SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Allegany County, New York

Allegany County is a county in the southern tier of the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,946, its county seat is Belmont. Its name derives from a Lenape word, applied by European-American settlers of Western New York State to a trail that followed the Allegheny River; the county is bisected by the Genesee River. During the mid-nineteenth century, the Genesee Valley Canal was built to link southern markets to the Great Lakes and Mohawk River; the county was served by railroads, which soon superseded the canals in their capacity for carrying freight. Part of the Oil Springs Reservation, controlled by the Seneca Nation, is located in the county. For centuries, Allegany County was the territory of the Seneca people, at the westernmost nation of the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy of Iroquoian languages-speaking peoples. European-American permanent settlement did not take place until after the American Revolutionary War and the forced cession by the Seneca of most of their lands in western New York.

New York State sold off the lands cheaply to attract new European-American settlers and agricultural development. Allegany County was created by the state legislature on April 7, 1806, when Genesee County, New York, was partitioned to set aside some 1,570 square miles to the new county; the first County Seat was established at New York, where it remained for half a century. It was moved to Belmont, a village located along the Genesee River. On March 11, 1808, the borders were adjusted so that 230 square miles of Steuben County passed to Allegany County, 600 miles of Allegany County passed to Genesee County; this established the current border between Genesee and Steuben counties, reduced the size of Allegany County to 1,200 square miles. On June 12, 1812, the legislature authorized the attachment of Cattaraugus County, New York, to Allegany County for administration reasons, but for practical reasons this action did not take place at that time. However, on April 13, 1814, the eastern half of Cattaraugus County was so attached and administered from Belmont.

This attachment was ended on March 28, 1817. With continued settlement through the mid-nineteenth century, the legislature periodically adjusted county borders as new counties were organized in western New York. On April 1, 1846, Allegany County lost 120 square miles to Wyoming County, reducing the size of Allegany County to 1,140 square miles, establishing the current border between Allegany and Wyoming counties. On May 11, 1846, Allegany County lost 50 square miles to Livingston County, reducing the total to 1,090 square miles, establishing the western portion of the current border with Livingston County. On March 23, 1857, Allegany County lost another 40 square miles to Livingston County, passing the Ossian, New York, area to Livingston County, establishing the current border between them. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,034 square miles, of which 1,029 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. Allegany County is along the Pennsylvania border.

Allegany County does not lie along the Allegheny River. The highest point in the county is Alma Hill, with an elevation of 2,548 feet above sea level; this is the highest point in the state west of the Catskill Mountains. The highest point of Interstate 86 is located in the Town of West Almond with an elevation of 2,110 feet; this is believed to be the highest point of any interstate in the New York. The County is unique from a watershed perspective as it is providing water to three major watersheds of North America: The eastern part near Alfred has Canacadea Creek that goes into the Canisteo River, Susquehanna River and to Chesapeake Bay; the Genesee River bisects the county from south to north, flowing north out of the County through Letchworth State Park with its three waterfalls on to Rochester over three more waterfalls to its mouth on Lake Ontario and on to the St. Lawrence River and Atlantic Ocean; the southwestern part of the County flows into the Allegheny River that flows into the Ohio and to the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico.

In June 1972 the remnants of Hurricane Agnes stalled over the area, dropping more than 20 inches of rain. Flooding took place in the valley communities of Wellsville, Belmont and others in the county. Long a necessary transportation waterway for the Seneca and other Native Americans, successive European-American settlers, since the late 20th century, the Genesee River has been popular with canoeists; the river is favored by fishermen as it abounds in smallmouth bass and panfish. Livingston County – northeast Steuben County – east Potter County, Pennsylvania – southeast McKean County, Pennsylvania – southwest Cattaraugus County – west Wyoming County – northwest Interstate 86 New York State Route 17 New York State Route 19 New York State Route 21 New York State Route 305 New York State Route 417 As of the census of 2000, there were 49,927 people, 18,009 households, 12,192 families residing in the county; the population density was 48 people per square mile. There were 24,505 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the county was 97.03% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. 0.91 % of the population were Latino of any race. 22.3% ident

MV Malibu Princess

MV Malibu Princess is a passenger vessel owned by Young Life and which operates the Malibu Club in Canada located at Malibu, British Columbia, adjacent to the narrow entrance of Princess Louisa Inlet. The ship is used to transport people and freight to Malibu. During those early years, Young Life was reliant on charter freight boats to transport their young passengers from Vancouver to Malibu. By 1965, Young Life was faced with a challenge when their stable chartered freight hauler would no longer be in business. A suitable vessel would need to be designed and built per Young Life's needs and a letter of intent was issued. Once approved, Philip F. Spaulding and Associates of Seattle was selected to design the vessel and the False Creek shipyard selected was Allied Shipbuilders Ltd. who would build the ship. The name of the ship would be called the Malibu Princess after a large yacht Young Life sold to help finance it which would be renamed the Weatherly; the design of the Malibu Princess was a shorter version of the MV Coho of the Black Ball Line.

The overall cost of the ship was $335,000 with $135,000 coming from the Canadian Maritime Commission Ship Subsidy and from the proceeds from the sale of the soon-to-be Weatherly. The remaining funds were through a loan that Mr. C. D. Weyerhaeuser was able to secure; the boat was paid off through fund raising and major donations. The ship was launched on March 1966 on Saturday morning at nine in the morning; when she was launched, the Malibu Princess was based out of, the North Vancouver waterfront, around the site of the current SeaBus Terminal, at the foot of Chesterfield Ave. from 1972, she used a pier, just West from the old Pier B-C, now the location of Canada Place and the thriving cruise ship facility of Vancouver. The Princess would make its 16+ hour round trip from Vancouver to Malibu, taking campers and supplies to The Bu returning with finished campers, this trip was done once a week, but in 1997, the Princess was moved to her new berth at Egmont which helped cut down the travel time by more than 60%, thereby reducing the overall wear & tear on the ship plus reduced the fuel costs.

Campers heading to The Bu are now brought to Egmont on charter bus, along the scenic Sunshine Coast highway, via B. C. Ferries Horseshoe Bay to Langdale Terminal; the M. V. Malibu Princess is available for private charters or tours to Princess Louisa Inlet through Malibu Yacht Charters in Egmont. Malibu Yacht Charters Canadian Vessel Registration for the Malibu Princess. Transport Canada vessel registration query for the Malibu Princess. Obit-Philip Spaulding designer of the Malibu Princess. Malibu Princess Gallery

Conflict escalation

Conflict escalation is the process by which conflicts grow in severity over time. This may refer to conflicts between individuals or groups in interpersonal relationships, or it may refer to the escalation of hostilities in a political or military context. In systems theory, the process of conflict escalation is modeled by positive feedback. While the word escalation was used as early as in 1938, it was popularized during the Cold War by two important books: On Escalation and Escalation and the Nuclear Option. In these contexts, it referred to war between two states with weapons of mass destruction—the Cold War. Conflict escalation has a tactical role in military conflict, is formalized with explicit rules of engagement. Successful military tactics exploit a particular form of conflict escalation. Napoleon and Heinz Guderian both advocated this approach. Sun Tzu elaborated it in a more abstract form, additionally maintained that military strategy was about minimizing escalation, diplomacy about eliminating it.

The United States Marine Corps' "Continuum of Force" documents the stages of conflict escalation in combat for a typical subject. They are: The subject responds to and obeys verbal commands, they refrain from close combat. The subject resists verbal commands but complies to commands upon contact controls, he refrains from close combat. The subject physically resists commands, but he can be made to comply by compliance techniques; the unarmed subject physically attacks his opponent. He can be controlled by certain defensive tactics, including blocks, kicks, enhanced pain compliance procedures, impact weapon blocks and blows; the subject has a weapon and will kill or injure someone unless controlled. This is only possible by lethal force, which requires firearms or weapons. A major focus of peace and conflict theory is concerned with curbing conflict escalation or creating a mindset to avoid such conflict in future, instead engaging in peacemaking. Much nonviolent conflict resolution, involves conflict escalation in the form of protests, strikes, or other direct actions.

Mohandas Gandhi, a major proponent of nonviolence, used satyagraha to demonstrate that: Peacefully controlling a group of people with a common cause was possible. One could accomplish objectives through solidarity without capitulating to violent attack, his method ensured mutual support. It was possible to desist from retributive justice, it was not desirable to inflict punishment when grievously wronged. With this method of escalation, Gandhi avoided technological escalation and demonstrated to those in power that: The group was held together by its own discipline, not by any kind of authority using violence. Authority could surrender without being subjected to violence. Authority could depart safely. Authority could devolve without obstacles, for the dissent was well enough organized to constitute an effective political party; the conflict escalation curve is a concept created by Michael N. Nagler; the conflict escalation curve proposes that the intensity of a conflict is directly related to how far dehumanization has proceeded.

In other words, conflicts escalate in the degree. The curve conceptualizes a typical trajectory a conflict would have if it were plotted on an graph with being time elapsed and being the intensity of dehumanization. Depending upon which stage a conflict is on the graph, a specific set of responses is needed; the curve divides the appropriate responses into three stages. In the first stage no serious dehumanization has occurred by either party. Attempts are made to make one's views known, with the expectation that the other may respond right away or respond to conflict resolution or nonviolent communication to address the adversary. Tools used at this stage include: petitions, protest demonstrations, negotiation and arbitration; the conflict escalates into satyagraha, or nonviolent direct action, only when conflict resolution has been tried and the other party has not been persuaded by reason or the other tools used in Stage 1. Satyagraha invokes what Gandhi called "the law of suffering"—taking on rather than inflicting the suffering, inherent in the situation.

Invoking satyagraha is a way to move the heart of the adversary, as opposed to appealing to the head, in Stage 1. Gandhi observed: "The conviction has been growing upon me that things of fundamental importance to the people are not secured by reason alone, but have to be purchased with their suffering. If you want something important to be done, you must not satisfy the reason, you must move the heart also; the penetration of the heart comes from suffering." Tools used at this stage include: strikes, civil disobedience, defiance of orders. When the conflict has reached life-or-death intensity and when petition and nonviolent resistance have failed, a satyagrahi will sometimes deliberately court the possibility of death as a last resort to open the heart of the opponent. Gandhi's famous "fasts unto death" during the Indian freedom struggle is an example, as well as the courageous work of activists like Kathy Kelly who, when all else failed, have gone into war zones to share the fate of the victims and awaken their oppressors.

The philosophy behind Stage 3 is that being willing to risk dying can awaken a stubborn adversary if death does not ensue. Fast