The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Southwold is a small town and civil parish on the English North Sea coast in the East Suffolk district of Suffolk. It lies at the mouth of the River Blyth within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the town is about 11 miles south of Lowestoft, 29 miles north-east of Ipswich and 97 miles north-east of London, within the parliamentary constituency of Suffolk Coastal. The "All Usual Residents" 2011 Census figure gives a total of 1,098 persons for the town; the 2012 Housing Report by the Southwold and Reydon Society concluded that 49 per cent of the dwellings in the town are used as second homes and let to holiday-makers. Southwold was mentioned in Domesday Book as a fishing port, after the "capricious River Blyth withdrew from Dunwich in 1328, bringing trade to Southwold in the 15th century", it received its town charter from Henry VII in 1489. Over the following centuries, however, a shingle bar built up across the harbour mouth, preventing the town from becoming a major Early Modern port: "The shingle at Southwold Harbour, the mouth of the Blyth, is shifting," William Whittaker observed in 1887.
Southwold was the home of a number of Puritan emigrants to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s, notably a party of 18 assembled under Rev. Young, which travelled in the Mary Ann in 1637. Richard Ibrook, born in Southwold and a former bailiff of the town, emigrated to Hingham, along with Rev. Peter Hobart, son of Edmund Hobart of Hingham, Norfolk. Rev. Hobart had been an assistant vicar of St Edmund's Church, after graduating from Magdalene College, Cambridge. Hobart married in daughter of his fellow Puritan Richard Ibrook; the migrants to Hingham were led by Robert Peck, vicar of St Andrew's Church in Hingham and a native of Beccles. A fire in 1659 devastated most of the town and damaged St Edmund's Church, whose original structure dated from the 12th century; the fire created a number of open spaces within the town. Today this "series of varied and delightful village greens" and the restriction of expansion by the surrounding marshes, have preserved the town's genteel appearance. On the green just above the beach, descriptively named Gun Hill, the six 18-pounder cannon commemorate the Battle of Sole Bay, fought in 1672 between English and French fleets on one side and the Dutch on the other.
The battle was bloody but indecisive and many bodies were washed ashore. Southwold Museum has a collection of mementos of the event, it has been said that these cannon were captured from the Scots at Culloden and given to the town by the Duke of Cumberland, who had landed at Southwold in October 1745 having been recalled from Europe to deal with the Jacobite threat, but they are much larger than those used by Charles Edward Stuart's army in that campaign. During World War I, it was thought that these cannon were one reason why this part of the coast was bombarded by the German Fleet as a "fortified coast". In World War II the cannon were prudently removed, reputedly buried for safety, returned to their former position after hostilities. On 15 May 1943 low-flying German fighter-bombers killed eleven people. Up to 1 April 2019, Southwold was part of the Southwold and Reydon electoral ward, in the Waveney District Council area; the population of this ward, taken at the 2011 census, was 3,680. Although the town lost its independent Municipal Borough status in the Local Government reforms of 1974 and consequent incorporation in Waveney District, it continues to have an elected, non-partisan Town Council and Mayor.
With the 1 April 2019 amalgamation of the Waveney and Suffolk Coastal district councils to form a new East Suffolk "super council", Southwold is now in an expanded ward with Reydon and Walberswick. Where once the Southwold and Reydon ward, under Waveney District, elected two councillors, the new Southwold ward will be represented at East Suffolk district by one councillor only. Although once home to a number of different industries, Southwold's economy nowadays is based on services, hotels, holiday accommodation and tourism. With the surrounding areas given over to agriculture, the town is an important commercial centre for the area, with a number of independent shops, cafés and restaurants. However, there has been a marked trend in recent years for retailing chains, including food and beverages and stationery shops, to take over independent retail premises. Adnams Brewery is located in Southwold, is the town's largest single employer. Although the fishing fleet and the industry is much diminished, Southwold Harbour remains one of the main fishing ports on the Suffolk coastline.
In 2012, additional facilities for the fleet were constructed there, as part of the repair and reinstatement of the Harbour's North Wall. Southwold Primary School, adjacent to St. Edmund's Church caters for children aged 2 to 11 years; as a member of the Yox Valley Partnership of Schools, it works in partnership with Yoxford and Peasenhall Primary School in Yoxford and Middleton Primary School, near Dunwich. Until it closed in 1990, the nearest secondary school for Southwold children was Reydon High School. Thereafter, most pupils were bused to either the Sir John Leman High School in Beccles or to Bungay High School; these schools have been joined by Beccles Free School, opened in 2012 and catering for pupils aged 11–16. Following a decision by Suffolk County Council on changes to free school transport, the default 11–16 secondary school for Southwold and Reydon stude
Ellough is a village and civil parish in the Waveney district, in the English county of Suffolk, located 3 miles south-east of Beccles. The area is sparsely populated with a mid-2005 population estimate of 40. Neighbouring villages include North Cove, Weston and Henstead; the parish council operates to administer jointly the parishes of Shadingfield, Willingham St Mary and Ellough. The village was the site of a Second World War airfield built in 1943 and operated today as Beccles Airport. Part of the former airfield is used as a kart racetrack and as an industrial estate, including the main production site of local printing firm William Clowes Ltd; the village itself is has few services. At the time of the Domesday survey, known as Elga, was a small settlement of 4 or 5 households, it formed part of the lands of Roger Bigot and was held by Robert of Vaux, having been confiscated from Ralph Guader, former Earl of Norfolk, following a failed rebellion. It is recorded as El'gh prior to 1400 and as Ellowe on a map of 1610.
The manor passed through a number of owners, including the Playters of Sotterley, before being owned by the Earl of Gosford in the 1840s. The church held some of the glebe land of St Mary's church in Willingham; the population of the parish was 155 in 1848, falling to 125 in 1871, at which time the parish was worth £1,687 and consisted of 1,097 acres of land. The population declined following the second world war and now stands at less than 50. Ellough church is dedicated to All Saints and stands in an exposed position on a ridge overlooking the parish, it is medieval in origin, was restored in the late 19th century, is now a Grade I listed building. It stands to the south of the valley of the Hundred River. Ellough Airfield was completed in 1943 and served as a RAF Bomber Command and RAF Coastal Command airfield during the Second World War as RAF Beccles; the airfield was decommissioned after the war and the land is now used as an industrial estate, a farmers market and for Ellough Park Raceway, a kart racing circuit.
William Clowes Ltd. printers moved to the industrial park in 2004 and the park has the UK's largest solar roof installation sited on the roof of a Promens warehouse and with a generating capacity of 1.65MW. For a time a heliport operated to service gas rigs in the North Sea. A basic airstrip, known as Beccles Airport, remains at the site, used as a training base and private airfield. Media related to Ellough at Wikimedia Commons
Beccles is a market town and civil parish in the English county of Suffolk. The town is shown on the milestone as 109 miles from London via the A145 and A12 roads, 98 miles northeast of London as the crow flies, 16 miles southeast of Norwich, 33 miles north northeast of the county town of Ipswich. Nearby towns include Lowestoft to the east and Great Yarmouth to the northeast; the town lies on the River Waveney on the edge of The Broads National Park. It had a population at the 2011 census of 10,123. Worlingham is a suburb of Beccles. Beccles is twinned with Petit-Couronne in France; the name is conjectured to be derived from Becc-Liss*. However offered is Bece-laes*. Once a flourishing Anglian riverport, it is a popular boating centre; the town was granted its Charter in 1584 by Elizabeth I. Sir John Leman was a tradesman from Beccles. Long associated with Beccles is the Peck family. Among those Pecks who have made a place in history is the Rev. Robert Peck, described by Blomfield in his history of Norfolk as a man with a'violent schismatic spirit' who led a movement within the church of St Andrew's in nearby Hingham, Norfolk, in opposition to the established Anglicanism of the day.
The Puritan Peck was forced to flee to Hingham, founded by many members of his parish, where he resided for several years, until King Charles I had been executed and Oliver Cromwell had taken the reins of government. Robert Peck elected to return to Hingham and resumed as rector of St Andrew's Church, he died in Hingham but left descendants in America, including his brother Joseph Peck, who settled in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Robert's daughter Ann Peck remained in Massachusetts, married John Mason, who led colonial forces in the Pequot War. In 1794, François-René de Chateaubriand, while in exile, taught here French literature, he fell in love with daughter of Bungay's reverend. Under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the borough was reformed, Beccles retaining municipal borough status until the reorganisation of local government in 1974, when it was merged with surrounding authorities to become Waveney District; the successor civil parish has adopted town status. Beccles was struck by an F1/T3 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day.
There is an 18th-century octagonal town hall. Beccles Museum is housed in Leman House, a Grade I listed building and has a collection of agricultural and domestic items, including collections of tools, boat building, printing and natural history; the townscape is dominated by the detached 16th century bell tower of St Michael's Church. Like the main body of the church, the tower is 97 ft tall; the interior of the church was badly damaged by fire in 1586. It has a 13th-century font; the tower is not attached to the church and at the wrong end of the church as the correct end would be too close to a large cliff. It was at this church in 1749 that the mother of Horatio Nelson, Catherine Suckling, married the Reverend Edmund Nelson; the Suffolk poet George Crabbe married Sarah Elmy at Beccles Church in the 18th century. The town is bypassed to the north by the A146 road between Norwich in Norfolk and Lowestoft in Suffolk; the bypass was built in the 1980s and the main road ran through the town, crossing the River Waveney at the narrow Beccles bridge.
The link road between the A146 and the town is George Westwood Way, in memory of a Deputy Mayor, George Lionel Westwood, who fought hard for the construction of the bypass. The A145 runs from the A146 through the town centre and links with the A12 at Blythburgh, 11 miles to the south of Beccles. A number of bus services link the town with both Norwich and Lowestoft as well as surrounding villages. Many of the modern streets have the suffix'gate'; this is derived from the Old Norse for "street", is similar to the modern Danish word gade. The town is served by Beccles railway station on the East Suffolk Line between Ipswich and Lowestoft. Services run hourly in each direction on weekdays following the completion of the Beccles rail loop in 2012; this rebuilt the disused island platform and relaid track to allow trains to pass at Beccles, the only point north of Saxmundham where this is possible. Services are operated by Abellio Greater Anglia; the town was the eastern terminus of the Waveney Valley Line linking to the Great Eastern Main Line at Tivetshall in Norfolk and the southern terminus of the Yarmouth to Beccles Line which ran across the River Waveney marshes to Great Yarmouth.
Both lines closed between 1966 as a result of the Beeching cuts. Beccles Airport is located around 3 miles southeast of the town. Built as a wartime airfield, this was the site of a heliport servicing the North Sea petrochemical industry and is now a base for light aircraft. National Cycle Route 1 passes through Beccles. Along with Regional Route 30 and Regional Route 31. In 2006, a southern relief road for Beccles was approved, running from a roundabout just south of the town towards Ellough where the A145 will connect with an industrial area before joining with the A146 at North Cove; the completion cost was around £7.0 million and t
Bungay is a market town, civil parish and electoral ward in the English county of Suffolk. It lies in the Waveney valley, 5.5 miles west of Beccles on the edge of The Broads, at the neck of a meander of the River Waveney. The origin of the name of Bungay is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon title Bunincga-haye, signifying the land belonging to the tribe of Bonna, a Saxon chieftain. Due to its high position, protected by the River Waveney and marshes, the site was in a good defensive position and attracted settlers from early times. Roman artefacts have been found in the region. Bungay Castle was built by the Normans but was rebuilt by Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk and his family, who owned Framlingham Castle. Bungay's village sign shows the castle; the Church of St. Mary was once the church of the Benedictine Bungay Priory, founded by Gundreda, wife of Roger de Glanville; the 13th-century Franciscan friar Thomas Bungay enjoyed a popular reputation as a magician, appearing as Roger Bacon's sidekick in Robert Greene's Elizabethan comedy Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay.
The town was destroyed by a great fire in 1688. The central Buttercross was constructed in 1689 and was the place where local farmers displayed their butter and other farm produce for sale; until 1810, there was a Corn Cross, but this was taken down and replaced by a pump. Bungay was important for the paper manufacture industries. Joseph Hooper, a wealthy Harvard graduate who fled Massachusetts when his lands were seized after the American Revolution, rented a mill at Bungay in 1783 and converted it to paper manufacture. Charles Brightly established a printing and stereotype foundry in 1795. In partnership with John Filby Childs, the business became Brightly & Childs in 1808 and Messrs. Childs and Son. Charles Childs succeeded his father as the head of the firm of John Son; the business was further expanded after 1876 as Sons, Ltd.. The railway arrived with the Harleston to Bungay section of the Waveney Valley Line opening in November 1860 and the Bungay to Beccles section in March 1863. Bungay had its own railway station near Clay's Printers.
The station closed to passengers in 1953 and freight in 1964. Local firms include Clays Printers, owned by G Coleman and St. Peter's Brewery, based at St. Peter's Hall to the south of the town. In 2008 Bungay became Suffolk's first Transition Town and part of a global network of communities that have started projects in the areas of food, energy, education and waste as small-scale local responses to the global challenges of climate change, economic hardship and limited of cheap energy. St Mary's Church was struck by lightning on Sunday, 4 August 1577. During the thunderstorm an apparition appeared, consisting of a black Hell Hound which dashed around the church, attacking members of the congregation, it suddenly disappeared and re-appeared in Holy Trinity Church, Blythburgh 12 miles away, injuring members of the congregation there. The dog has been associated with Black Shuck, a dog haunting the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk. An image of the Black Dog has been incorporated in the coat of arms of Bungay and has been used in the titles of various enterprises associated with Bungay as well as several of the town's sporting events.
An annual race, The Black Dog Marathon, begins in Bungay, follows the course of the River Waveney and the town's football club is nicknamed the "Black Dogs". Black Shuck was the subject of a song by The Darkness; the local football club, Bungay Town F. C. play in the Anglian Combination, having been members of the Eastern Counties League. Godric Cycling Club is based in Bungay, it organises a number of events each year, including weekly club runs. Bungay was home to several literary figures. Thomas Miller, the bookseller and antiquarian, settled in the village, his publisher son, William Miller, was born there. The author Elizabeth Bonhôte née Mapes, was born and grew up there, marrying Daniel Bonhôte and writing the notable book Bungay Castle, a gothic romance. Bonhôte once owned Bungay Castle; the Strickland family, which according to the Canadian Dictionary of Biography was as prolific as the Brontës, Trollopes, settled in the village 1802–08. Its daughters included a historian. Others were Catharine Parr Traill, who concentrated on children's literature, Susanna Moodie, who emigrated to Canada and wrote Roughing it in the Bush as a warning to others.
The novelist Sir H. Rider Haggard was born nearby in Bradenham, presented St. Mary's Church with a wooden panel, displayed behind the altar. Religious writer Margaret Barber, author of the posthumously published best-selling book of meditations, The Roadmender, settled in Bungay. More Formula 1 motor racing president Bernie Ecclestone was brought up in Bungay and internet activist Julian Assange was confined to nearby Ellingham Hall, Norfolk in 2010–11. Authors Elizabeth Jane Howard and Louis de Bernières have lived in the town. Blind artist Sargy Mann moved to Bungay in 1990, lived there until the end of his life. Children's author and illustrator James Mayhew lives in Bungay. Bungay Castle Bungay High School Bungay Priory Bungay railway station Ellingham Hall Flixton Road Mill, Bungay RAF Bungay St Mary's Church, Bungay Bungay Bungay Website
Barnby is a village and civil parish in the Waveney district of the English county of Suffolk. The village is 5 miles west of Lowestoft and 3 miles east of Beccles in the north of the county, it is merged with the village of North Cove which constitutes a separate parish. The village is on the edge of the Broads and lies on the A146 road running between Norwich and Lowestoft; this bypasses the built up area on a series of bends known locally as the "Barnby bends". The East Suffolk Line runs on the northern edge of the village, although the nearest stations are Oulton Broad South and Beccles; the village was mentioned in the Domesday Book. It had an average population at this time with about 13 families in the village; the village formed part of the holdings of Earl Hugh of Chester. The village church is a grade II * listed building; the nave and chancel date from the 13th century with a 14th-century tower. There are the remains of three 15th century wall paintings inside the church; the village contains a garden centre.
Barnby and North Cove Primary School educates around 45 children aged 4 to 11. It is federated with Southwold primary school. At age 11 children transfer to Sir John Leman High School in Beccles. Barnby Broad and Marshes is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, it covers an area of 189.6 hectares of grazing marsh, carr woodland and fen running from the village to the banks of the River Waveney to the north, much of it in the parish of North Cove. Barnby Broad itself is an area of open water resulting from medieval peat cutting and is part of the Broads system. A range of natural and semi-natural habitats are present in the area, an important bird nesting site. Media related to Barnby at Wikimedia Commons Barnby in the Domesday Book
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi