2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Huntington, known as the "Lime City", is the largest city in and the county seat of Huntington County, United States. It is in Union townships; the population was 17,391 at the 2010 census. According to the 2010 census, Huntington has a total area of 8.844 square miles, of which 8.71 square miles is land and 0.134 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 17,391 people, 6,566 households, 4,197 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,996.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,487 housing units at an average density of 859.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.4% White, 0.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 6,566 households of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.1% were non-families.
30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the city was 33.4 years. 24.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,450 people, 6,717 households, 4,419 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,091.0 people per square mile. There were 7,262 housing units at an average density of 870.2/sq mi. The main religion is Roman Catholic, with around 42% of the city attending masses; the racial makeup of the city was 97.83% White, 0.21% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population. There were 6,717 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families.
29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,600, the median income for a family was $56,454. Males had a median income of $35,830 versus $26,921 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,242. About 5.2% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. The Huntington County Community School Corporation serves the city of Huntington and all of Huntington County; the corporation's lone high school, Huntington North High School, is located in Huntington.
The two corporation middle schools, Crestview Middle School, Riverview Middle School, three of the five elementary schools lie just outside the city limits. Private schools include Huntington Catholic School operated by the Roman Catholic Church; the town has the Huntington City-Township Public Library. Huntington was named by a member of the legislature; the name Huntington is derived from Samuel Huntington, a judge and patriot in the American Revolution. Samuel Huntington is known for being the 3rd Governor of Connecticut and the 7th President of the Continental Congress. Being a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Huntington took part in voting for and signing the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation; the county of Huntington was formally organized on December 2, 1834. The city of Huntington was first established by a group of pioneers, most notably Capt. Elias Murray. By 1849, Huntington contained 150 houses and a population of 700. A small number of books have been published about the history of Huntington County, the first being History of Huntington County, Indiana published by Brant & Fuller.
Two other books about Huntington include History of Huntington County, IN by Frank Sumner Bash in 1914 and Huntington County, IN: Histories and Families by Turner Publishing Company in 1993 as a result of the Huntington County Historical Society officers and board of directors meeting in the summer of 1992 to discuss the family history of Huntington, the glue that has held together the city and county of Huntington in the heartland of the Midwest for more than 175 years. The Wabash and Erie Canal was constructed through Huntington County in 1834 and added major economic benefit to the area. In addition to the Wabash River cutting through Huntington, this newly opened trade route accelerated the population and economic growth in Huntington. Catholic publisher Our Sunday Visitor is based in Huntington. WGL FM 102.9 WBZQ AM 1300 La Jefa Radio WVSH FM 91.9 The Edge, high school station WQHU FM 105.5 FUSE FM, Huntington University Huntington Municipal Airport, a small airport for general aviation, lies southeast of the city.
Adams County, Indiana
Adams County lies in northeastern Indiana in the United States and shares its eastern border with Ohio. It was established in 1836; the county seat is Decatur. According to the 2010 census, its population was 34,387, an increase of 2.27% from 33,625 in 2000. The county has four incorporated cities and towns with a total population of over 15,000, as well as many small unincorporated communities; the county is divided into 12 townships. There are four Indiana state roads in the county, as well as three U. S. Routes and one railroad line. In 2017, about a quarter of the county's population was Swiss Amish; the statute that mandated creation of this county was passed on February 7, 1835, the organization itself was authorized on March 1, 1836. Its name honors the sixth President of John Quincy Adams. Selection of the county seat was finalized on 18 May of that year; the first non-Native settlers arrived in what is now Adams County in 1835, encouraged by the new Erie Canal and by the end of the Black Hawk War.
They consisted of settlers from New England. These were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the colonial era, they were members of the Congregational Church though due to the Second Great Awakening many of them had converted to Methodism and some had become Baptists before coming to what is now Adams County. The Congregational Church subsequently has gone through many divisions and some factions are now known as the Church of Christ and the United Church of Christ; when these settlers arrived they found wild prairie. The first Amish settlers arrived in 1840; the Yankee settlers commissioned the first courthouse in a two-story frame building. The log-building jail was completed in 1837; the present Adams County courthouse was built in Decatur in 1872–1873 at a cost of $78,979. The designer was J. C. Johnson, trained as a carpenter and joiner and became a self-taught architect; the construction was done by Christian Boseker of Fort Wayne.
It is built of red brick with stone ornamentation. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 339.97 square miles, of which 339.03 square miles is land and 0.94 square miles is water. Allen County Wells County Jay County Van Wert, Ohio Mercer, Ohio The county has four incorporated settlements, all of which lie in a rough north–south line; the city of Decatur is the largest and is the county seat, is in the northern part of the county where U. S. Route 27 and U. S. Route 33 intersect with the east–west U. S. Route 224. U. S. Route 27 continues south through the town of Monroe, near the center of the county, on through Berne and Geneva. Adams County is in the humid continental climate region of the United States along with most of Indiana, its Köppen climate classification is Dfa, meaning that it is cold, has no dry season, has a hot summer. In recent years, average temperatures in Decatur have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in July 1934.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.16 inches in February to 4.42 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,387 people, 12,011 households, 8,673 families residing in the county; the population density was 101.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,014 housing units at an average density of 38.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.0% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.4% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 42.9% were German, 8.2% were Irish, 7.9% were American, 6.9% were English. Of the 12,011 households, 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families, 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.41.
The median age was 34.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $53,106. Males had a median income of $40,133 versus $29,907 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,089. About 11.8% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. The Amish community in Adams County, whose antecedents trace to 1840, speak a Bernese dialect in everyday life, they had a total population of 8,595 people in 58 congregations in 2017, or 24.2% of the county's population. Three U. S Routes cross the county. U. S. Route 27 and U. S. Route 33 enter the north end of the county from Fort Wayne in neighboring Allen County. Passing through Decatur, they split. S. Route 27 goes south through Monroe and Geneva and continues into Jay County, whereas U. S. Route 33 heads southeast into Ohio. U. S. Route 224 passes from west to east through the north part of the county, intersecting U.
S. Routes 27 and 33 in Decatur continuing into Ohio. Indiana State Road 124 runs east–west through the county, from Bluffton in Wells County through Monroe and on to the Ohio border. Indiana State Road 101 runs
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
Paulding County, Ohio
Paulding County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,614, its county seat is Paulding. The county was created in 1820 and organized in 1839, it is named for John Paulding, one of the captors of Major John André in the American Revolutionary War. The Ottawa tribe of Native Americans were the prevalent occupants of the region before Europeans arrived in North America following the 1492 expedition of Christopher Columbus. By 1750, there were Miamis, Delawares, Kickapoos, Huron, Weas and Mohawks. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Continental Congress opened what is now Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin to settlement. However, the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution in 1783 allowed the British to remain in the Northwest Territory until matters were resolved with the Indians. General Washington sent General "Mad" Anthony Wayne, he built a series of forts, including Fort Brown, located between Melrose. In order to defend against Indian ambush, he cut a swath of woods a mile wide, known as the Wayne Trace.
His campaign culminated in a decisive 1794 victory by the Legion of the United States against Indians led by Chief Little Turtle of the nearby Maumee, Ohio in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Paulding County was part of territory set aside for Ohio’s Indian people by the Treaty of Greenville, though that did not last long. Paulding County was organized by the legislature on April 1, 1820 from lands that were part of Williams County. At that point, it consisted of 12 square townships. In 1845, Defiance County was formed from lands that were part of Williams County, plus the northern half of Auglaize Township, it was at this time. Settlement of Paulding County was slow, due to the difficult living conditions. Farmers complained that they grew two crops a year - ice. Many residents suffered from the ague, a disease determined to be malaria; the primary industries were based on the thick forests. Many timbers were floated up the Maumee River to be used as ship's masts.
The trees were so large. There were many who earned money through the winter by crafting barrel staves with an adze. George Washington had promoted the construction of canals to provide interior transportation for the fledgling nation. Once the Erie Canal was opened in 1825, entrepreneurs promoted other canals, including the Miami and Erie Canal and the Wabash and Erie Canal; the Miami and Erie ran from Lake Erie to the Little Miami River near Cincinnati, through Paulding County, the Wabash and Erie Canal went west into Indiana, meeting the Miami and Erie in Junction, a community in Auglaize township. The canal excitement was so great that people were leaving Fort Wayne, Indiana for Junction, feeling that it had a much brighter future. Canal workers choosing Paulding County as their tax home built the county's population to 25,000 people in 1835, a number it has never approached since; the combined canal system was the largest canal system in the world - but was only profitable for a short period.
The canal was useless in winter, the banks were caving in, requiring constant dredging to remain passable. To protect the banks, canal boats had to operate at slow speed - and the canal system started being abandoned before it was built; the coming of the railroad supplanted the canals as the primary means of long-haul travel. A relic of this era is the Furnace Farm near Cecil. Ore was brought in by canal. One furnace remains, where it was allowed to cool without being emptied, there being no point in pouring iron that could not be shipped economically to market. Built in the 1910s, the Paulding County Carnegie Library was the first Carnegie library to serve an entire county instead of a single city. In addition to the library, Andrew Carnegie matched local funds to install a pipe organ inwhat is now known as Paulding United Methodist Church. In the early 20th century, Paulding had the highest unsolved murder rate of any county in the USA; the Purple Gang was thought to be exporting the corpses of their victims to the rural countryside, where they could be dumped without being seen.
The sheriff argued that they were not local people, not murdered locally, it was not worth spending large sums of tax dollars on what was a littering problem. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 419 square miles, of which 416 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles is water. The center of the county is 723 feet above sea level, the rest of the county does not vary much from that; the land is the most level of any county in the state, plats look like a checkerboard, with roads every mile. This level terrain resulted in Paulding County being within the Great Black Swamp, unlike any other; the county contains U. S. Routes 127, 24, 30. There are the Auglaize and the Maumee, as well as numerous small creeks; the largest bodies of water are manmade ponds. Defiance County Putnam County Van Wert County Allen County, Indiana As of the census of 2000, there were 20,293 people, 7,773 households, 5,689 families residing in the county; the population density was 49 people per square mile.
There were 8,478 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.85% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 0.29% Native
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume