</ref></ref> Motilal Vora is an Indian politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. He is the former Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh Motilal Vora was born on 20 December 1928 at Nimbi Jodha in Jodhpur State of British India's Rajputana Agency in Pushkarna Brahaman Family, his parents were Amba Bai. His forefathers came from Nimbi Jodha, prior to that from Phalaudi, he received his education at Kolkata. He had worked with several newspapers for many years, he married Shanti Devi Vora. The couple have two sons, his son Arun Vora is MLA from Durg, having won three elections as MLA. In 1968, Vora a member of Samajwadi party, became a member of the Municipal Committee of Durg. In 1970, he, with the help of Prabhat Tiwari, was introduced to Pt. Kishorilal Shukla of INC and joined INC, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh in 1972 on a INC ticket. He was elected to Vidhan Sabha again in 1977 and 1980, he was appointed as a minister of State in Arjun Singh's Cabinet, was in-charge of the Higher Education Department.
He was elevated to the Cabinet Minister in 1983. He served as the Deputy Chairman of Madhya Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation during 1981-84. On 13 March 1985, Vora was appointed Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, he resigned from the post of Chief Minister on 13 February 1988. On 14 February 1988, Vora became a member of the Rajya Sabha, assumed the office of Union Minister of Health, Family Welfare and Civil Aviation, he was a cabinet minister in Government of India. He was appointed as Governor of Uttar Pradesh on May 16, 1993 and held office till May 3, 1996. Motilal Vora was in 1998-99 Member of the 12th Lok Sabha. Motilal Vora is close to High Command of INC, has supported nomination of Rahul Gandhi as the party's Prime Ministerial candidate. In the 1980s, he served as the President of the Madhya Pradesh Congress Committee, the party's state unit. Vora holds important positions in all the three entities involved in the National Herald Case: the Associated Journals Limited, the Young Indian and the All India Congress Committee.
He became the chairman and managing director of AJL on 22 March 2002. He has served as the AICC treasurer since before that. In addition, he has been a 12% shareholder and a Director of Young Indian
Shyamal Kumar Sen
Shyamal Kumar Sen is a Bengali Indian jurist who served as a chief justice of the Allahabad High Court and as a Governor of West Bengal. He was appointed governor in May 1999 following the resignation of A R Kidwai and served from May 1999 to December 1999. After graduating from the Scottish Church College, he studied law at the University of Calcutta, he had worked as a lecturer in the commercial and industrial laws in the City College, Kolkata from 1964 to 1971, as well as in the faculty of law at the University of Calcutta from 1971 to 1985. He was elevated as a permanent judge of the Calcutta High Court in February 1986, he served as chief justice of the Allahabad High Court on 18 July 2000. He served as the Governor of West Bengal from May to December 1999. Gupta, Harish. "Arunachal Governor sacked". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 July 2012. "Hon'ble Mr. Justice Shyamal Kumar Sen". High Court of Judicature at Allahabad. Retrieved 14 July 2012. Served as the Governor of West Bengal from May 18, 1999 to Dec 4, 1999
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin
Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial court and the final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of judicial review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and a maximum of 31 judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original and advisory jurisdictions; as the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various government authorities as well as the central government vs state governments or state governments versus another state government in the country; as an advisory court, it hears matters which may be referred to it under the constitution by President of India. It may take cognisance of matters on its own, without anyone drawing its attention to them; the law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India and by the union and state governments.
Per Article 142 of the constitution, it is the duty of the president to enforce the decrees of the supreme court. In 1861, the Indian High Courts Act 1861 was enacted to create high courts for various provinces and abolished supreme courts at Calcutta and Bombay and the sadr adalats in presidency towns which had acted as the highest courts in their respective regions; these new high courts had the distinction of being the highest courts for all cases till the creation of the Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935. The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeals against judgements of the high courts; the first CJI of India was H. J. Kania; the Supreme Court of India came into being on 28 January, 1950. It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were at the apex of the Indian court system; the first proceedings and inauguration, took place on 28 January, 1950 at 9:45 am, when the judges took their seats.
Which is thus regarded as the official date of establishment. The Supreme Court had its seat at the Chamber of Princes in the parliament building where the previous Federal Court of India sat from 1937 to 1950; the first Chief Justice of India was H. J. Kania. In 1958, the Supreme Court moved to its present premises; the Constitution of India envisaged a supreme court with a chief justice and seven judges. In formative years, the Supreme Court met from 10 to 12 in the morning and 2 to 4 in the afternoon for 28 days in a month; the building is shaped to symbolize scales of justice with its centre-beam being the Central Wing of the building comprising the chief justice’s court, the largest of the courtrooms, with two court halls on either side. The Right Wing of the structure has the bar – room, the offices of the Attorney General of India and other law officers and the library of the court; the Left Wing has the offices of the court. In all, there are 15 courtrooms in the various wings of the building.
The foundation stone of the supreme court's building was laid on 29 October 1954 by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India; the main block of the building has been built on a triangular plot of 17 acres and has been designed in an Indo-British style by the chief architect Ganesh Bhikaji Deolalikar, the first Indian to head the Central Public Works Department. It has a spacious colonnaded verandah; the court moved into the building in 1958. In 1979, two new wings – the East Wing and the West Wing – were added to the complex. 1994 saw the last extension. On 20 February 1980, a black bronze sculpture of 210 cm height was installed in the lawn of the supreme court, it portrays Mother India in the form of the figure of a lady, sheltering the young Republic of India represented by the symbol of a child, upholding the laws of land symbolically shown in the form of an open book. On the book, a balance beam is shown; the sculpture was made by the renowned artist Chintamoni Kar. The sculpture is just behind the statue of Mahatma Gandhi.
The design of the Court's seal is reproduced from the wheel that appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion capital of Asoka with 24 spokes. The inscription in Sanskrit, यतो धर्मस्ततो जयः (IAST: Yato Dharmastato Jayaḥ, means "whence law, thence victory", it is referred as the wheel of righteousness, encompassing truth and equity. The registry of the supreme court is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by 8 registrars, several additional and deputy registrars, etc. with 1770 employees in all Article 146 of the constitution deals with the appointments of officers and servants of the supreme court registry. Supreme Court Rules, 2013 entitle only those advocates who are registered with the supreme court, called advocates-on-record to appear and plead for a party in the court; those advocates who are designated as'senior advocates' by the supreme court or any of the high courts can appear for clients along with an advocate-on-record. Any other advocate can appear for a party along with or under instructions from an advocate-on-record.
The Constitution of India provided for a supreme court with a chief justice and 7 judges. In the early years, a full bench of the supreme court sat together to hear the cases presented before them; as the work of the court increased and cases began to accumulate, parliament increased the number of judges from the original 8 in 1950 to 11 in 1956, 14 in 1960, 18 in
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Allahabad known as Prayagraj, known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division; the city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state and sixteenth in the country; the 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested.
The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam of the Ganga and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was called Kaushambi by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since the city has been a political and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbarnama mentions. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there, called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there renaming it Ilahabas by 1584, changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan. In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a independent ruler.
He was, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day; the city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2. Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council; the city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh. Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city; the name is a sandhi of the words Pra, meaning'first' and Yag, meaning'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India; the word Prayag means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is called the "Emperor of Five Prayags". After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584 changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist; because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.
James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death, it has been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha. Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu and Muslim. Over the years, a number of attempts were made by the BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh. The rename succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government changed the name of the city to Prayagraj; the city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still used.
Prayāga is first mentioned in the Agni Purana and in Manusmriti, as the place where Brahma attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE
Burgula Ramakrishna Rao
Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was the first elected Chief Minister of the erstwhile Hyderabad State, he was among the Telugu-speaking leaders to resist the Nizam in that "princely State". P V Narasimha rao wrote a story on him; the story was given in 9th class telugu textbook in 2nd lesson Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was born in a Telugu Brahmin family in Padakallu village, Kalwakurthy taluk in Mahbubnagar district. Though his surname was Pullamraju, he would be more popularly known among the Telugu people by his village name, Burgula, he was educated at the Dharmavanth and Excelsior High School in Hyderabad, where he would receive a B. A. degree from Fergusson College, Pune and a law degree from Bombay University in 1923. He received famous “Allies” scholarship and graduated in law in Mumbai and took up the legal profession in Hyderabad but continued for a few days only. After meeting Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Burgula dedicated his life for public service and to popularize science and literature, he was imprisoned twice for participating in public movements.
He gave up the Prime Minister of Hyderabad State. Burgula was a great humanist, stood against injustice, declared war on the dictatorship of Nizam along with Swami Ramananada teertha in order to support the public. A litterateur, social reformer, linguist, he laid the foundation for cultural development of and political spirit in the Telangana region, oppressed under the Nizam, he was one of the founding members of the Hyderabad State Congress. He presided over the second Andhra Mahasabha conference at Devarkonda in 1932 and gave direction for Telangana society, he worked as a secretary for Hyderabad Swadesi League and Nizam Subjects League. He was involved in promoting the library movement in the State. Imroze news paper was launched by Ramakrishna Rao and his brother Ranganatha Rao to be a voice of the Congress and Communists from his own house. Burgula played a crucial role in restoring stability for the people of Telangana following the campaign of terror led by the Razakars, who were loyalists to the Nizam, responsible for carrying out meticulously organized atrocities throughout Hyderabad State.
Burgula served as Revenue Minister in the cabinet of Vellodi government, formed after the Indian Army routed the Nizam's regular forces during the liberation of Hyderabad by India. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao played a crucial role in many contemporary movements and laid a firm foundation for the cultural development and independent political spirit for the people of Telangana, oppressed under the reign of the Nizam, he was a prime witness to Telangana's struggle for freedom, its library movements, the Telangana farmers’ struggle and the Vishalandhra movements. He deserted areas of work, he worked as a Revenue Minister in the cabinet of Vellodi government, formed after police action. He got victory from Shadnagar constituency in the first sovereign elections held in 1952, became the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad. After the termination of Nizam rule, in a short period he formed a stable democratic system with his administrative skill, he eradicated the system of jagirdar and mukthedar in Telangana and introduced the law of tenancy and became the first Indian land reformer.
Until education was in Urdu medium in Telangana and for the first time he gave importance for teaching in native language. The services of Burgula spread not only in Telangana but to neighbouring areas. After the formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, as a Governor of Kerala state, he showed his statesmanship and got acclaim from many top politicians; when he was Governor of Uttar Pradesh, he was elected as a member of Rajya Sabha in 1962 and gave up politics in 1967. Burgula was an eloquent speaker of English, Urdu, Marathi and Telugu. Despite being a lawyer by profession, his love for language and literature was everlasting, he wrote poems and translated books the master pieces of Adi Shankaracharya. Burgula established "Young Man Union" with the support of friends and relatives when he was studying Inter. Under the control of this Union, he established a library and brought the spirit of reading and speaking in public by giving speeches on different societal issues. In 1921, to form a responsible government and to bring political reforms in Hyderabad, he prepared a statement with the help of Madapati Hanumantha Rao and Ranga Rao on reforms.
He published many essays in English newspapers against the social evil dowry. Due to his prominent role in the Quit India Movement in 1942, again for his participation in the freedom struggle in 1947, he was arrested by the Nizam's police. K. M. Munshi, the Agent of India in Hyderabad State, spoke of his great contribution to the timely'Police Action' by India against the Nizam, who surrendered to the Indian forces on 17 September 1948, he took several significant steps for the welfare of the people, including the historic'land reforms' in the State. The passage and implementation of the famous Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Act of 1950, followed in 1954 by Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural lands Act, was an important signpost of land reforms in the country. Dr. Rao not only provided the conceptual framework for these Acts but piloted their passage and vigorously pushed through their implementation, providing tenancy rights to those, cultivating lands for some time. From November 1956 to July 1960, Dr. Ramakrishna Rao was the Governor of Kerala and Governor of Uttar P