Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space.
Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages.
Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi.
In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia
Alexander Beresford Hope
Sir Alexander James Beresford Beresford Hope PC, known as Alexander Hope until 1854, was a British author and Conservative politician. Beresford Hope was educated at Harrow and Trinity College and his father died in 1831 and his mother married as her second husband her first cousin General William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford. In 1854 he inherited his stepfathers estates, including Bedgebury Park and Beresford Hall and his brother was Henry Thomas Hope. He sat as Member of Parliament for Maidstone from 1841 to 1852 and he unsuccessfully contested Cambridge University in 1859 and Stoke-upon-Trent in 1862, but was successfully returned for the former constituency in 1865. From 1868 until his death he was one of two representatives for Cambridge University, from 1865 he sat as an independent Conservative. He vehemently opposed the Reform Act of 1867 proposed by Benjamin Disraeli, Disraeli retorted by alluding to Beresford Hopes Batavian graces. He never held office but was sworn of the Privy Council in 1880.
Beresford Hopes most prominent public feature was his ardent support for the Church of England, according to George Wakeling, in Parliament his voice, in his slow, rather harsh, but very impressive way, would be raised on every Church question. He was especially steadfast in his opposition to the Deceased Wifes Sister Bill, while at Trinity College in 1839, he was, along with John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb a founder of the Cambridge Camden Society. He re-established it in 1879 as the St Pauls Ecclesiological Society A very wealthy man, he purchased St Augustines Abbey in Canterbury in 1844, to rebuild it as a college for missionary clergy. He supervised the commissioning and construction of the church of All Saints, Margaret Street, London and he co-founded the Saturday Review in 1855. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1880, in 1873 he was invited to lay the foundation stone of the new Christ Church in St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex. Beresford Hope was active in the funding Canon Nathaniel Woodards national network of Woodard Schools, Beresford Hope married Lady Mildred Arabella Charlotte Henrietta, daughter of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury, and sister of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, in 1842.
They had three sons and seven daughters, Lady Mildred was a leading figure in London society for many years. Beresford Hope survived her by six years and died in October 1887, aged 67, at his home in Bedgebury Park, Goudhurst and he was buried at Christ Church, Kent. His daughter, married Alban Gibbs, 2nd Baron Aldenham, essays English cathedrals in the XIX. Article on Alexander Beresford Hope at americancivilwar. org Lee, Sidney, ed. Hope, works by or about Alexander Beresford Hope at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Alexander Beresford Hope
Tree of Jesse
It originates in a passage in the biblical Book of Isaiah which describes metaphorically the descent of the Messiah, and is accepted by Christians as referring to Jesus. The various figures depicted in the lineage of Jesus are drawn from those listed in the Gospel of Matthew. The subject is seen in Christian art, particularly in that of the Medieval period. The earliest example dates from the 11th century and in an illuminated manuscript, there are many examples in Medieval psalters, because of the relation to King David, son of Jesse, and writer of the Psalms. Other examples are in stained glass windows, stone carvings around the portals of cathedrals and painting on walls. The Tree of Jesse appears in art forms such as embroideries and ivories. Depictions of the Jesse Tree are based on a passage from the Book of Isaiah, and there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots. From the Latin Vulgate Bible used in the Middle Ages, et egredietur virga de radice Iesse et flos de radice eius ascendet, flos, pl flores is Latin for flower.
Virga is a twig, rod or broom, as well as a convenient near-pun with Virgo or Virgin. Thus Jesus is the Virga Jesse or stem of Jesse, in the New Testament the lineage of Jesus is traced by two of the Gospel writers, Matthew in descending order, and Luke in ascending order. Lukes Gospels description in chapter 3 begins with Jesus himself and is traced all the way back, via Nathan to David and on to Adam, which was of God. Matthews Gospel opens with the words, The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, with this beginning, Matthew shows the Abrahamic and royal descent, passing through David, but through Solomon. See Genealogy of Jesus for more explanation of the differences, but both lineages permit the interpretation that Jesus is the stem of Jesse by his descent from Jesses son, David. Pictorial representations of the Jesse Tree show a tree or vine with spreading branches to represent the genealogy in accordance with Isaiahs prophecy. As to the rod, it symbolises Mary as the flower symbolises Jesus Christ, between them, these groups were responsible for much of the patronage of the arts.
The form is used as a table in such disciplines as biology. It is used to show lines of responsibility in personnel structures such as government departments, when the angel Moroni spoke to Joseph Smith, he cited Old Testament passages telling of significant figures who would be involved with Christs millennial reign. As prophesied in Isaiah, it appears that two persons are spoken of, a rod and a root – the rod being a leader on whom there is laid much power, the root being a person with special priesthood keys
In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. The baptistery may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral, in the early Church, the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery. The sacramental importance and sometimes architectural splendor of the baptistery reflect the importance of baptism to Christians. The octagonal plan of the Lateran Baptistery, the first structure built as a baptistery, provided a widely followed model. In a narthex or anteroom the catechumens were instructed and made their confession of faith before baptism, the main interior space centered upon the baptismal font, in which those to be baptized were immersed thrice. Three steps led down to the floor of the font, the iconography of frescos or mosaics on the walls were commonly of the scenes in the life of Saint John the Baptist. The font was at first always of stone, but latterly metals were often used, the Lateran baptisterys font was fed by a natural spring.
When the site had been the dwelling of the Laterani, before Constantine presented it to Bishop Miltiades. It will be quickly apprehended that as the requirements for Christian baptisteries expanded, there are examples of the transition from miraculous springs to baptisteries from Gregory of Tours and Maximus, bishop of Turin. Baptisteries belong to a period of the church when great numbers of adult catechumens were baptized, after the 9th century, with infant baptism increasingly the rule, few baptisteries were built. Some of the older baptisteries were very large, so large that we hear of councils, during the months when there were no baptisms the baptistery doors were sealed with the bishops seal, a method of controlling the orthodoxy of all baptism in the diocese. Some baptisteries were divided into two parts to separate the sexes, sometimes the church had two baptisteries, one for each sex, a fireplace was often provided to warm the neophytes after immersion. Though baptisteries were forbidden to be used as burial-places by the Council of Auxerre they were not uncommonly used as such, the Florentine Antipope John XXIII was buried in the Baptistery facing Florences Duomo with great ceremony and a tomb erected.
Many of the archbishops of Canterbury were buried in the baptistery at Canterbury. Baptisteries, we find from the records of early councils, were first built, as soon as Christianity made such progress that baptism became the rule, and as soon as immersion gave place to sprinkling, the ancient baptisteries were no longer necessary. They are still in use, however, in Florence. The baptistery of the Lateran must be the earliest ecclesiastical building still in use, a large part of it remains as built by Constantine. Attached to one side, towards the Lateran basilica, is a porch with two noble porphyry columns and richly carved capitals and entablatures
He was born on the 19 September 1806 at 48 Marischal Street in Aberdeen, the son of Dr William Dyce of Fonthill and Cuttlehill FRSE and Margaret Chalmers of Westburn. His uncle was General Alexander Dyce FRSE and his older brother was Prof Robert Dyce FRSE. Dyce began his career at the Royal Academy schools, and travelled to Rome for the first time in 1825, while he was there, he studied the works of Titian and Poussin. He returned to Rome in 1827, this time staying for a year and a half, after these travels, he settled for several years in Edinburgh. He supported himself by painting portraits at first, but soon took to other subjects of art, before taking up this post in 1838 he and a colleague were sent to visit France and Germany to enquire into design education there and prepare a report. He left the school in 1843, to be able to paint more, the ideas that were turned in the following decade into the South Kensington system that dominated English art education for the rest of the century really have their origin in Dyces work.
He is less known for, but nevertheless important as, the founder of the Motett Society and he was noted as an able organist, and is reputed to have composed some musical works. Dyce died in Streatham in Surrey on 14 February 1864 and he is buried in the churchyard of St Leonards Church in Streatham. He is memorialised on his parents grave in St Nicholas Churchyard on Union Street in Aberdeen and his most highly thought of painting today is his exceptionally detailed seaside landscape of Pegwell Bay in Kent, now in the Tate Gallery. A rather atypical work, it is fully titled Pegwell Bay, Kent – a Recollection of October 5th 1858, the largest collection of William Dyces work is held at Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scotland. Later in his career, Dyce turned to fresco-painting, and was selected to execute a series of murals at the completed the Palace of Westminster. In preparation for work at Westminster, he returned to Italy in 1845–47 and he was particularly impressed by Pinturicchios frescoes in the Piccolomini Library in Siena, and by the works of Perugino.
Dyce was commissioned to decorate the Queens Robing Room in the Palace and he chose as his subject the Arthurian legends, He had some difficulty adapting the Courtly love of Malorys tales to Victorian mores. The Arthurian legend became popular in the Victorian period, but when Dyce received the commission to decorate the room in 1847, the legend soon became a major problem for Dyce, as it turns on the unfaithfulness of a queen, which causes the fall of a kingdom. After initially experimenting with a sequence in which the tale would unfold in the rooms panels. In their finished form, Dyces frescoes depict scenes from the Arthurian legend that are intended to exemplify the virtues inscribed beneath them, the virtues depicted are Mercy, Generosity and Courtesy. Two projected frescoes and Fidelity, were never executed and he was working on the frescoes in Westminster when he collapsed, and died at his home in Streatham on 14 February 1864. He was buried at St Leonards Church, Streatham, a nearby drinking fountain, designed in the neo-Gothic style by Dyce, was subsequently dedicated to him by the parishioners
George Chandler was an American actor best known for playing the character of Uncle Petrie Martin on the CBS television series Lassie. He was born in Waukegan, Illinois on June 30,1898, during his infancy, his family moved to Hinsdale, Illinois. Early in his career, he had an act, billed as George Chandler, the Musical Nut. Chandler served in the United States Army during World War I and he guest starred on the Reed Hadley CBS legal drama The Public Defender. He appeared as the character Ames in the two-part episode King of the Dakotas in the 1955 NBC western anthology series Frontier, in 1954-1955, he was cast in two episodes of the NBC sitcom Its a Great Life. He appeared in the 1956 episode Joey and the Stranger of the NBC childrens western series and he was cast as Clay Hunnicutt in the 1957 episode The Giveaway of Jackie Coopers NBC sitcom, The Peoples Choice. In 1958, Chandler appeared as Cleveland McMasters opposite Marjorie Main as the frontierswoman Cassie Tanner in the episode The Cassie Tanner Story on NBCs Wagon Train, in the 1960-1961 television season, Chandler guest starred on an episode of Frank Aletters one-season CBS sitcom, Bringing Up Buddy.
In the 1961-1962 television season, Chandler co-starred with Robert Sterling, Reta Shaw, Jimmy Hawkins, Burt Mustin, Chandler debuted in film in 1929. In 1960, Chandler was elected president of the Screen Actors Guild, Chandler died in Panorama City, California of cancer, on June 10,1985, at the age of eighty-six. George Chandler at the Internet Movie Database George Chandler at Find a Grave
It is characterised by its mixed-use of residential, retail and healthcare, with no single activity dominating. The historically bohemian area was home to such writers as Virginia Woolf, George Bernard Shaw. The neighbourhood is classified as above-averagely deprived, and parts of it have the worst living environment in the according to a government report. In 2016 the Sunday Times named the district as the best place to live in London, Fitzrovia is probably named after the Fitzroy Tavern, a public house situated on the corner of Charlotte Street and Windmill Street within the district. Until the end of the 19th century the area now includes Fitzrovia belonged to the Duke of Grafton and his family, their surname is Fitzroy. The name was adopted during the years initially by and in recognition of the artistic. The name Fitzrovia was recorded in print for the first time by Tom Driberg MP in the William Hickey gossip column of the Daily Express in 1940. The writer and dandy Julian MacLaren-Ross recalled in his Memoirs of the Forties that Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu aka Tambi, Tambi had apparently claimed to have coined the name Fitzrovia.
Maclaren-Ross recalls Tambimuttu saying, Now we go to the Black Horse, the Burglars Rest, maclaren-Ross replied, I know the Fitzroy to which Tambimuttu said, Ah, that was in the Thirties, now they go to other places. Tambimuttu took him on a pub crawl, the Fitzroy Tavern was named after Charles FitzRoy, who first developed the northern part of the area in the 18th century. FitzRoy purchased the Manor of Tottenhall and built Fitzroy Square, to which he gave his name, the square is the most distinguished of the original architectural features of the district, having been designed in part by Robert Adam. The south-western area was first developed by the Duke of Newcastle who established Oxford Market, in addition to Fitzroy Square and nearby Fitzroy Street, there are numerous locations named for the FitzRoy family and Devonshire/Portland family, both significant local landowners. Charles FitzRoy was the grandson of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and his wife Margaret Harley lend their names to Portland Place, Great Portland Street and Harley Street.
Margaret Harley was daughter of Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, for whom Oxford Street, the Marquessate of Titchfield is a subsidiary title to the Dukedom of Portland, hence Great Titchfield Street. The name of the Grafton familys country estate is Euston Hall, two of Londons oldest surviving residential walkways can be found in Fitzrovia. Colville Place and the pre-Victorian Middleton Buildings are in the old London style of a way, another notable modern building is the YMCA Indian Student Hostel on Fitzroy Square, one of the few surviving buildings by Ralph Tubbs. The Candy brothers scheme, which was unpopular with local people, stanhope plc took over the project, and proposed a short term project which would allow residents to create temporary allotments on the site until a new development was started. However, the Icelandic bank Kaupthing, which had a controlling interest in the site, announced in March 2010 its intention to sell the site on the open market, in July 2010, the site passed into the ownership of Aviva Investments and Exemplar Properties
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius, located in Numidia, Augustine is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions, according to his contemporary, Augustine established anew the ancient Faith. In his early years, he was influenced by Manichaeism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin, when the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview, the segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople closely identified with Augustines On the Trinity.
Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, and he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death, Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants, especially Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation. Lutherans, and Martin Luther in particular, have held Augustine in preeminence, Luther himself was a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, some of his teachings are disputed and have in the 20th century in particular come under attack by such theologians as John Romanides, but other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque, which has been rejected by the Orthodox Church, other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.
Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is considered a saint. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 28 August and he was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. Augustine was the bishop of Hippo Regius, located in Numidia and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions, Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in Roman Africa. His mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian, in his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage
Christ in Majesty
The image develops from Early Christian art, which directly borrowed the formulae of depictions of the enthroned Roman Emperor. John the Baptist, and often other figures, the central group of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus of 359 is the earliest example with a clear date. This depiction is known as the Traditio legis, or Christ the lawgiver - the apostles are indeed officials and this depiction tends to merge into one of Christ the teacher, which derives from classical images of bearded philosophers. Other Imperial depictions of Christ, standing as a general, or seated on a ball representing the world. Christ Triumphant had a future development, usually standing, often with both hands raised high. The Pantocrator figure first became half-length because large versions filled the semi-dome of the apse of many, if not most, a full-length figure would need to be greatly reduced for the head to make maximum impact from a distance. The gesture Christ makes has become one of blessing, but is originally an orators gesture of his right to speak.
The Deesis became standard at the centre of the beam in Orthodox churches and the templons successor, the iconostasis. Generally the Pantocrator has no visible throne, but the earlier Deesis does, the Deesis continues to appear in Western art, but not as often or in such an invariable composition as in the East. In the Romanesque period the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse are often seen, Christ holds a book and makes the blessing gesture, no doubt under Byzantine influence. In both, Christs head is surrounded by a crossed halo and this development paralleled the movement towards a more realistic depiction of the heavenly court seen in the increasingly popular subjects of the Maestà and the Coronation of the Virgin by Christ. A Christ in Majesty became standard carved in the tympanum of a decorated Gothic church portal, by now surrounded by a large number of much smaller figures around the archivolts. In painting, the Ghent Altarpiece is the culmination of the Gothic image, although a minority of art historians believe that in case it is God the Father, not Christ.
A variant figure, or the figure in a different context, of Christ as Judge, became common in Last Judgements. Generally Christ still looks straight forward at the viewer, but has no book, he gestures with his hands to direct the damned downwards
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to the Magna Carta and before, adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. As the name suggests, the churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by bonds of tradition and they are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession, and writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism, the word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church.
Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans, as an adjective, Anglican is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion, the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is sometimes considered as a misuse. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century, although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. Elsewhere, the term Anglican Church came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity, as such, it is often referred to as being a via media between these traditions. Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as containing all necessary for salvation and as being the rule.
Reason and Tradition are seen as means to interpret Scripture. Anglicans understand the Apostles Creed as the symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicans celebrate the sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist, called Holy Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries and it was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world, in 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was Archbishop of Canterbury. The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea, according to Anglican legend, Saint Alban, who was executed in 209 AD, is the first Christian martyr in the British Isles.
A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core, what resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices
Polychrome is the practice of decorating architectural elements, etc. in a variety of colors. The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, some very early polychrome pottery has been excavated on Minoan Crete such as at the Bronze Age site of Phaistos. In ancient Greece sculptures were painted in strong colors, the paint was frequently limited to parts depicting clothing, and so on, with the skin left in the natural color of the stone. But it could cover sculptures in their totality, the painting of Greek sculpture should not merely be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. On high-quality bronzes like the Riace bronzes, an early example of polychrome decoration was found in the Parthenon atop the Acropolis of Athens. By the time European antiquarianism took off in the 18th century, however, some classicists such as Jacques Ignace Hittorff noticed traces of paint on classical architecture and this slowly came to be accepted.
An example of classical Greek architectural polychrome may be seen in the full size replica of the Parthenon exhibited in Nashville, throughout medieval Europe religious sculptures in wood and other media were often brightly painted or colored, as were the interiors of church buildings. The exteriors of churches were painted as well, but little has survived, exposure to the elements and changing tastes and religious approval over time acted against their preservation. With the arrival of European porcelain in the 18th century, brightly colored pottery figurines with a range of colors became very popular. Polychrome brickwork is a style of brickwork which emerged in the 1860s. It was often used to replicate the effect of quoining and to decorate around windows, early examples featured banding, with examples exhibiting complex diagonal, criss-cross, and step patterns, in some cases even writing using bricks. In the 1970s and 1980s, architects working with bold colors included Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, Polychrome building facades rose in popularity as a way of highlighting certain trim features in Victorian and Queen Anne architecture in the United States.
The rise of the paint industry following the civil war helped to fuel the use of multiple colors. These earned the endearment Painted Ladies, a term that in modern times is considered kitsch when it is applied to describe all Victorian houses that have painted with period colors. John Joseph Earley developed a process of concrete slab construction and ornamentation that was admired across America. In the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, his products graced a variety of buildings — all formed by the staff of the Earley Studio in Rosslyn, earleys Polychrome Historic District houses in Silver Spring, Maryland were built in the mid-1930s. The concrete panels were pre-cast with colorful stones and shipped to the lot for on-site assembly, less well-known, but just as impressive, is the Dr. Fealy Polychrome House that Earley built atop a hill in Southeast Washington, D. C. overlooking the city. His uniquely designed polychrome houses were outstanding among prefabricated houses in the country, appreciated for their Art Deco ornament, the term polychromatic means having several colors
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood. In another sense, a tile is a tile or similar object. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts, the earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis, tiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools.
Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship, tiling from this period can be seen Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura. The Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed tiles, including Darius the Greats palace at Susa. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist mainly of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used mostly for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls, seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples. The dome of Jame Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period, the golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces, after hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings.
But the mosaic was not limited to flat areas, Tiles were used to cover both the interior and exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz. Other important tile techniques of time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih. Mihrabs, being the points of mosques, were usually the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed