Heikkinen – Komonen Architects is a Finnish architectural firm established by Mikko Heikkinen and Markku Komonen in Helsinki in 1974. Their work is characterised as a fusion between minimalism, high-technology and Abstract expressionism, typified by their design for the Vuotalo Cultural Centre in Helsinki, or the Heureka Science Centre, in Vantaa with the juxtaposition of stark concrete elements against colourful high-tech metal structures and large glazed surfaces, they have completed a number of small-scale humanitarian projects for Guinea, west Africa, based on local building traditions. Heureka Science Centre, Finland Rovaniemi Airport, Finland European Film College, Denmark Embassy of Finland, Washington, D. C. United States Elementary School, Boundou Koura, Guinea Elementary School, Madina Kouta, Guinea School for Chicken Farmers, Guinea Juminkeko, the Information Centre for Kalevala and Karelian Culture, Kuhmo McDonald's Headquarters and restaurant, Pikku Huopalahti, Helsinki Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Germany Vuotalo Vuosaari Culture Centre, Finland Mediacenter Lume, Aalto University School of Art and Design, Finland Emergency Services College, Finland Laavu prototype house Hämeenlinna Regional Archive, Hämeenlinna, Finland Flooranaukio Housing, Helsinki Heinrich Tessenow Medal International Award for Innovative Technology in Architecture, 2nd prize, Venice Biennale, 1990 Peter Davey, "Heikkinen & Komonen", Current Architecture Catalogues, Watson-Guptill Publications, 1994.
ISBN 84-252-1629-X Roger Connah, "The end of Finnish architecture, or Ciao Potemkin", Helsinki, 1994 Douglas E. Graf, "Heureka: Formal Analysis", Datutop 18, Tampere, 1996. William Morgan plus introduction by Juhani Pallasmaa, "Heikkinen + Komonen", The Monacelli Press, New York, 2000. Pentti Kareoja, "Local Identity - Flooranaukio Housing", Architectural Record, March 2013. "Mikko Heikkinen and Markku Komonen, interview by Petra Čeferin", il Progetto, 15/2003. "Locating Sacredness, interview with Markku Komonen by Ketty Brocca", Laboratorio 09 numero 7, 2009. Mikko Heikkinen, "Reindeer Droppings – Random Remarks on Architecture", Arkkitehti 3/2011. Kristo Vesikansa, Laavu prefab home, "Refined Primitive Hut", Arkkitehti 5/2007. Heikkinen – Komonen Architects at archINFORM Homepage
A model tower known as an Empire tower or a Napoleon tower, was a standardised defensive fortification created in 1811. Construction began along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines the following year but the project was abandoned in 1814 with only 12 towers being completed. Napoleon I wished to remedy the disorder in France's coastal defences and so demanded the construction of a fortification combining powder magazines, food storehouses and gunners' lodgings in one building Napoleon's idea was that the cannons in coastal batteries were vulnerable to enemy raids and so they could be made safer by combining these elements in a single building; as a coastal defensive chain, they can be compared to the United Kingdom's near-contemporaneous chain of Martello towers. This defence programme is known by the name "model towers and redoubts, 1811 type", their construction programme was begun in 1812 and was intended to run for ten years, but it was abandoned on Napoleon's abdication in 1814. Of the 160 model works planned, only 12 towers were completed by 1814, including six in Finistère around the roadstead of Brest.
Louis-Philippe of France attempted to emulate Napoleon and complete this defence chain in 1846 with a set of standardised crenellated guardhouses. Model 1 could house 60 men, along with four 24 - or 16-pounder cannons. Pointe de Cornouaille, Roscanvel Pointe des Espagnols, Roscanvel Model 2 is 10.5m wide and could house 30 men, 1 field gun and 2 caronades. Model 3 could house 18 men and 2 caronades. Pointe du Toulinguet, Camaret-sur-Mer Pointe du Créac'h Meur, Plougonvelin Pointe du Grand-Minou, Locmaria-Plouzané Saint-Marzin, Plougonvelin 9m wide, it was built on 2 levels. 9m wide, it was only built on one level