Polyester is a 1981 American black comedy film directed and written by John Waters, starring Divine, Tab Hunter, Edith Massey, Mink Stole. It was filmed in Waters' native Baltimore and features a gimmick called "Odorama", whereby viewers can smell what they see on screen using scratch and sniff cards; the film is a satirical look at suburban life in the early 1980s involving divorce, adultery, foot fetishism, the religious right. Overweight housewife Francine Fishpaw watches her upper middle-class family's life crumble in their suburban Baltimore home, her husband Elmer is a polyester-clad lout who owns an adult movie theater, causing anti-pornography protesters to picket the Fishpaws' house. Francine's Christian beliefs are offended by the behavior of her children—Lu-Lu, her spoiled, promiscuous daughter, Dexter, her delinquent, glue-sniffing son who secretly derives pleasure from stomping on women's feet. Francine's troubles are compounded by her cocaine-snorting mother La Rue, a class-conscious snob who robs her daughter blind and derides her obese appearance.
La Rue berates Francine for befriending her former housecleaner, Cuddles Kovinsky, a simple-minded woman who tries to console Francine with "seize-the-day" bromides. Cuddles inherits a large sum of money from a former employer. After Francine discovers her husband is having an affair with his secretary, Sandra Sullivan, she confronts them during a motel tryst and demands a divorce. Francine falls into alcoholism and depression, exacerbated by her children's behavior: Lu-Lu becomes pregnant by her delinquent boyfriend Bo-Bo Belsinger and announces she is getting an abortion. Lu-Lu is harassed by anti-abortion picketers, she tries to induce a miscarriage, causing Francine to call an unwed mothers' home. Two nuns arrive, force Lu-Lu into the trunk of their car, take her to a Catholic home for unwed mothers. La Rue is shot by his friend, who have come to trash the Fishpaw house on Halloween night. La Rue manages to retrieve shoots Bo-Bo, killing him. After Lu-Lu flees the unwed mothers' home, she returns home to discover her boyfriend's dead body and is so distraught that she attempts suicide.
Francine comes home and faints after witnessing her daughter's suicide attempt—and the apparent suicide by hanging of the family dog, based on a suicide note left near the dog's dangling body. However, Francine's life soon begins to change. Dexter is released from jail. Lu-Lu suffers a miscarriage from her suicide attempt and is contrite about her past, becoming an artistic flower child who embraces macramé. Francine summons the strength to quit drinking, confronts and rebukes her mother, finds new romance with Todd Tomorrow. Todd proposes marriage to an elated Francine. However, Francine soon discovers that Todd and La Rue are romantically involved and conspiring to embezzle her divorce settlement and drive her insane. Elmer and Sandra break into the house to murder Francine, but are killed by Dexter and Lu-Lu: Dexter steps on Sandra's foot, causing her to accidentally shoot Elmer, Lu-Lu uses her macramé to strangle Sandra; when Cuddles and her German chauffeur and fiancé Heintz arrive, their car runs over La Rue and Todd, killing them.
The film concludes with a happy ending for Francine, her children, newlyweds Cuddles and Heintz. Waters' usual troupe of actors, the Dreamlanders, played minor roles in Polyester compared to Waters' previous films Desperate Living, Female Trouble, Pink Flamingos, which starred several Dreamlanders in major roles. Only two Dreamlanders and Edith Massey, received top billing in this film. Dreamlander perennials Mink Stole, Mary Vivian Pearce, Cookie Mueller, Sharon Niesp, Marina Melin, Susan Lowe, Jean Hill played small roles in Polyester. While their parts are integral to the plot, they are much smaller compared to their earlier roles. Principal photography for the film took place over the course of three weeks in October 1979. Polyester was the first Waters film to skirt the mainstream garnering an R rating; the film was set in a middle-class suburb of Baltimore instead of its slums and bohemian neighborhoods, the setting of Waters' earlier films. These are the only songs known to be in the film: "Polyester" by Tab Hunter – words and music by Chris Stein and Debbie Harry "Be My Daddy's Baby" by Michael Kamen – words and music by Harry and Kamen "The Best Thing" by Bill Murray – words and music by Harry and Kamen Polyester was a send-up of women's pictures, an exploitative genre of film, popular from the 1950–60s and featured bored, unfulfilled, or otherwise troubled women middle-aged suburban housewives, finding release or escape through the arrival of a handsome younger man.
Women's pictures were hackneyed B-movies, but Waters styled Polyester after the work of the director Douglas Sirk, making use of similar lighting and editing techniques using film equipment and movie-making techniques from Sirk's era. Odors Francine's keen sense of smell, play an important role in the film. To highlight this, Waters designed Odorama, a "scratch-and-sniff" gimmick inspired by
Russell Metty, A. S. C. was an American cinematographer who won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography, for the 1960 film Spartacus. Metty's career began around 1925 as an assistant with Standard Film Laboratory, was hired by Paramount Pictures working in the camera department, he left for RKO in 1929. He became a regular cameraman at Universal Studios, was a regular collaborator with the German film director Douglas Sirk, making eleven films all together with Sirk. Wins Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for Spartacus. Nominations Laurel Awards: Golden Laurel, Top Cinematography – Color, for Imitation of Life 5th place. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for Flower Drum Song. Emmy Awards: Tribes. Emmy Awards: The Waltons. Russell Metty on IMDb Russell Metty at AllMovie Russell Metty biographical essay at Turner Classic Movies by Lorraine LoBianco Russell Metty at the Internet Encyclopedia of Cinematographers
Mise-en-scène is an expression used to describe the design aspect of a theatre or film production, which means "visual theme" or "telling a story"—both in visually artful ways through storyboarding and stage design, in poetically artful ways through direction. It is commonly used to refer to single scenes within the film to represent the film. Mise-en-scène has been called film criticism's "grand undefined term"; when applied to the cinema, mise-en-scène refers to everything that appears before the camera and its arrangement—composition, props, actors and lighting. The "mise-en-scène", along with the cinematography and editing of a film, influence the verisimilitude or believability of a film in the eyes of its viewers; the various elements of design help express a film's vision by generating a sense of time and space, as well as setting a mood, sometimes suggesting a character's state of mind. "Mise-en-scène" includes the composition, which consists of the positioning and movement of actors, as well as objects, in the shot.
These are all the areas overseen by the director. One of the most important people that collaborates with the director is the production designer; these two work to perfect all of the aspects of the "mise-en-scène" a considerable amount of time before the actual photography begins. The production designer is responsible for the general look of the movie, leading various departments that are in charge of individual sets, locations and costumes, among other things. Andre Bazin, a well-known French film critic and film theorist, describes the mise-en-scene aesthetic as emphasizing choreographed movement within the scene rather than through editing; because of its relationship to shot blocking, mise-en-scène is a term sometimes used among professional screenwriters to indicate descriptive paragraphs between the dialog. Set design An important element of "putting in the scene" is set design—the setting of a scene and the objects visible in a scene. Set design can be used to amplify character emotion or the dominant mood, which has physical, psychological, emotional and cultural significance in film.
One of the most important decisions made by the production designer and director is deciding whether to shoot on location or on set. The main distinction between the two is that décor and props must be taken into consideration when shooting on set. However, shooting on set is more done than shooting on location as a result of it proving to be more cost effective. Lighting The intensity and quality of lighting can influence an audience's understanding of characters, actions and mood. Light can emphasize texture, distance, time of day or night, glamour. Highlights, for example, call attention to shapes and textures, while shadows conceal things, creating a sense of mystery or fear. For this reason, lighting must be planned in advance to ensure its desired effect on an audience. Cinematographers are a large part of this process, as they coordinate the lighting. Space The representation of space affects the reading of a film. Depth, proximity and proportions of the places and objects in a film can be manipulated through camera placement and lenses, set design determining mood or relationships between elements in the story world.
Composition The organization of objects and space within the frame. One of the most important concepts with the regard to the composition of a film is maintaining a balance of symmetry; this refers to having an equal distribution of light and objects and/or figures in a shot. Unbalanced composition can be used to emphasize certain elements of a film that the director wishes to be given particular attention to; this tool works because audiences are more inclined to pay attention to something off balance, as it may seem abnormal. Where the director places a character can vary depending on the importance of the role. Costume Costume refers to the clothes that characters wear. Using certain colors or designs, costumes in narrative cinema are used to signify characters or to make clear distinctions between characters. Makeup and hair styles Establish time period, reveal character traits and signal changes in character. Acting There is enormous cultural variation in performance styles in the cinema. In the early years of cinema, stage acting and film acting were difficult to differentiate, as most film actors had been stage actors and therefore knew no other method of acting.
Early melodramatic styles indebted to the 19th century theater, gave way in Western cinema to a naturalistic style. This more naturalistic style of acting is influenced by Konstantin Stanislavski's theory of method acting, which involves the actor immersing themselves in their character. Filmstock The choice of black and white or color, fine-grain or grainy. Aspect ratio The relation of the width of the rectangular image to its height; each aspect ratio yields a different way of looking at the world and is basic to the expressive meaning of the film. Filmmaking technique of Luis Buñuel Barsam, Richard Meran. and Dave Monahan. Looking at Movies: An Introduction to Film. New York: W. W. Norton &, 2010 Pramaggiore and Tom Wallis. Film: A Critical Introduction. Boston: Laurence King, 2005. Connell, Joanne. "Film tourism – Evolution and prospects." Tourism Management, 33, pp. 1007–1029 Bordwell and Kristin
Forrest Lewis was an American actor of the theatre, motion pictures and television. He was born Raymond Forrest Lewis in Indiana; the future thespian was the son of Joseph Saint Lewis and Myla Leota Lewis and attended Indiana University for a year. On August 23, 1917, he married Elsa Grace Cross in Knightstown, they had a son, Forrest Gallion Lewis, born on August 7, 1918. The couple divorced. Lewis acted in repertory theater and on Broadway with Lenore Ulric in Lulu Belle, he acted in touring productions, such as Broken Dishes. Lewis's roles on radio programs included those shown in the table below, he was in the supporting cast of Family Skeleton:114 and The Roy Rogers Show.:292 Lewis played Peavey in the syndicated television version of The Great Gildersleeve and Mr. Mack, the host on the ABC children's series Sandy Strong.:927In the middle 1950s, he appeared as a deputy in the syndicated crime drama Sheriff of Cochise and its successor series, U. S. Marshal, both starring John Bromfield, he guest starred with Maudie Prickett in the episode "Brief Glory" of the syndicated western series 26 Men, starring Tris Coffin.
He appeared on a wide array of programs, ranging from the CBS western series My Friend Flicka, set on a Wyoming ranch, to the NBC sitcom, The People's Choice, with Jackie Cooper, to the ABC's western drama, The Man from Blackhawk, starring Robert Rockwell. He appeared on the NBC western series, starring Darren McGavin, on the ABC sitcom and Son, starring Pat O'Brien, the ABC drama series about the Roman Catholic priesthood, Going My Way. Lewis was cast as the recurring character, Colby, in the 1961-1962 CBS sitcom Ichabod and Me with Robert Sterling, George Chandler, Reta Shaw, Burt Mustin. Lewis guest starred in the ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Colt.45 with Wayde Preston, on the syndicated western Mackenzie's Raiders, starring Richard Carlson, on the CBS hit comedy, The Andy Griffith Show, on the ABC sitcom, The Real McCoys, starring Walter Brennan. Forrest Lewis on IMDb Forrest Lewis at Find a Grave
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died. The treatment of widows and widowers around the world varies. A widow is a woman; the state of having lost one's spouse to death is termed widowhood. These terms are not applied to a divorcé following the death of an ex-spouse; the term widowhood can be used for either sex, at least according to some dictionaries, but the word widowerhood is listed in some dictionaries. The word viduity is used; the adjective for either sex is widowed. In societies where the husband is the sole provider, his death can leave his family destitute; the tendency for women to outlive men can compound this, as can men in many societies marrying women younger than themselves. In some patriarchal societies, widows may maintain economic independence. A woman would carry on her spouse's business and be accorded certain rights, such as entering guilds. More widows of political figures have been among the first women elected to high office in many countries, such as Corazón Aquino or Isabel Martínez de Perón.
In 19th-century Britain, widows had greater opportunity for social mobility than in many other societies. Along with the ability to ascend socio-economically, widows—who were "presumably celibate"—were much more able to challenge conventional sexual behaviour than married women in their society. In some parts of Europe, including Russia, Greece and Spain, widows used to wear black for the rest of their lives to signify their mourning, a practice that has since died out. Many immigrants from these cultures to the United States as as the 1970s have loosened this strict standard of dress to only two years of black garments. However, Orthodox Christian immigrants may wear lifelong black in the United States to signify their widowhood and devotion to their deceased husband. In other cultures, widowhood customs are stricter. Women are required to remarry within the family of their late husband after a period of mourning. With the rise of HIV/AIDS levels of infection across the globe, rituals to which women are subjected in order to be "cleansed" or accepted into her new husband's home make her susceptible to the psychological adversities that may be involved as well as imposing health risks.
It may be necessary for a woman to comply with the social customs of her area because her fiscal stature depends on it, but this custom is often abused by others as a way to keep money within the deceased spouse's family. It is uncommon for widows to challenge their treatment because they are "unaware of their rights under the modern law…because of their low status, lack of education or legal representation.". Unequal benefits and treatment received by widows compared to those received by widowers globally has spurred an interest in the issue by human rights activists; as of 2004, women in United States who were "widowed at younger ages are at greatest risk for economic hardship." Married women who are in a financially unstable household are more to become widows "because of the strong relationship between mortality and wealth." In underdeveloped and developing areas of the world, conditions for widows continue to be much more severe. However, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, while slow, is working on proposals which will make certain types of discrimination and treatment of widows illegal in the countries that have joined CEDAW.
The phenomenon that refers to the increased mortality rate after the death of a spouse is called the widowhood effect.. It is “strongest during the first three months after a spouse's death, when they had a 66-percent increased chance of dying.” Most widows and widowers suffer from this effect during the first 3 months of their spouse's death, however they can suffer from this effect on in their life for much longer than 3 months. There remains controversy over whether women or men have worse effects from becoming widowed, studies have attempted to make their case for which side is worse off, while other studies try to show that there are no true differences based on gender and other factors are responsible for any differences. A recent study shows that holding post-materialist views provides greater levels of well-being in widowhood. "postmaterialist values not only lead to a new way of living for singles, but free singles from feeling judged in doing so, hence encourage them to adapt accordingly.
". Of all unmarried groups, widowed people benefit the most from these values. A variable, deemed important and relative to the effects of widowhood is the gender of the widow. Research has shown that the difference falls in the burden of care and how the react after the spouse's death. For example, women carry more a burden than men and are less willing to want to go through this again. After being widowed, however and women can react differently and have a change in lifestyle. A study has sought to show that women are more to yearn for their late husband if he were to be taken away suddenly. Men on the other hand tend to be more to long for their late wife if she were to die after suffering a long, terminal illness. Another change that happens to most men is. For example, without a wife there, he is more to not watch what he eats like he would if she were there. I
8 Women is a 2002 French dark comedy musical film and directed by François Ozon. Based on the 1958 play by Robert Thomas, it features an ensemble cast of high-profile French actresses that includes Danielle Darrieux, Catherine Deneuve, Isabelle Huppert, Emmanuelle Béart, Fanny Ardant, Virginie Ledoyen, Ludivine Sagnier, Firmine Richard. Revolving around an eccentric family of women and their employees in the 1950s, the film follows eight women as they gather to celebrate Christmas in an isolated, snowbound cottage only to find Marcel, the family patriarch, dead with a knife in his back. Trapped in the house, every woman becomes a suspect, each having her own motive and secret. Ozon envisioned a remake of George Cukor's film The Women, but settled on Thomas's Huit femmes after legal obstacles prevented him from doing so. Drawing inspiration from Cukor's screwball comedies of the late 1930s and the 1950s work of directors such as Douglas Sirk, Vincente Minnelli, Alfred Hitchcock, 8 Women blends farce, melodrama and murder-mystery film while addressing murder, greed and homosexuality.
Set in the entry hall of a manor house, the film recreates much of the play's original theatrical feel. It serves as a pastiche of and homage to the history of film and the actresses' filmographies; the film's premiere was held on 8 January 2002 in Paris. 8 Women competed for the Golden Bear at the 52nd Berlin International Film Festival, where its all-female cast was awarded a Silver Bear for outstanding artistic contribution. Released to positive reviews, with major praise for the stars, the film was nominated for twelve César Awards, including Best Film. At the 2002 European Film Awards, the film was nominated for six awards, including Best Film and Best Director, it was selected as the French entry for the Best Foreign Language Film category at the 75th Academy Awards, but was not nominated. The film is set in the 1950s in a large country residence as a family and its servants are preparing for Christmas; when the master of the house is discovered dead in his bed with a dagger in his back, it is presumed that the murderer must be one of the eight women in the house.
Over the course of the investigation, each woman has secrets to hide. The scene opens with Suzon returning from school for Christmas break, finding her mother Gaby, her younger sister Catherine, her wheelchair-bound grandmother Mamy in the living room, where most of the action of the film takes place, their conversation drifts to the subject of the patriarch of the family and Catherine leads the first song of the film, "Papa t'es plus dans le coup". The singing wakes up Suzon and Catherine's aunt Augustine, who initiates arguments with the rest of the family and the two servants returning upstairs and threatening to commit suicide. Mamy jumps out of her wheelchair trying to stop her, haphazardly explaining her ability to walk as a "Christmas miracle." Augustine is calmed down, she sings her song of longing, "Message personnel". The maid takes a tray upstairs, finds Marcel's stabbed body, screams. Catherine locks the door; the others go up to Marcel's room to see him stabbed in the back. Catherine tells the others that they should not disturb the room until the police arrive, so they re-lock the door.
Realizing that the dogs did not bark the night before the incident, it becomes clear that the murderer was known to the dogs and therefore must be one of the women in the house. Attempting to call the authorities, they find that the telephone line has been cut, so they will have to go in person to the police station. Before they can do so, the women are distracted by the announcement that someone is roaming the garden, someone whom the guard dogs are not chasing; the person turns out to be Marcel's sister Pierrette, a nightclub singer, rumored to be a prostitute, who has not been allowed into the house before due to Gaby's dislike for her. When questioned, she claims that she received a mysterious telephone call in which she was informed her that her brother was dead, she sings "A quoi sert de vivre libre", commenting on her sexual freedom. It is realized that she has been to the house before, as the dogs did not bark and she knew which room belonged to her brother, making her the eighth potential killer.
The women try to start the car, find that it has been sabotaged, cutting them off from help until the storm subsides and they can hitchhike to town. The women spend their time trying to identify the murderer amongst them, it is learned that Suzon returned the night before to tell her father in secret that she was pregnant. She sings a song about her lover. We learn that Suzon is not Marcel's child but is the child of Gaby's first great love, killed not long after the child was conceived. Suspicion swings to Madame Chanel, the housekeeper, whose actions the night before seem suspicious, it is revealed that she had been having an affair with Pierrette, who went to see her brother that night to ask for money to pay off her debts. When some members of the family react in outrage to the fact that she is a lesbian, Madame Chanel retreats to the kitchen, sings "Pour ne pas vivre seul". In the meantime we find out that Mamy and Catherine's "old and sick" grandmother, not only
Leigh Snowden was an American actress in motion pictures and television. Snowden was born Martha Lee Estes in Memphis, Tennessee, U. S, her father died when she was three, Snowden and her mother moved to Covington, Tennessee. When she was 16, Snowden married her classmate, James Snowden, moved with him to San Francisco, when he joined the military. After the birth of two children, a girl and boy and James Snowden got an uncontested divorce with Leigh gaining custody of the children. After her divorce, Snowden moved to Los Angeles and worked in modeling and in small parts on television, she got her big break into show business on a Jack Benny Christmas show, televised from the San Diego Naval Base. When Snowden walked across the stage in front of an audience of 10,000 sailors, the sailors cheered and whistled so enthusiastically that 11 Hollywood studios contacted her the next day; the event led to the newspaper headline "Sailors Whistles Blow Blond into Film Studio". Snowden chose Universal Pictures because of the training provided by its film school.
Snowden appeared in the films All That Heaven Allows, The Square Jungle, The Creature Walks Among Us, Outside the Law, I've Lived Before and Hot Rod Rumble in addition to television appearances. Her last performance in movies was as Evie in The Comancheros, her last TV roles came in episodes of This Is Tightrope. In 1956, Snowden met accordionist Dick Contino at a party given by actor Tony Curtis. In September, after a three month acquaintance and Contino were married. Contino's family, who were Catholic objected to the marriage because Snowden was divorced, but they relented and attended the civil ceremony in a Beverly Hills hotel. Snowden and Contino had three children together, in addition to her two children from her first marriage. Snowden left acting after the birth of their first child, she sometimes appeared with him, as a singer, in his nightclub acts. In 1971, Snowden appeared in the role of Maggie in the Fresno Community Theater production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof by Tennessee Williams.
She professed a love of the stage, though she claimed to be nervous about having to appear in her slip during most of the play's second act. Leigh Snowden died of cancer on May 16, 1982, in California. Leigh Snowden on IMDb Leigh Snowden at AllMovie