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Allegheny River

The Allegheny River is a 325-mile long headwater stream of the Ohio River in western Pennsylvania and New York, United States. The Allegheny River runs from its headwaters just below the middle of Pennsylvania's northern border northwesterly into New York in a zigzag southwesterly across the border and through Western Pennsylvania to join the Monongahela River at the Forks of the Ohio on the "Point" of Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Allegheny River is, by volume, the main headstream of both the Mississippi Rivers. The Allegheny was considered to be the upper Ohio River by both Native Americans and European settlers; the shallow river has been made navigable upstream from Pittsburgh to East Brady by a series of locks and dams constructed in the early 20th century. A 24-mile long portion of the upper river in Warren and McKean counties of Pennsylvania and Cattaraugus County in New York is the Allegheny Reservoir known as Lake Kinzua, created by the erection of the Kinzua Dam in 1965 for flood control.

The name of the river comes from one of a number of Delaware Indian phrases which are homophones of the English name, with varying translations. The name Allegheny comes from Lenape welhik hane or oolikhanna, which means'best flowing river of the hills' or'beautiful stream'. There is a Lenape legend of a tribe called "Allegewi". Hernando de Soto in 1540 and others such as Henry Schoolcraft in subsequent years report the "Allegewi" were the Cherokees; the following account of the origin of the name Allegheny was given in 1780 by Moravian missionary David Zeisberger: "All this land and region, stretching as far as the creeks and waters that flow into the Alleghene the Delawares called Alligewinenk, which means'a land into which they came from distant parts'. The river itself, however, is called Alligewi Sipo; the whites have made Alleghene out of this, the Six Nations calling the river the Ohio."Indians, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Allegheny and Ohio rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohiːyo'.

The Geographic Names Information System lists O-hi-o as variant names. The river is called Ohi:'i:o` in the Seneca language. In New York, areas around the river are named with the alternate spelling Allegany in reference to the river. Port Allegany, located along the river in Pennsylvania near the border with New York follows this pattern; the Allegheny River rises in north central Pennsylvania, on Cobb Hill in Alleghany Township in north central Potter County, 8 miles south of the New York border and a few miles northwest of the eastern triple divide. The stream flows south and passes under Pennsylvania Route 49 11 miles northeast of Coudersport where a historical marker that declares the start of the river is located. Cobb Hill is about a mile north; the stream flows southwest paralleling Route 49 to Coudersport. It continues west to Port Allegany turns north into western New York, looping westward across southern Cattaraugus County for 30 miles, past Portville, Olean and Salamanca and flowing through Seneca Indian Nation lands close to the northern boundary of Allegany State Park before re-entering northwestern Pennsylvania within the Allegheny Reservoir just east of the Warren-McKean county line, approx.

10 miles northeast of Warren. It flows in a broad zigzag course southwest across Western Pennsylvania. South of Franklin it turns southeast across Clarion County in a meandering course turns again southwest across Armstrong County, flowing past Kittanning, Ford City and Freeport; the river enters both Allegheny and Westmoreland counties, the Pittsburgh suburbs, the City of Pittsburgh from the northeast. It passes the North Side, downtown Pittsburgh, Point State Park; the Allegheny joins with the Monongahela River at the "Point" in downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River. The river is 325 miles long, running through the U. S. states of New Pennsylvania. It drains a rural dissected plateau of 11,580 square miles in the northern Allegheny Plateau, providing the northeastern most drainage in the watershed of the Mississippi River, its tributaries reach to within 8 miles of Lake Erie in southwestern New York. Water from the Allegheny River flows into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

The Allegheny Valley has been one of the most productive areas of fossil fuel extraction in United States history, with its extensive deposits of coal and natural gas. In its upper reaches, the Allegheny River is joined from the south by Potato Creek 1.7 miles downstream of Coryville and from the north by Olean Creek at Olean, New York. Tunungwant "Tuna" Creek joins the river from the south in New York. After re-entering Pennsylvania, the river is joined from the east by Kinzua Creek 10 miles upstream of Warren.

Daulatkhan Upazila

Daulatkhan is an Upazila of Bhola District in the Division of Barisal, Bangladesh. Daulatkhan is located at 22.6069°N 90.7358°E / 22.6069. It has 29,233 households and its total area is 316.99 km². According to the 1991 Bangladesh census, Daulatkhan had a population of 153,458, of whom 69,112 were aged 18 or older. Males constituted 52.54% of the population, females 47.46%. Daulatkhan had an average literacy rate of 24.5%, against the national average of 32.4%. Daulatkhan has 9 Unions/Wards, 47 Mauzas/Mahallas, 27 villages. Char Khalifa Char pata Hajipur Madonpur Uttar JoynagarDakshin Joynagar Sayeddpur Medua Bhabanipur Upazilas of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Divisions of Bangladesh

Foggydog Glacier

Foggydog Glacier is a glacier between the Blank Peaks and Mount Rich in the Brown Hills of Antarctica. It was mapped by the Victoria University of Wellington Antarctic Expedition and so named because in plan the glacier is shaped like the head and neck of a dog, with a moraine suggesting a collar and a glacial lake in the position of the ears. Fog accumulates over the glacier. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology 1964 photo of Foggydog Glacier This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Foggydog Glacier"

Megatons to Megawatts Program

The Megatons to Megawatts Program completed in December 2013, is the popular name given to the program, called the United States-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement. The official name of the program is the "Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United States of America Concerning the Disposition of Highly-Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons", dated February 18, 1993. Under this Agreement, Russia agreed to supply the United States with low-enriched uranium obtained from high-enriched uranium found to be in excess of Russian defense purposes; the United States agreed to purchase the low-enriched uranium fuel. The original proposal for this program was made by Thomas Neff, a physicist at MIT, in an October 24, 1991 Op-Ed in The New York Times. On August 28, 1992, in Moscow, U. S. and Russian negotiators initialed the 20-year agreement and President George H. W. Bush announced the agreement on August 31, 1992. In 1993, the agreement was signed and initiated by President Clinton and the commercial implementing contract was signed by both parties.

Under this Agreement, the United States and Russia agreed to commercially implement a 20-year program to convert 500 metric tons of HEU taken from Soviet era warheads, into LEU. The terms of the agreement required that it be implemented on commercial terms without government funds; the agreement named the Department of Energy as the executive agent for the US side. The DOE appointed the newly privatized United States Enrichment Corporation as the commercial agent, its executive program contractor; the Russian Federation designated Techsnabexport, a commercial subsidiary of its Ministry for Atomic Energy, as the agent to implement the program on commercial terms. On January 14, 1994, the commercial contract between USEC and TENEX was signed; the terms required that the HEU be converted by dilution to LEU in Russian nuclear facilities. USEC would purchase the low-enriched fuel and transport it to its facilities in the US; the first shipment of LEU took place in May 1995. The value of the process is in two components: the LEU Feed and the work involved in the conversion process, measured as separative work units.

Both have separate commercial values. Early disagreements on interpretations of the terms of the governmental and commercial agreements on this issue led to controversy and some delays. Although each shipment contains LEU, the commercial nature of the global uranium market defines the uranium and the enrichment components as separate commercial values and costs; the solution reached was for USEC to continue payments for the SWU component it purchased and to transfer the equivalent of the LEU feed component to the Russian side. In March 1999, Minatom and the US Department of Energy signed the Agreement Concerning the Transfer of Source Material to the Russian Federation, at the same time TENEX signed a Contract with a Group of Western Companies regarding the purchase of the LEU Feed; as years passed, numerous commercial contract terms were renegotiated and revised to accommodate mutual interests. The Megatons to Megawatts program was initiated in 1993 and completed on schedule in December 2013.

A total of 500 tonnes of Russian warhead grade HEU were converted in Russia to nearly 15,000 tonnes tons of LEU and sold to the US for use as fuel in American nuclear power plants. The program was the largest and most successful nuclear non-proliferation program to date; the first nuclear power plant to receive low-enriched fuel containing uranium under this program was the Cooper Nuclear Station in 1998. During the 20-year Megatons to Megawatts program, as much as 10 percent of the electricity produced in the United States was generated by fuel fabricated using LEU from Russian HEU. During this period, on a comparatively modest basis, the US government has been converting some of its excess nuclear warhead HEU into power plant fuel. Efforts have been undertaken to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of converting warhead plutonium into fuel to augment nuclear fuel for US power plants. Nuclear industry sources forecasted high demand trends that would require finding other uranium supply sources after the completion of the Megatons to Megawatts agreement.

In 2011, TENEX and USEC signed a long-term contract for the provision of enrichment services to the United States that could see annual deliveries after 2015 reaching a level of around half the annual supply volume under the HEU Deal. No plans have been announced for new initiatives similar to the Megatons to Megawatts program. Nuclear power Peak uranium Swords to ploughshares "A Grand Uranium Bargain," Thomas L. Neff, New York Times, October 24, 1991. "From Soviet Warheads to U. S. Reactor Fuel," William J. Broad, September 6, 1992. Comprehensive history of the program's origin by Center for Defense Information National Nuclear Security Administration USEC website for the Program TENEX website The U. S.-Russian HEU Agreement: Internal Safeguards to Prevent Diversion of HEU. HEU-LEU Project: A Success Story of Russian-US Nuclear Disarmament Cooperation. Ceness-Russia. Org Uranium Enrichment and Fuel Fabrication - Current Issues, WISE BusinessWire article Military Warheads as a Source of Nuclear Fuel, WNA, March 2008 From Warheads to Cheap Energy, William J. Broad, NYT 27 January 2014, Technology Review

Women in the 42nd Canadian Parliament

The 42nd Canadian Parliament includes a record number of female Members of Parliament, with 88 women elected to the 338-member House of Commons of Canada in the 2015 election. This represents a gain of twelve seats over the previous record of 76 women in the 41st Canadian Parliament. By contrast, the 114th United States Congress had 105 women sitting in the 435-seat United States House of Representatives. Of those 88 women, 54 were elected for the first time in the 2015 election. In his first speech following the election, Prime Minister-designate Justin Trudeau indicated that for the first time in Canadian history, he planned to appoint a gender-balanced Cabinet. On November 4, he announced a cabinet which included 15 women; the longest-serving woman in the 42nd Parliament is Hedy Fry, first elected in the 1993 election. On April 3, 2017 four women were elected in by-elections; as of December 2017, there are 92 women serving in parliament, representing 27.2 per cent of elected Members of Parliament.

† denotes women who were newly elected in the 2015 election and are serving their first term in office. †† denotes women who were not members of the 41st parliament, but served in another parliament. † † † denotes women. Women in the 40th Canadian Parliament Women in the 41st Canadian Parliament

Deborah Goldsmith

Deborah Goldsmith was an American itinerant portraitist. Goldsmith was a native of North Brookfield, New York, but spent much of her adolescence in the neighboring town of Hamilton, at the home of her sister and brother-in-law, the Boons, she was the daughter of Richard and Ruth Miner Goldsmith, former residents of Guilford, Connecticut who moved to Brookfield, New York sometime between 1805 and 1808. Little is known of her life, or of her motivations for becoming an artist, although it is suspected that she was forced into the profession due to economic necessity. No advertisements survive documenting her travels. In the latter year she married George Addison Throop, a member of a family for whom she had produced work; the couple had two children following an illness of several weeks' duration. She is buried in Brookfield's Cole Hill Cemetery. Only a handful of works by Goldsmith have been identified, most of them watercolors either on paper or on ivory, although she is known to have produced pictures in oil as well.

She produced numerous portraits as well as commonplace books, the latter filled with decorative images, illustrated copies of prints, a mourning picture in addition to poetry and other writings. She left behind her worktable and a tin paint box. An 1832 portrait of Permilia Forbes Sweet by Goldsmith is owned by the Fenimore Art Museum, while her portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Lyman Day and their daughter Cornelia, dated c. 1823–1824, is in the collection of the American Folk Art Museum. Her two commonplace books descended in the family, but have been committed to microfilm by the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution