesting machine turf at Rathangan. Most of these factories and works are now closed. BNM has diversified with the harvesting of peat and a provider of resource recovery, retail services, environmental services and power generation.
The town could be classified as a dormitory town, where a high percentage of the available work force travel to jobs that require at least an hour's commuting time, Counties Dublin and Kildare being the primary destinations. This was evident around 2005 - 2008 when housing was in high demand within the town, resulting in a growth in population and housing stock. In the 16th century, it had the name of Coolestown, after the family of Cooley or Cowley, who had a castle here, defended in 1599 against the Earl of Tyrone's rebellion; this subsequently passed by marriage to the Blundell family and was sacked in 1691 by the army of James II. The Blundells' land passed subsequently to the Marquess of Downshire who reversed the earlier opposition of the Blundell sisters to the establishment of a branch to the Grand Canal to Edenderry and paid for the £692 cost of the project, completed in 1802. By 1716 there was thriving woollen cloth manufacturing, established by Quakers, which employed around 1,000 people.
By 1911 the town had grown to 2,204 people. Other industries included the factory of Daniel Alesbury who made a variety of woodwork as well as the first car manufactured in Ireland, the Alesbury, in 1907. A single railway track connected Edenderry to nearby Enfield or Innfield until 1963; the line provided both passenger and goods service until 1931, goods only until it closed. In the years up to 1963 the line saw infrequent service, carried livestock, sugar beet, turf, as well as private excursions. Little remains of the line, except for occasional landmarks, such as the station house near the town center on the Dublin road, now a commercial business known as Station House Enterprises. Most of the station yard and structures were intact until the late 1980s, with dual engine sheds, loading gantries, a water tank, complete with a gantry hose and station master office. There was a turntable basin located just behind the engine sheds, formed into the side of the hill with a 30' circular retaining wall on two sides, allowing engines to run in be turned and run out.
Locally the town municipal water supply was chlorinated and at times impossible to drink. After the station was closed and the turntable was removed a spring in the turntable basin provided fresh water, was known locally as "Coughlin's well! ". It continued to be used into the 1980s with Offaly County Council maintaining this site for a while; the spring was reached by a set of steps just beside the station master's house off Father Kearns street. The line was begun in 1873 1 1/2 miles west of Innfield as a branch line, the Up only junction being called "Nesbitt Junction". Finance was provided by a Mrs. Nesbit, it was built by railway contractor Bagnell and opened four years in 1877. Running and maintenance was by the Midland Great Western Railway. With no through running for scheduled passenger traffic, it was considered a slip line. For the journey to Dublin passengers from Edenderry would have to wait in the detached coach for a scheduled Up bound train coming through the station, continuing on to Dublin or change platforms for west bound trains.
The population of Edenderry doubled in the 20 years between the census of 1996 and the 2016 census. Neil Delamere, comedian Frantic Jack, Irish Indie Rock band Josef Locke, entertainer Malcolm Edward MacArthur The Offaly Express Newspaper The Offaly Topic Edenderry Chamber of Commerce 4th Offaly Scout Group Edenderry Rugby Club Edenderry\Edenderry GAA Club Edenderry Swimming Pool Edenderry Soccer Club The Irish Parachute Club Edenderry Coarse Angling Club Highfield Golf Club Edenderry Snooker Club Team905 Cycling Club Edenderry Three Day International Coarse Angling Festival Pat Jones Memorial Cycle List of towns and villages in Ireland 4th Offaly Scout Group The Offaly Express Newspaper Edenderry Rugby Club Edenderry GAA Club Edenderry Swimming Pool Edenderry Soccer Club
TG4 is an Irish free-to-air television channel for Irish-language speakers. It launched on 31 October 1996. TG4 is available to watch online live and to view broadcast programmes from around the world through the TG4 Player. TG4 was known as Teilifís na Gaeilge or TnaG, before a rebranding campaign in 1999. TG4 was the third national station to be launched in Ireland; the channel has 650,000 viewers who tune into the channel each day to view a broad programming policy. It has been reported to have a share of 2% of the national television market in the Republic of Ireland and 3% of the national television market in Northern Ireland; the daily Irish-language programme schedule is its core service: seven hours of programming in Irish supported by a wide range of material in other languages English. TG4 launched its high-definition channel in 2012 on Virgin Media Ireland. TG4 TG4 HD TG4 HD launched on 2 October 2012 on UPC Ireland; the first HD broadcast featured the 2012 TG4 Ladies Gaelic Football Championship final.
TG4 HD, similar to RTÉ Two HD, broadcasts sporting programming from national to international events, movies and US programming in high-definition where available. It is anticipated that TG4 will itself start broadcasting its own programming produced in high-definition in the future. Format The channel simulcasts content from TG4 SD and upscales SD content into HD. All other content on the channel will be made available in HD. In 1969, Lelia Doolan, Jack Dowling and Bob Quinn published Sit down and Be Counted, a book describing their campaign for a separate Irish-language television service. Bob Quinn is a film director who produced many documentaries and fiction films through the Irish language on limited budgets, including the first Irish-language feature film Poitín starring Niall Tóibín, Cyril Cusack and Donal McCann; the three writers proposed small temporary buildings for Gaeltacht regional television services broadcasting a limited number of hours each night with programming coming from each of the Gaeltacht regions around the country.
RTÉ and the Irish government had sought to improve the availability of Irish-language programming on RTÉ services. In 1972, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta was set up to provide Irish-language radio services across the country. All radio and television services provided by RTÉ provided some Irish-language programming. In 1980, a new group called. In 1987 they set up the pirate television station Telefís na Gaeltachta, after years of delays, including the sudden death of their technician, to build the transmitter. Eighteen hours of live and pre-recorded programming was broadcast between 2 and 5 November 1987; the transmitter was built at a cost of IR£4,000 through donations from local Gaeltacht communities. In December 1988, further broadcasts were transmitted from three different sites, broadcasting pre-recorded programming; the movement for a national Irish-language television service continued to gain momentum afterwards. In 1989, Ciarán Ó Feinneadha, one of the members of Coiste ar son Teilifís Gaeltachta, moved to Dublin and set up a similar organisation in the capital called Feachtas Náisiúnta Teilifíse.
FTN outlined their demands: A television station to be set up in the Gaeltacht regions serving the Gaeltacht and Irish speakers across the country. It should independent from both editorial and organisational points of view. A special authority set up to run it with representatives from RTÉ, the Department of Communications, Údarás na Gaeltachta, it was suggested that the cap on advertising on RTÉ be removed and the additional funds be designated for the new services. Ray Burke had limited the advertising minutes on RTÉ a few years previously. Hence, there would be no cost to the Exchequer, funding would come from the National Lottery and the television Licence. FTN suggested two hours of programming each day, with the rest of the broadcast hours used for Open University type programming. In the early 1990s, Irish language programmes amounted to only 5% of total programming broadcast by RTÉ, was reduced during the summer months. Programmes included Echo Island for children, current affairs programme Cúrsaí.
Before the birth of TG4, RTÉ had suggested the use of RTÉ Two's prime-time schedule for Irish-language programming. The outgoing coalition parties of Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats called for the establishment of an Irish language television station in their 1989 manifestos. Fianna Fáil stated that they would set up an Irish language television service in the Galway Gaeltacht that would service the whole country; the PDs looked for the setting up of what they called "Teilifís na Gaeltachta". The Green Party's manifesto from 1987 called for the establishment of such a channel. Fianna Fáil entered into coalition with The Labour Party in 1993 and as part of their programme for government they included the setting up of TnaG. Taoiseach Albert Reynolds appointed Michael D. Higgins as Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht and the responsibility for broadcasting moved to his department; this government was replaced by the Rainbow Coalition. The new programme for government sought to launch TnaG as the 3rd channel.
Michael D. Higgins remained as Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht under Taoiseach John Bruton. TnaG launched in 1996; the total cost in establishing the transmission and links networks, the constru
County Laois is a county in Ireland. It is located in the south of the Midlands Region and is located in the province of Leinster, was known as Queen's County; the modern county takes its name from a medieval kingdom. Laois County Council is the local authority for the county. At the 2016 census, the population of the county was 84,697, an increase of 26% since the 2006 census; the first people in Laois were bands of hunters and gatherers who passed through the county about 8,500 years ago. They hunted in the forests that covered Laois and fished in its rivers, gathering nuts and berries to supplement their diets. Next came Ireland’s first farmers; these people of the Neolithic period planted crops. Their burial mounds remain in Cuffsborough. Starting around 2500 BC, the people of the Bronze Age lived in Laois, they produced weapons and golden objects. Visitors to the county can see a stone circle they left behind at Monamonry, as well as the remains of their hill forts at Clopook and Monelly. Skirk, near Borris-in-Ossory, has a Bronze Age standing ring fort.
The body of Cashel Man indicates that ritual killing took place around 2000 BC. The next stage is known as the pre-Christian Celtic Iron Age. For the first time, iron appeared in Ireland, showing up in the weapons used by factions who fought bloody battles for control of the land. At Ballydavis, archaeologists have discovered ring barrows; the county name derives from Loígis. In the 11th century, its dynastic rulers adopted the surname Ua/Ó Mórdha, they claimed descent from a member of the Red Branch Knights. By the first century AD, the western third of Laois was part of the Kingdom of Ossory; the eastern part was divided into seven parts, which were ruled by the Seven Septs of Loígis: O’More, O’Lalor, O’Doran, O’Dowling, O’Devoy, O’Kelly and McEvoy. When Ireland was Christianised, holy men and women founded religious communities in Loígis. St. Ciarán of Saighir founded his monastic habitation in the western Slieve Bloom Mountains as the first bishop of Ossory, reputedly before St. Patrick, his mother Liadán had an early convent.
Between 550 and 600, St. Canice founded Aghaboe Abbey and St. Mochua founded a religious community at Timahoe. An early Christian community lived on the Rock of Dunamase; the Synod of Rathbreasail that established the Irish dioceses was held near Mountrath in 1111, moving the Church away from its monastic base. As religious orders with strong ties to Rome replaced older religious communities, the wooden buildings of the early Christian churches in Laois gave way to stone monasteries; the Augustinians and Dominicans established themselves at Aghaboe Abbey, while the Cistercians took over an older religious community at Abbeyleix. The Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 affected Laois as it was a part of the Kingdom of Leinster. In Laois, the fortress on the Rock of Dunamase was part of the dowry of the Irish princess Aoife, given in marriage in 1170 to the Norman warrior Strongbow. Advancing Normans surveyed the county from wooden towers built on top of earthen mounds, known as mottes, they built stone fortresses, such as Lea Castle, just outside Portarlington.
Several of the county’s towns were first established as Norman boroughs, including Castletown and Timahoe. From 1175 until about 1325, Normans controlled the best land in the county, while Gaelic society retreated to the bogs and the Slieve Bloom Mountains; the early 14th century saw a Gaelic revival, as the chieftains of Loígis caused the Normans to withdraw. The Dempseys seized Lea Castle. Examples of tower houses built by the Irish Mac Giolla Phádraig chieftains are found at Ballaghmore and Cullahill Castle, both decorated with Sheela na gigs. In 1548, the English confiscated the lands of the O’Mores, built "Campa," known as the Fort of Leix, today’s Portlaoise, it was shired in 1556 by Queen Mary as Queen's County, covering the countries of Leix, Slewmarge and that part of Glimnaliry on the southwest side of the River Barrow. Laois received its present Irish language name following the Tan War. Laois was sometimes spelt "Leix". Portlaoise is the county town. Loígis was the subject of two Plantations or colonisations by a mix of Scottish and English settlers.
The first occurred in 1556, when Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex dispossessed the O'Moore clan and attempted to replace them with Scottish and English settlers. However, this only led to a long drawn-out guerilla war in the county and left a small Scottish and English community clustered around garrisons. There was a more successful plantation in the county in the 17th century, which expanded the existing Scottish and English settlement with more landowners and tenants from both Scotland and England. Neither plantation was successful due to a lack of tenants and because of continuous raids and attacks by the O'Moores. In 1659, a group of Quakers led by William Edmundson, settled in Mountmellick, while a group of Huguenots were given refuge in Portarlington in 1666 after their service to William of Orange in the Williamite War in Ireland. What followed was a period of relative calm. Anglo-Irish landowners enclosed the land and built fine houses, including Durrow Castle, Heywood House and Emo Court.
In 1836, a branch of the Grand Canal stretched to Mountmellick, further stimulating industry in that town. The Great Famine of 1845-49 devastated the county; the county’s workhouses coul
The Dublin County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Dublin GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in the Dublin Region and the Dublin inter-county teams. The Dublin Gaelic football team is the Best GAA team in terms of attendance, made up of 286 clubs; the team and its fans are known as "The Dubs" or “Boys in Blue”. The fans have a special affiliation with the Hill 16 end of Croke Park. Dublin GAA has jurisdiction over the area, associated with the traditional county of County Dublin. There are 9 officers on the Board including Seán Shanley. For details on the Board's clubs, see Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in County Dublin and List of Gaelic games clubs in Ireland; the Board is subject to the Leinster GAA Provincial Council. The teams of Dublin GAA play home games at Croke Park, although Parnell Park is the so-called home venue for Dublin GAA. Parnell Park hosts all the major games in the Dublin club Football and Hurling championships.
The current senior football manager is Jim Gavin. The current senior hurling team manager is Pat Gilroy. Dublin claimed five Leinster Senior Football Championships in a row following a one-point victory over Laois in 2005, a nine-point victory over Offaly in 2006, a six-point victory over Laois in 2007, a 23-point victory over Wexford in 2008 and a 3-point victory over Kildare in 2009. Meanwhile, the hurlers retained their status in the Liam MacCarthy Cup; the following members have held notable positions in the GAA: Tom Loftus, former Chairman of the Dublin County Board was appointed Vice Chairman of the GAA Leinster Council and Chairman of the GAA Leinster Council Three men from the Dublin GAA organisation have served as President of the GAA Daniel McCarthy, 1921–1924 Seán Ryan, 1928–1932 Dr. Joseph Stuart, 1958–1961 The GAA conducted a review of the structure of the Dublin GAA organisation in 2002 because of the huge population inequities, investigated the feasibility of dividing the County into more population-appropriate structures.
Plans to divide Dublin into two teams – North Dublin and South Dublin – were proposed in 2002 but rejected by the Dublin County Board. The Board has only decided to divide its development teams; these teams are not considered to be a move towards dividing the county but are in fact a move designed to identify and develop young talent for the County as a whole. The restructured developments teams are North and West. Dublin supporters are known as The Dubs, in the 1970s as Heffo's army. While songs are still popular with the Dublin fans they tend to be Dublin-centric such as Molly Malone and Dublin in the Rare Old Times or focus on the team itself singing Come on you boys in blue; the Hill 16 end in Croke Park is an area for which many Dubs hold a special affection and it is not uncommon to see the Hill filled with Dubs. Dublin supporters have been known to chant "Hill 16 is Dublin only" as a humorous jibe at supporters from rival teams; the Dublin team are sometimes called The Jacks with the ladies called The Jackies.
These names came from a shortening of the word Jackeen. Notable fans include Jim Stynes, golfer Pádraig Harrington, rugby union star Brian O'Driscoll and actor Colm Meaney. In 2003/4, the Dublin County Board tried unsuccessfully to copyright the Dublin crest in use at the time; the crest at the time was declared to be in the public domain by the Irish High Court as it was too similar to other crests in use by Dublin City Council and other Dublin sports bodies. In line with other county boards and in order to prevent further loss of revenue, the county board designed a new crest drawing from the county's historical past which could be copyrighted and registered as a trade mark; the symbolism of the crest is: three castles in flame. The name Áth Cliath in Irish replaces the previous name "Dublin". Till 1918, Dublin wore the colours of the Club Champions as many other counties. In 1918 they adopted the well-known sky shirt with the Dublin shield if the kit has been for many years different compared to the actual one: collar and shorts were in fact white and the socks hooped and blue.
The change to the present look, with dark blue details and socks, was made in 1974. The following is a list of sponsors of the Dublin Senior Football team In October 2013, Dublin signed a new sponsorship deal with insurance firm AIG in excess of €4m over a five-year period; the deal will incorporate ladies football and camogie for the first time. Dublin first won the All-Ireland in 1891 beating Cork by a 2–1 to 1–1 margin, they won the All-Ireland the following year with victory over Kerry. Because of their record, the Dublin team of the 1970s are considered by many to be one of the greatest team of all time; the team of that era won 7 Leinster titles. They were the first team to play in 6 All-Ireland Football Finals in a row from 1974 to 1979, a feat matched by Kerry in 2009. On 25 March 2017, when beating Roscommon by 2–29 to 0–14 in a National League game at Croke Park, Dublin set a new record of playing 35 games in League and Championship without defeat; the previous record, held by Kerry, had stood for 84 years.
Dublin and Meath were involved in one of the most famous of Leinster championship encounters in 1991, the Dublin and Meath 4 in-a-row tie. The teams had to go to three replays in their Leinster Senior Footb