Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U. S. state of Texas. It is the largest hub for American Airlines, headquartered near the airport, it is the fourth busiest airport in the world by aircraft movements and the fourteenth busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in 2017. It is second busiest in Texas. With nearly 900 daily flights, American Airlines at DFW is the second largest airline hub in the world and the United States, behind Delta's Atlanta hub. Located halfway between the major cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, DFW spills across portions of Dallas and Tarrant counties, includes portions of the cities of Irving, Euless and Coppell. At 17,207 acres, DFW is larger than the island of Manhattan, is the second largest airport by land area in the United States, after Denver International Airport, it has its own post office ZIP code, 75261, United States Postal Service city designation, as well as its own police, fire protection and emergency medical services.
The members of the airport's board of directors are appointed by the "owner cities" of Dallas and Fort Worth, with a non-voting member chosen from the airport's four neighboring cities on a rotating basis. As of April 2019, DFW Airport has service to 249 destinations, including 62 international and 187 domestic destinations within the U. S. In surpassing 200 destinations, DFW joined a small group of airports worldwide with that distinction; as early as 1927, before the area had an airport, Dallas proposed a joint airport with Fort Worth. Fort Worth declined the offer and thus each city opened its own airport, Love Field and Meacham Field, each of which had scheduled airline service. In 1940 the Civil Aeronautics Administration earmarked $1.9 million for the construction of a Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport. American Airlines and Braniff Airways struck a deal with the city of Arlington to build an airport there, but the governments of Dallas and Fort Worth disagreed over its construction and the project was abandoned in 1942.
After World War II, Fort Worth annexed the site and developed it into Amon Carter Field with the help of American Airlines. In 1953 Fort Worth transferred its commercial flights from Meacham Field to the new airport, 12 miles from Dallas Love Field. In 1960 Fort Worth purchased Amon Carter Field and renamed it Greater Southwest International Airport GSW in an attempt to compete with Dallas' airport, but GSW's traffic continued to decline relative to Dallas Love Field. By the mid-1960s Fort Worth was getting 1% of Texas air traffic while Dallas was getting 49%, which led to the virtual abandonment of GSW; the joint airport proposal was revisited in 1961 after the Federal Aviation Administration refused to invest more money in separate Dallas and Fort Worth airports. Although the Fort Worth airport was abandoned, Dallas Love Field became congested and had no more room to expand. Following an order from the federal government in 1964 that it would unilaterally choose a site if the cities could not come to an agreement, officials from the two cities agreed on a location for a new regional airport, north of the abandoned GSW and equidistant from the two city centers.
The land was purchased by the cities in 1966 and construction began in 1969. Voters went to the polls in cities throughout the Dallas/Ft Worth area to approve the new North Texas Regional Airport, named after the North Texas Commission, instrumental in the regional airport coming to fruition; the North Texas Commission formed the North Texas Airport Commission to oversee the planning and construction of the giant airport. Area voters approved the airport referendum and the new North Texas Regional Airport would become a reality. Under the original 1967 airport design, DFW was to have pier-shaped terminals perpendicular to a central highway. In 1968, the design was revised to provide for semicircular terminals, which served to isolate loading and unloading areas from the central highway, to provide additional room for parking in the middle of each semicircle; the plan proposed thirteen such terminals. DFW held an open house and dedication ceremony on September 20–23, 1973, which included the first landing of a supersonic Concorde in the United States, an Air France aircraft en route from Caracas to Paris.
The attendees at the airport's dedication included former Texas Governor John Connally, Transportation Secretary Claude Brinegar, U. S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen and Texas Governor Dolph Briscoe; the airport opened for commercial service as Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport on January 13, 1974, at a cost of $700 million. The first flight to land was American Airlines Flight 341 from New York, which had stopped in Memphis and Little Rock; the name change to Dallas/Fort Worth International did not occur until 1985. When it opened, DFW had four terminals, numbered 2W, 2E, 3E and 4E. During its first year of operations, the airport was served by American Airlines, Braniff International Airways, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, Frontier Airlines, Ozark Air Lines, Rio Airways and Texas International Airlines; the Wright Amendment of 1979 banned long distance flights into Love Field, leaving Southwest Airlines as Love Field's only jet airline and operating as an intrastate air carrier in the state of Texas.
Braniff International Airways was a major operator at DFW in the airport's early years, operating a hub from Terminal 2W with international flights to South America and Mexico from 1974, London from 1978 and Europe and Asi
U.S. Route 75
U. S. Route 75 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,239 miles in the central United States; the highway's northern terminus is in Noyes, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it once continued as Manitoba Highway 75 on the other side of the now-closed border crossing. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 30 and Interstate 45 in Dallas, where it is known as North Central Expressway. U. S. 75 was a cross-country route, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico at Texas. However, the entire segment south of Dallas has been decommissioned in favor of Interstate 45, a cutoff section of town-to-town surface road having become Texas State Highway 75; the first freeway in Texas was a several-mile stretch of US 75 --The Gulf Freeway, opened to Houston traffic on October 1, 1948. The stretch of US 75 between Interstate 30 and the Oklahoma state line has exits numbered consecutively from 1 to 75, excluding 9-19. All other Texas freeways that have exit numbers are coordinated with mile markers. From Denison north to the Oklahoma border, US 75 is concurrent to U.
S. Route 69. US-75 remains concurrent to US-69 from the Texas border north to Atoka. While US-69 continues to the northeast as a multilane highway, US-75 turns north to serve several small communities between Atoka and Henryetta. Through travellers bypass this segment of US-75 via US-69 and the Indian Nation Turnpike, where the speed limit is 75 miles per hour. From Henryetta through Tulsa and on through Bartlesville to the Kansas State Line, US-75 is once again a multilane highway. In the early 1990s, some portions of US-75 in Oklahoma were slated to become part of the Interstate Highway System; the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act states that "upon the request of the Oklahoma State highway agency, the Secretary shall designate the portion of United States Route 69 from the Oklahoma-Texas State line to Checotah in the State of Oklahoma as a part of the Interstate System." This would have created an Interstate route from Interstate 40 south to the Texas line, including the portion of US-75 co-signed with US-69 south of Atoka.
The legislation was unclear whether the route would enter Texas to connect with or become an extension of Interstate 45. A current plan is to construct a new segment of the Oklahoma Turnpike along the US-69 corridor to bring it to corridor standards. A major north–south artery in Kansas, US-75 enters the state at Caney, it crosses Interstate 35 south of Olivet at the BETO Junction. From I-35 to Melvern Lake, US-75 is a Super-2 highway, with controlled access interchanges at Township Road, K-278, K-31 southbound. From Melvern Lake to just north of Lyndon, US-75 and K-31 share a long concurrency. At U. S. Route 56 near Scranton US-75 becomes a freeway. There is no direct access to the Kansas Turnpike from US-75, but the highway joins with Interstate 470 less than 1 mile from 470's interchange with the turnpike. US-75 and Interstate 470 run together along the west side of Topeka to Interstate 70. US-75 turns east along Interstate 70 for about 3 miles before exiting northbound as a freeway; this freeway segment runs to Elmont becomes an expressway to Holton.
The remainder of US-75 in Kansas is two lanes. The highway exits the state north of Sabetha. There was a US-75 Alternate in Kansas, it was on Topeka Boulevard and was the route US-75 took through Topeka. U. S. 75 enters Nebraska south of Dawson. From Nebraska City northward, it parallels the Missouri River. A brief section which serves as a bypass for Nebraska City is an expressway called the J. Sterling Morton Beltway. Nebraska City itself is served with Business Route U. S. 75. U. S. 75 and U. S. Route 34 overlap from Union to Plattsmouth. North of Plattsmouth, U. S. 75 becomes the Kennedy Freeway, serving as an arterial highway through Bellevue and the South Omaha neighborhood of Omaha. It follows Interstate 480 through central Omaha before branching off as the North Omaha Freeway. From Interstate 680 northward to Nashville U. S. 75 is an expressway. North of Nashville it becomes a two-lane road again, it is concurrent with U. S. Route 30 in Blair, it joins with U. S. Route 77 at Winnebago; the two highways run together until their junction with Interstate 129 and U.
S. Route 20 at South Sioux City. U. S. 75 follows I-129 and U. S. 20 towards the Missouri River and Iowa. U. S. 75 is a major north–south artery in the northwestern corner of Iowa. It enters the state by a Missouri River crossing at Sioux City concurrent with Interstate 129 and U. S. Route 20. U. S. 75 and U. S. 20 run together on a freeway bypass around the southeast side of Sioux City before U. S. 20 turns east at Gordon Drive. U. S. 75 continues as a freeway to the Woodbury County/Plymouth County line, where it becomes an expressway. This expressway becomes a freeway bypass of Le Mars. North of Le Mars, U. S. 75 exits off the freeway bypass, which continues on as Iowa Highway 60, turns north. U. S. 75 continues as a two-lane, undivided highway passing through Sioux Center and Rock Rapids before leaving the state north of Iowa Highway 9. The segment from the Missouri River to LeMars is part of a larger expressway project which will provide a direct connection between Sioux City and the Twin Cities region in Minnesota.
In Minnesota, U. S. 75 stays close to the state's western border. It passes through few large towns. U. S. 75 enters Minnesota south of Luverne near Ash Creek and Steen, passes though Pipestone and Breckenridge. It is the main north–south route through Moorhead. North of Moorhead, the route turns northeast to pass through Crookston turns northwest towards the Red River of t
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
The interurban is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns. They were prevalent in North America between 1900 and 1925 and were used for passenger travel between cities and their surrounding suburban and rural communities. Limited examples existed in Asia. Interurban as a term encompassed the companies, their infrastructure, the cars that ran on the rails; the interurban in the United States, was a valuable cultural institution. Most roads and town streets were unpaved, transportation was by horse-drawn carriages and carts; the interurban provided vital transportation links between the countryside. In 1915, 15,500 miles of interurban railways were operating in the United States. For a time, interurban railways were the fifth-largest industry in the United States. By 1930, most interurbans were gone, with few surviving into the 1950s. Oliver Jensen, author of American Heritage History of Railroads in America, commented that "...the automobile doomed the interurban whose private tax paying tracks could never compete with the highways that a generous government provided for the motorist."
The term "interurban" was coined by a state senator in Indiana. The Latin, inter urbes, means "between cities"; the interurban fit on a continuum between full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due identified four characteristics of an interurban: Electric power for propulsion. Passenger service as the primary business. Equipment heavier and faster than urban streetcars. Operation on tracks in city streets, in rural areas on roadside tracks or private right-of-way; the definition of "interurban" is blurry. Some town streetcar lines evolved into interurban systems by extending streetcar track from town into the countryside to link adjacent towns together, sometimes by the acquisition of a nearby interurban system. There was a large amount of consolidation of lines following initial construction. Other interurban lines became light rail systems with no street running whatsoever, or they became freight-hauling railroads due to a progressive loss of their initial passenger service over the years.
In 1905 the United States Census Bureau defined an interurban as "a street railway having more than half its trackage outside municipal limits." It drew a distinction between "interurban" and "suburban" railroads. A suburban system was oriented toward a city center in a single urban area and served commuter traffic. A regular railroad moved riders from one city center to another city center and moved a substantial amount of freight; the typical interurban served more than one city, but it served a smaller region and made more frequent stops, it was oriented to passenger rather than freight service. The development of interurbans in the late nineteenth century resulted from the convergence of two trends: improvements in electric traction, an untapped demand for transportation in rural areas in the Midwestern United States; the 1880s saw the first successful deployments of electric traction in streetcar systems. Most of these built on the pioneering work of Frank J. Sprague, who developed an improved method for mounting an electric traction motor and using a trolley pole for pickup.
Sprague's work led to widespread acceptance of electric traction for streetcar operations and end of horse-drawn trams. The late nineteenth century United States witnessed a boom in agriculture which lasted through the First World War, but transportation in rural areas was inadequate. Conventional steam railroads made limited stops in towns; these were supplemented by horse and buggies and steamboats, both of which were slow and the latter of, restricted to navigable rivers. The increased capacity and profitability of the city street railroads offered the possibility of extending them into the countryside to reach new markets linking to other towns; the first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889. It was not a major success; the development of the automobile was in its infancy, to many investors interurbans appeared to be future of local transportation. From 1900 to 1916, a large network of interurban lines was constructed in the United States in the states of Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa and California.
In 1900, 2,107 miles of interurban track existed, but by 1916, this had increased to 15,580 miles, a seven-fold expansion. During this expansion, in the regions where they operated in Ohio and Indiana, "...they destroyed the local passenger service of the steam railroad." To show how exceptionally busy the interurbans radiating from Indianapolis were in 1926, the immense Indianapolis Traction Terminal scheduled 500 trains in and out daily and moved 7 million passengers that year. At their peak the interurbans were the fifth-largest industry in the United States; the fortunes of the industry declined during World War I and into the early 1920s. Many interurbans had been hastily constructed without realistic projections of income and expenses, they were financed by issuing stock and selling bonds. The sale of these financial instruments was local with salesmen going door to door aggressively pushing this new and exciting "it can't fail" form of transportation, but many of those interurbans did fail, quickly.
They struggled to raise essential further capital. Interurbans were vulnerable to acts of nature
Parker is a city in Collin County, United States. The population was 3,811 at the 2010 census. Parker is located in southern Collin County at 33°03′25″N 96°37′17″W, it is bordered to the north by Allen, to the west by Plano, to the south by Murphy, to the southeast by Wylie, to the northeast by Lucas. It is 26 miles northeast of the center of Dallas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.39%, is water. Parker is the location of the famed Southfork Ranch, the setting used in the television series Dallas; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,811 people, 1,209 households, 1,073 families residing in the city. The population density was 732.8 people per square mile. There were 1,255 housing units at an average density of 241.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White, 3.00% African American, 0.08% Native American, 7.9% Asian, 3.8% from other races, 3.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.1% of the population.
There were 1,209 households out of which 42.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 83.3% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 11.2% were non-families. 8.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.15 and the average family size was 3.36. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.2% under the age of 18, 3% from 18 to 21, 53.1% from 21 to 62, 3.1% from 62 to 65, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years; the ratio of males to females was 50.5 to 49.5. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $101,786, the median income for a family was $108,560. Males had a median income of $72,344 versus $41,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $54,099. About 1.4% of families and 2.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.4% of those under age 18 and 1.3% of those age 65 or over.
The first settlers arrived in the area, now Parker in the early 1840s. The town was named after William C. Parker, the son of the area's first known settler, John C. Parker, it was incorporated as a city on March 22, 1969. Corinth Presbyterian Church was founded in Parker in 1846, with the current sanctuary built in 1923, is thought to be the oldest continuing congregation in Collin County. A small part of Parker is served by the Allen Independent School District, while the majority is served by the Plano Independent School District; the portion of Parker in AISD is served by Allen High School. The portion of Parker in PISD is served by Plano East Senior High School. Dr. Patrisha Zobel de Ayala, CEO Emeritus of Ayala Conglomerates and Harvard Medical School alumna Jodie Anne Laubenberg, served in the Texas House of Representatives from 2003 to the present.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U. S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding; the United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U. S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race.
Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white; the largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans, Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Dutch Americans, Norwegian Americans and Swedish Americans. However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as "Americans", due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution; the vast majority of white Americans have ancestry from multiple countries. Definitions of, "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States; the term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria.
The 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows: "White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa, it includes people who indicated their race as "White" or reported entries such as German, Lebanese, Moroccan, or Caucasian. In U. S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity and independent of race.
Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country. The characterization of Middle Eastern and North African Americans as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, peoples of Arab descent were sometimes denied entry into the United States because they were characterized as nonwhite. In 1944, the law changed, Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status; the U. S. Census is revisiting the issue, considering creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans in the 2020 Census. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White; the US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.
In the contemporary United States anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, may not be perceived to be, White; the definition of White has changed over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Spaniards, Swedes and Russians. Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry. David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves; the process of being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth and judicial neutrality, by critical theory.
Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards