Indian Institutes of Technology
The Indian Institutes of Technology are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India. They are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as institutions of national importance and lays down their powers and framework for governance etc; the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists twenty-three institutes. Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their administration; the Minister of Human Resource Development is the ex-officio Chairperson of IIT Council. As of 2018, the total number of seats for undergraduate programmes in all IITs is 11,279; the first IIT was set up in Kharagpur in 1951, soon in Bombay, Madras and Delhi. An IIT was established in Guwahati in 1994; the University of Roorkee was converted to IIT Roorkee in 2001. Eight new IITs were set up in Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Patna, Bhubaneswar and Mandi in 2008-09. Following same selection process since 1972 in 2012 the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University was given IIT status.
Another six new IITs in Tirupati, Dharwad, Bhilai and Jammu, approved through a 2016 bill amendment were established in 2015-16, along with the conversion of ISM Dhanbad to IIT Dhanbad. The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions, the Joint Entrance Examination - Advanced called the IIT-JEE until 2012. JEE Advanced admits students according to their ranks in the exam; the post-graduate level program that awards M. Tech. MS degrees, the doctoral programme that offers Ph. D. in engineering is administered by the older IITs. M. Tech. and MS admissions are done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. Additionally, IITs award other graduate degrees such as M. Sc in Maths and Chemistry, MBA, etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common Admission Test, Joint Admission Test for M. Sc. and Common Entrance Examination for Design. IIT Guwahati and IIT Bombay offer undergraduate design programmes as well. Joint Seat Allocation Authority conducts the joint admission process for a total of 23 IITs, that offer admission for 10,962 seats in 2017.
The IITs are located in: The history of the IIT system dates back to 1946 when Sir Jogendra Singh of the Viceroy's Executive Council set up a committee whose task was to consider the creation of Higher Technical Institutions for post-war industrial development in India. The 22-member committee, headed by Nalini Ranjan Sarkar, recommended the establishment of these institutions in various parts of India, with affiliated secondary institutions; the first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the site of the Hijli Detention Camp in Kharagpur. The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951. On 15 September 1956, the Parliament of India passed the Indian Institute of Technology Act, declaring it as an Institute of National Importance. Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, in the first convocation address of IIT Kharagpur in 1956 said: On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established at Bombay, Madras and Delhi; the location of these campuses was chosen to be scattered throughout India to prevent regional imbalance.
The Indian Institutes of Technology Act was amended to reflect the addition of new IITs. Student agitations in the state of Assam made Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi promise the creation of a new IIT in Assam; this led to a sixth campus at Guwahati under the Assam Accord in 1960. The University of Roorkee, India's oldest engineering college, was conferred IIT status in 2001. Over the past few years, there have been a number of developments toward establishing new IITs. On 1 October 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced plans to create more IITs "by upgrading existing academic institutions that have the necessary promise and potential". Subsequent developments led to the formation of the S K Joshi Committee in November 2003 to guide the selection of the five institutions which would become the five new IITs. Based on the initial recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, it was decided that further IITs should be spread throughout the country; when the government expressed its willingness to correct this regional imbalance, 16 states demanded IITs.
Since the S K Joshi Committee prescribed strict guidelines for institutions aspiring to be IITs, only seven colleges were selected for final consideration. Plans are reported to open IITs outside India, though not enough progress has been made in this regard. In the 11th Five year plan, eight states were identified for establishment of new IITs and IT-BHU was converted into an IIT. Indian School of Mines at Dhanbad was converted to IIT Dhanbad in 2016; the entire allocation by the Centre in 2017-18 budget for all Indian Institutes of Technology stood at over Rs 7,000 crore. However, what is important to note here is that Indian students spent six times more money on a US degree than what the Centre spends on all IITs combined; the President of India is the most powerful person in the organisational structure of Indian Institutes of Technology, being the ex officio Visitor, having residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council, which comprises the minister-in-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the Director General of CSIR, the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament, the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, three appointees ea
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India. It reports to Education, Ministry of Agriculture; the Union Minister of Agriculture serves as its president. It is the largest network of agricultural education institutes in the world; the Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education has recommended setting up of a constitutional body — the National Commission for Higher Education and Research — which would be a unified supreme body to regulate all branches of higher education including agricultural education. Presently, regulation of agricultural education is the mandate of ICAR, Veterinary Council of India and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education; the UPA government has included Yashpal Committee recommendations in its'100 days agenda'. Premier institute of agriculture in India As of July, 2006 it has developed a vaccine against bird flu; the vaccine was developed at the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, the only facility in the country to conduct tests for the H5N1 variant of bird flu.
It was entrusted with the task of developing a vaccine by the ICAR after the Avian Influenza outbreak in February. The ICAR was provided Rs. 8 crore for the purpose. 2009: In December 2009, it announced that it was considering a policy to provide open access to its research. 2010: In March 2010, ICAR made its two flagship journals as Open Access Journals. 2013: On 13 September 2013, it announced the Open Access Policy and committed for making all the public funded scholarly research outputs available via open access repositories. ICAR scientists were the first in the world to sequence the pigeon pea genome, it was a purely indigenous effort by 31 scientists led by Nagendra Kumar Singh of NRCPB. The first draft of the sequence was published in J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol; as of October 2017, ICAR has following institutions: 6 Deemed Universities 64 ICAR Institutions 15 National Research Centres 6 National Bureaux 25 Directorates/Project Directorates Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttar Pradesh National Dairy Research Institute, Haryana Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Maharashtra Central Agroforestry Research Institute, Jhansi Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Old Goa, Goa Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hissar Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Uttar Pradesh Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom Central Institute for Women in Agriculture, Bhubaneshwar Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubneshwar Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai Central Institute of Sub Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar Central Institute on Post harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, Barrackpore Central Research Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Rajasthan Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Jharkhand Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi Indian Grassland and Fevener Research Institute, Jhansi Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ranchi Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research, Modipuram Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru Indian Institute of Maize Research,New Delhi Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Eluru Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Seed Research, Mau Indian Institute of Soil Sciences, Bhopal Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneshwar Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal National Academy of Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Maharashtra National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru National Institute of Biotic Stresses Management, Raipur National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack Sugarcane Breeding Institute
Kanpur is a large city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city is famous for its textile industries, it is 11th most populous urban agglomeration in India and largest urban agglomeration in Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur was an important British garrison town until 1947. Kanpur the administrative headquarter of Kanpur district and Kanpur division. Located on the west bank of the Ganges River, it is a principal trade and commercial centre in North India with the first woollen mill of India, the British India Corporation established here in 1876 by Alexander McRobert; the city is regarded as "The Leather City of the World" and is nicknamed as "Manchester of India". According to 2011 Indian census, it is the eleventh most populous urban city while the population of city and its suburb were around 5 million making it the eighth-most populous metropolitan area in India. In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, which came to be known as Kanpur. In 2018, was considered by the World Health Organization as the city with the world's worst air pollution.
In the 19th century, Cawnpore was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British men and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa, they surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad. Though controversy surrounds what happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured; some of the British officers claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre.
Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come. Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar. After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages; the rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby; the British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women and old men. The Cawnpore Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.
"Remember Cawnpore" became a war cry for British for the rest of the rebellion. The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometres around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, on the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to; the metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee, Unnao Municipal Committee, Akbarpur Village Authority and Bithoor Village Authority area. In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare was non-defined and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare was urban and rural area respectively. As per the provisional results of 2011 census, Kanpur city has a population of 2,767,031; the literacy rate was 84.14 per cent and sex ratio was 842.
The Kanpur urban agglomeration had a population of 2,920,067 with a literacy rate of 83.98% and a sex ratio of 842. There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire Temple at The Mall. Kanpur is majority Hindu with sizeable minorities of Buddhist and Muslims. Kanpur division which consists of seven districts, is headed by the divisional commissioner of Kanpur, an Indian Administrative Service officer of high seniority, the commissioner is the head of local government institutions in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, is responsible for maintaining law and order in the division; the district magistrate of Kanpur reports to the divisional commissioner. The current commissioner is Pradeep Kumar Mohanty. Kanpur district administration is headed by the district magistrate of Kanpur, an IAS officer; the DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.
The DM is assisted by a chief development officer. The district has three tehsils viz. Sadar and Ghatampur, each headed by a sub-divisio
Gurgaon named Gurugram, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi-Haryana border, about 30 kilometres southwest of the national capital New Delhi, 153 km south of Karnal and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital, it is one of the major satellite cities of Delhi and is part of the National Capital Region of India. As of 2011, Gurgaon had a population of 876,900. Gurgaon has become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third-highest per capita income in India; the city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s. Today, Gurgaon has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies. In March 2019, Gurgaon was named the most polluted city in the world, according to data released by IQ Air Visual and Greenpeace; the region of Gurgaon fell under the Kuru Kingdom. The earliest people to inhabit the city were Hindus of the Ahir clan during the vedic era.
Yadu tribes were a part of this clan and today their descendants hold the last name Yadav. In the Mahabharata, Gurgaon is described as the village of Guru Dronacharya, the guru of the Kauravas and Pandavas. In late 4th century BCE, the city was absorbed by the Maurya Empire as part of Chandragupta Maurya's earliest expansions of his kingdom. Gurgaon may be same as the Gudapura town mentioned in the 12th century text Prithviraja Vijaya. According to the text, Nagarjuna, a cousin of the Chahamana king Prithviraj Chauhan, rebelled against the king and captured the town. Prithviraj crushed the rebellion, recaptured the town. During mughal and during the British colonial era, Gurguram was just a small village in Jharsa paragana of Delhi subah. Report of a Tour in Eastern Rajputana in 1882-83 by Alexander Cunningham, the Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India, he mentions a stone pillar at Gurugaon of a local feudal lord "Durgga Naga" with a 3-line inscription "Samvat 729 or 928, Vaisakh badi 4, Durgga Naga lokatari bhuta" dating back to 672 AD or 871 AD.
Jharsa paragana passed to Begum Samru in 1776-77 and came under direct British rule in 1836 after her death when her territory was taken over by the British who established a civil lines at Jharsa and a cavalry cantonment at nearby Hiyadatpur. A 1882 land revenue settlement report records that the idol of Sitla Mata was brought to Gurugram 400 years earlier. Begum Samru claimed the offering to Sitla Mata temple during the Chaitra month and the revenue from the offerings given to the deity for rest of the month was distributed among the prominent Jat zamindars of the area. In 1818, Bharawas district was disbanded and Gurugram was made a new district. In 1821, the Bharaswas cantonment was moved to Hidayatpur in Gurugram. "Aliwardi mosque" in Gurugram, "Badshahpur baoli". and "Bhondsi" were built during mughal and British era. The "Church of the Epiphany" and "Kaman Serai" was built by the Britishers in 1925 inside the civil lines. On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to rename the city Gurugram, subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government.
He argued that the new name would help to preserve the "rich heritage" of the city by emphasising its history and mythological association with Dronacharya. On 27 September 2016, he announced that the Union Government had approved the name change, thus the city and district would henceforth be known as Gurugram, though the old name "Gurgaon" still lingers in the colloquial usage. Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, northern part of the country; the city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its northeast. The city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres The average land elevation is 217 metres above sea level. Gurugram lies on the Sahibi River, a tributary of Yamuna which originates from the Aravalli range in Rajasthan and flows through west and South Haryana into Delhi where it is known as the Najafgarh drain; the paleochannel and the current course of the Sahibi river have series of biodiversity hotspots and Important Bird Area wetlands and forests within Gurugam, including the Outfall Drain Number 6, Outfall Drain Number 8, Sarbashirpur wetland, Sultanpur National Park, Basai wetland, Najafgarh lake and Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary, Ghata lake, Badshahpur lake, Khandsa lake and The Lost lake of Gurugram.
Other IBA wetlands along the Saibi river, outside Gurugram district, are the Masani barrage wetland, Matanhail forest, Chhuchhakwas-Godhari, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, etc. All of these are home to endangered and migratory birds. Most of these remain unprotected; these are under extreme threat from the colonisers and builders. Mangar Bani, a sacred grove and forest with wetlands between Gurugram and Faridabad, is one of the last surviving natural forest in NCR is protected by Gurjars of nearby area. Continguous to Mangar bani are Bandhwari forested area. All of these lie on the Southern Delhi Ridge of Aravalli range. Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced Composite climate; the city experiences four distinct seasons - spring, fall/autumn and winter, along
Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India; the city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists, it was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists; as such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.
Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network list for its rich musical tradition; the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.
The name Chennai is of Telugu origin. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639; the first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company before the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholars argue for the contrary. The name Madras is of native origin, has been shown to be in use before the British presence in India. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain.
The British military mapmakers believed Madras was Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of rulers of nayakasThere are suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city referring to a Church of St. Mary. In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, pre-historic communities resided in the settlement; the region around Chennai has served as an important administrative and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named. From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas; the Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period; the Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai. On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.
Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful i
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci