An allele is a variant form of a given gene, meaning it is one of two or more versions of a known mutation at the same place on a chromosome. It can refer to different sequence variations for a several-hundred base-pair or more region of the genome that codes for a protein. Alleles can come in different extremes of size. At the lowest possible end one can be the single base choice of a single nucleotide polymorphism. At the higher end, it can be the sequence variations for the regions of the genome that code for the same protein which can be up to several thousand base-pairs long. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. A notable example of this trait of color variation is Gregor Mendel's discovery that the white and purple flower colors in pea plants were the result of "pure line" traits which could be used as a control for future experiments. However, most alleles result in no observable phenotypic variation. Most multicellular organisms have two sets of chromosomes.
In this case, the chromosomes can be paired: each pair is made up of two homologous chromosomes. If both alleles of a gene at the locus on the homologous chromosomes are the same and the organism are homozygous with respect to that gene. If the alleles are different and the organism are heterozygous with respect to that gene; the word "allele" is a short form of allelomorph, used in the early days of genetics to describe variant forms of a gene detected as different phenotypes. It derives from the Greek prefix ἀλληλο-, allelo-, meaning "mutual", "reciprocal", or "each other", which itself is related to the Greek adjective ἄλλος, meaning "other". In many cases, genotypic interactions between the two alleles at a locus can be described as dominant or recessive, according to which of the two homozygous phenotypes the heterozygote most resembles. Where the heterozygote is indistinguishable from one of the homozygotes, the allele expressed is the one that leads to the "dominant" phenotype, the other allele is said to be "recessive".
The degree and pattern of dominance varies among loci. This type of interaction was first formally described by Gregor Mendel. However, many traits defy this simple categorization and the phenotypes are modeled by co-dominance and polygenic inheritance; the term "wild type" allele is sometimes used to describe an allele, thought to contribute to the typical phenotypic character as seen in "wild" populations of organisms, such as fruit flies. Such a "wild type" allele was regarded as leading to a dominant and normal phenotype, in contrast to "mutant" alleles that lead to recessive and deleterious phenotypes, it was thought that most individuals were homozygous for the "wild type" allele at most gene loci, that any alternative "mutant" allele was found in homozygous form in a small minority of "affected" individuals as genetic diseases, more in heterozygous form in "carriers" for the mutant allele. It is now appreciated that most or all gene loci are polymorphic, with multiple alleles, whose frequencies vary from population to population, that a great deal of genetic variation is hidden in the form of alleles that do not produce obvious phenotypic differences.
A population or species of organisms includes multiple alleles at each locus among various individuals. Allelic variation at a locus is measurable as the number of alleles present, or the proportion of heterozygotes in the population. A null allele is a gene variant that lacks the gene's normal function because it either is not expressed, or the expressed protein is inactive. For example, at the gene locus for the ABO blood type carbohydrate antigens in humans, classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, i, which determine compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes which produce one of four possible phenotypes: "Type A", "Type B", "Type AB" produced by IAIB heterozygous genotype, "Type O" produced by ii homozygous genotype; the frequency of alleles in a diploid population can be used to predict the frequencies of the corresponding genotypes. For a simple model, with two alleles. P2 is the fraction of the population homozygous for the first allele, 2pq is the fraction of heterozygotes, q2 is the fraction homozygous for the alternative allele.
If the first allele is dominant to the second the fraction of the population that will show the dominant phenotype is p2 + 2pq, the fraction with the recessive phenotype is q2. With three alleles: p +
Elie Y. Katz is an American politician and businessman, he served as the Mayor of Teaneck, New Jersey from 2006 to 2008. Katz was born on July 1974 in Teaneck, New Jersey, he graduated from Touro College. Katz was elected to the Teaneck Township Council in 1997, he was elected Mayor of Teaneck in 2006, making him the youngest person to serve in that office as well as the first Orthodox Jew. Katz served until 2008. Katz served as deputy mayor in 2016, he thus filled in as acting mayor for several months until the town council elected Mohammed Hameeduddin on July 1, 2016. Katz is serving his sixth term on Teaneck's Township Council. Katz is the CEO of National Retail Solutions, a subsidiary of IDT Corporation, he worked for Fabrix Systems, Citizens Choice Energy, Zedge. Katz's personal website
The Formula-4s Powerboat World Championship is an international inshore powerboat racing competition for powerboats organised by the Union Internationale Motonautique, hence it being referred to as F4s. “S” letter refers to abbreviation from 4-stroke, which means that 4-stroke boat engines are being used in this class. This class was designed as an ecological alternative to UIMS750, UIMS550, UIM F4 и UIM F3 classes. Before getting World Championship status this class was called SL-60. First races was in Scandinavian in 2005. In a year 2009 this class was chosen as a base for ADAC Masters international series conducted in Germany. In year 2010 class was given current name European Championship status. In year 2011 was launched promotional series F-4s conducted together with F1H2O events. In the year 2013 was organized first World Championship in Formula-4s class. For the present moment class F-4s has most dynamic evolution in a powerboat races. Stages of championships are conducted in different counties, such as Hungary, Finland, Great Brittan, Sweden, Italy.
Besides World and European Championships, prestigious international series are conducted such as ADAC Masters and promotional F-4s series to support F1H2O. In a year 2014 number of pilots running international series had exceeded 50, and it is not able to count number of national series pilots. A large number of open international events are conducted in different counties such as USA, United Arabian Emirates and Scandinavian and many other countries, it need to emphasize Promotional F-4s series, funded to create a reserve of young pilots and give them opportunity to learn circuits of F1H2O. Races are conducted together with Royal Races at same weekend; this popularity can be explained with a several reasons. One is a good safety. Boats of F-4s are equipped with safety cockpits taken from elder classes F1H2O and F2H2O. For the present moment there no fatality or serious injury among pilots of this class was recorded, it need to emphasize affordable price of enter to this class and low costs comparing to other Formula classes – F1, F2, F500.
However performance rates of assembling and tuning-up are close to elder classes. Several weeks of serious job needed to be done by skilled mechanics; this kind of work is done by shipyards or racing clubs with proper equipment. At last, one of main reason for many pilots to participate it this races is that this class is a shortest way to Royal Races. F-4s one of few classes which gives right to apply for super-license after having some experience. F-4s boats have same steering as an elder classes, corrected to speed. F-4s is a best practice for pilots, it was proved by tests of young pilots in F2 classes. Boats in F-4s class is a tunnel catamaran. Construction technologies are same to elder classes. Newest technology and modern materials, such as carbon, nomex, new types of polymer resin are used to construct boats. Costs of materials and manpower are same as in other Formula classes; that is because of high performance is high safety. Modern F-4s boats, same to elder classes, are equipped with 3000N/sm2 safety cockpits.
Lots of companies and private boat builders in Europe, USA, China are producing boats which fitting this class. Leading companies are BABA Racing, ASV, [https://web.archive.org/web/20141028075654/http://www.molgaard-racing.com/f4-gen-2/ Molgaard Racing and in the lead is Lönnberg According to UIM rules, 4-stroke Mercury 60 EFI Racing is being used as only possible engine for this class. With a modern trends, this engine follows most strict ecological regulations. Same time this engine has a high-performance, because of low center of gravity given consequent to sport type of midsection and suspension. Engine data: Power: 60PsVolume: 995 cm3Number of cylinders: 4Weight: 118 kgThe boats are fast and easy to drive, best catamaran class to start in. No need of tinkering with the engines, as in the SST-45 and 60 classes in the US, that uses technology from the 70's. Stages of World and European championships is being conducted on circuits homologated by UIM. Number of boats in a heat should not exceed number of boats in homologation of race course.
Participants of main heats are selected by qualification. Maximum straight is 600m. Races running anticlockwise. Minimal number of the heats is 2, it is 3 or 4 heats. Pilots is being scored for each heat according to UIM rules. Winner is defined by sum of points. World champions: Formula 1 F4-s World Series: European champions