Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2018 the population was 1,218,452, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first county to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Allegheny has a humid continental climate, hot-summer except in higher areas where it is warm-summer; until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code.
The county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning. All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three electe
In our modern society, computerized or digital control systems have been used to reliably automate many of the industrial operations that we take for granted, from the power plant to the automobiles we drive. However, the complexity of these systems and how the designers integrate them, the roles and responsibilities of the humans that interact with the systems, the cyber security of these networked systems has led to a new paradigm in research philosophy for next generation control systems. Resilient Control Systems consider all of these elements and those disciplines that contribute to a more effective design, such as cognitive psychology, computer science, control engineering to develop interdisciplinary solutions; these solutions consider such things such as how to tailor the control system operating displays to best enable the user to make an accurate and reproducible response, how to design in cyber security protections such that the system defends itself from attack by changing its behaviors, how to better integrate distributed computer control systems to prevent cascading failures that result in disruptions to critical industrial operations.
In the context of cyber-physical systems, resilient control systems are an aspect that focuses on the unique interdependencies of a control system, as compared to information technology computer systems and networks, due to its importance in operating our critical industrial operations. Intended to provide a more efficient mechanism for controlling industrial operations, the development of digital control systems allowed for flexibility in integrating distributed sensors and operating logic while maintaining a centralized interface for human monitoring and interaction; this ease of adding sensors and logic through software, once done with relays and isolated analog instruments, has led to wide acceptance and integration of these systems in all industries. However, these digital control systems have been integrated in phases to cover different aspects of an industrial operation, connected over a network, leading to a complex interconnected and interdependent system. While the control theory applied is nothing more than a digital version of their analog counterparts, the dependence of digital control systems upon the communications networks, has precipitated the need for cybersecurity due to potential effects on confidentiality and availability of the information.
To achieve resilience in the next generation of control systems, addressing the complex control system interdependencies, including the human systems interaction and cyber security, will be a recognized challenge. Research in resilience engineering over the last decade has focused in two areas and information technology. Organizational resilience considers the ability of an organization to adapt and survive in the face of threats, including the prevention or mitigation of unsafe, hazardous or compromising conditions that threaten its existence. Information technology resilience has been considered from a number of standpoints. Networking resilience has been considered as quality of service. Computing has considered such issues as dependability and performance in the face of unanticipated changes. However, based upon the application of control dynamics to industrial processes and determinism are primary considerations that are not captured by the traditional objectives of information technology..
Considering the paradigm of control systems, one definition has been suggested that "Resilient control systems are those that tolerate fluctuations via their structure, design parameters, control structure and control parameters". However, this definition is taken from the perspective of control theory application to a control system; the consideration of the malicious actor and cyber security are not directly considered, which might suggest the definition, "an effective reconstitution of control under attack from intelligent adversaries,", proposed. However, this definition focuses only on resilience in response to a malicious actor. To consider the cyber-physical aspects of control system, a definition for resilience considers both benign and malicious human interaction, in addition to the complex interdependencies of the control system application; the use of the term “recovery” has been used in the context of resilience, paralleling the response of a rubber ball to stay intact when a force is exerted on it and recover its original dimensions after the force is removed.
Considering the rubber ball in terms of a system, resilience could be defined as its ability to maintain a desired level of performance or normalcy without irrecoverable consequences. While resilience in this context is based upon the yield strength of the ball, control systems require an interaction with the environment, namely the sensors, pumps that make up the industrial operation. To be reactive to this environment, control systems require an awareness of its state to make corrective changes to the industrial process to maintain normalcy. With this in mind, in consideration of the discussed cyber-physical aspects of human systems integration and cyber security, as well as other definitions for resilience at a broader critical infrastructure level, the following can be deduced as a definition of a resilient control system: "A resilient control system is one that maintains state awareness and an accepted level of operational normalcy in response to disturbances, including threats of an unexpected and malicious nature" Considering the flow of a digital control system as a basis, a resilient control system framework can be designed.
Referring to the left side of Fig. 1, a resilient control system holistically considers the measures of performance or normalcy for the state s
The Lost Files of Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the Rose Tattoo is a 1996 graphic adventure game developed by Mythos Software and published by Electronic Arts. Holmes' brother Mycroft is caught in an explosion when the Diogenes, is blown up; the player, first as Doctor Watson and as Sherlock Holmes, investigates the explosion and discovers that it was not a gas leak but a bomb, the cause. This leads them to investigate the strange death of an unidentified man. In this game, establishing the identity of the victim is as important as finding out who killed him; the intricate plot leads the player to a great number of locations over town and involves several subplots. The characters in the game were made by filming real actors against a bluescreen. While the characters are thus more lifelike, Rose Tattoo did not display large, high-quality faces shown during dialogues in the first game. A similar use of in-game video can be found in e.g. Jones in the Fast Lane and Under a Killing Moon and in retrospect appears as a transient trend permitted by the available hardware.
The CD-ROM increased the data storage space available to a computer game. Most games of this period filled the empty space by enhancing the game with digitized speech and cut-scene videos. Advances in CPU and graphic card hardware allowed high-resolution characters to be rendered in 3D; the game is longer than its predecessor and features a much higher degree of historical accuracy and detail. The graphics are near-photo quality and the atmospheric sounds are more realistic, while the background music, which communicated the mood of the scenes in the first game, is applied less in the Rose Tattoo. Unlike the previous game, digitized speech is employed throughout the game and adds characterization to the NPCs; the Case of the Rose Tattoo at MobyGames
Marie-Antoine, vicomte de Reiset was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, serving from 1793 to 1830. He was born in Colmar into a noble family, he captured Prince Augustus of Prussia at the battle of Jena in 1806 and commanded the 13th Dragoon Regiment from 1810 to 1813, including its major part in defeating the Duke of Wellington's vanguard at the Battle of Majadahonda. He forced several regiments to surrender at Dresden in 1813, defended the fortress of Mainz and commanded the French army of occupation in Catalonia, he died in Rouen. Revue des deux mondes: recueil de la politique, de l'administration et des moeurs
A cafe church is a Christian church centered in cafés. These edifices are associated with alternative worship and the emerging church movements, seek to find new forms and approaches to existing as a church in the 21st century; these churches are focused on relationship aspects of Christian fellowship and outreach to their local community, use the modern gathering place of a café in their ministry. The cafe church can be viewed as an organically based philosophy for planting churches, centered around the idea of making the message of Christ's love relevant to the needs of the local community that the church seeks to serve; the Alma Mount Hope Coffeehouse Church, of Alma, MI, says: "The ministry statement for AMH Coffeehouse Church is found in Acts 2:42:'And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, in prayers.'" The goal of cafe church endeavors is to impact their local community with a message of God's love and the transforming power of Christ's love.
Depending on the leadership, some cafe church leaders will provide a clear doctrinal perspective, while others may be more open-minded and comfortable with members and visitors asking questions of speakers. For example, One World Coffeehouse in Columbia, Maryland was founded by a church member who said, "I felt that our church needed an outreach effort... and a way to express principles such as multiculturalism and acceptance of others different from yourself."And the Glebe Café Church, in New South Wales, Australia states that: "Café Church is a Glebe-based, non-traditional Christian faith community. We aim to provide an inclusive and welcoming space for everybody, no matter what their spiritual path. Café Church revolves around open discussion, creative expression and alternative approaches to worship. Our core values include hospitality, creativity and social and environmental justice." Churches using the cafe as a model for their organization can take different forms. Some cafe churches maintain a permanent cafe or restaurant, which offers the local community a high-quality array of coffee and food, provides a venue where the members of the church fellowship meet.
Church members may volunteer their time to support the enterprise. Other churches use the cafe model as a way to build community, facilitating variation within their normal service structure and within the confines of their building, by serving coffee after or during the service in a predesignated area, or holding a coffeehouse event. Ebenezer's Coffeehouse, in Washington, DC, operated by the National Community Church, is one example of a cafe church, its website asks, "How much more comfortable can you get sipping a Chai in church?" This church is a multi-location church located at sites accessible by public transit, which links its indie music coffeehouse broadcasts to other locations via the Internet. Located in Washington is the Potters House, an outreach ministry of the Church of the Savior, its website states, "We, the members of that church, asked ourselves,'Would Jesus want to hang out with folks at a traditional institutional church? or would he want to hang out over a beer in a bar or coffee in a restaurant?'
The resounding answer was the latter. We chose coffee over beer because of our support for the budding AA movement in 1960."The Abbey is a ministry of the Episcopal Diocese of Alabama which opened in Birmingham's Avondale neighborhood in 2015. After operating as both a coffeeshop and worshiping congregation for over four years, the coffeehouse was closed in summer 2019; the Abbey continues to operate a six-day-a-week ministry with pay-as-you-can breakfast on weekdays and Sunday worship services. An old congregation house of Oxford University, dating back to 1320, is home to The Vaults and Garden Cafe, operated by the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, which specializes in organically grown and locally sourced foods; the cafe serves the community by catering events, donating funds. Another religious organization specializing in healthy food is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, which runs a chain of vegetarian restaurants called Govinda's; the Loft coffeehouse, a project of Alamo Heights United Methodist Church, San Antonio, TX includes "a food bank, thrift store and a resource center for the needy."Café churches became more popular in the Christian community of South Korea around 2016 among younger Protestants, as an alternative to the traditional Korean megachurches' conservatism and perceived corruption.
Church-sponsored coffeehouses have a long history in the United States. For example, Nameless Coffeehouse has operated for over 50 years on the site of The First Parish Unitarian Universalist Church in Cambridge, MA, and fifty years ago, it was The Sacred Mushroom coffeehouse in OH that hosted Phil Ochs. "God only knows the songs he performed there." In fact, Unitarian Universalists are a denomination known for sponsoring folk coffeehouses. "The welcoming environment of Unitarian Universalist coffeehouses has provided an artistic haven for a variety of performers and helped launch the entertainment careers of folk musicians such as Pete Seeger and Arlo Guthrie. Folk music is featured at The Old Ship Coffeehouse Off The Square, located in the parish house of Old Ship Church in Hingham, MA, The First Congregational Church in Branford, CT sponsors the Branford Folk Coffeehouse, a monthly folk music concert series held in its auditorium. Mom & Pop's Coffeehouse, a f
The 2016–17 Manhattan Jaspers basketball team represented Manhattan College during the 2016–17 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Jaspers, led by sixth-year head coach Steve Masiello, played their home games at Draddy Gymnasium in Riverdale, New York as members of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference, they finished the season 5 -- 15 in MAAC play to finish in a tie for tenth place. They lost in the first round of the MAAC Tournament to Rider; the Jaspers finished the 2015 -- 16 season 9 -- 11 in MAAC play to finish in sixth place. They defeated Marist in the first round of the MAAC Tournament before losing to Siena in the quarterfinals