John Davies Cale, OBE is a Welsh musician, singer and record producer, a founding member of the American rock band the Velvet Underground. Over his five-decade career, Cale has worked in various styles across rock, classical, avant-garde and electronic music, he studied music at Goldsmiths College, University of London, before relocating in 1963 to New York City's downtown music scene, where he performed as part of the Theatre of Eternal Music and formed the Velvet Underground. Since leaving the band in 1968, Cale has released 16 solo studio albums, including the acclaimed Music for a New Society. Cale has acquired a reputation as an adventurous producer, working on the debut albums of several innovative artists, including the Stooges and Patti Smith. John Davies Cale was born on 9 March 1942 in Garnant in the industrial Amman Valley of Wales to Will Cale, a coal miner, Margaret Davies, a primary school teacher. Although his father spoke only English, his mother spoke and taught Welsh to Cale, which hindered his relationship with his father, although he began learning English at primary school, at around the age of seven.
Cale was molested by two different men during his youth, an Anglican priest who molested him in a church and a music teacher. Having discovered a talent for viola, Cale studied music at Goldsmiths College, University of London. While he was there he organised an early Fluxus concert, A Little Festival of New Music, on 6 July 1964, he contributed to the short film Police Car and had two scores published in Fluxus Preview Review for the nascent avant-garde collective. He conducted the first performance in the UK of Cage's Concert for Piano and Orchestra, with the composer and pianist Michael Garrett as soloist. In 1963, he travelled to the United States to continue his musical training with the assistance and influence of Aaron Copland. Upon arriving in New York City, Cale met a number of influential composers. On 9 September 1963 he participated, along with John Cage and several others, in an 18-hour piano-playing marathon, the first full-length performance of Erik Satie's "Vexations". After the performance Cale appeared on the television panel show I've Got a Secret.
Cale's secret was that he had performed in an 18-hour concert, he was accompanied by a man whose secret was that he was the only member of the audience who had stayed for the duration. Cale would attribute Cage's writings with his own "relaxed" artistic outlook, having hitherto been raised to believe that European composers were obliged to justify their work. Cale played in La Monte Young's ensemble the Theatre of Eternal Music known as the Dream Syndicate; the drone-laden music he played there proved to be a big influence in his work with his next band, the Velvet Underground. One of his collaborators on these recordings was the Velvet Underground guitarist Sterling Morrison. Three albums of his early experimental work from this period were released in 2001. Belying his background in art music and the avant-garde, Cale had enjoyed and followed rock music from a young age. Early that year, he co-founded the Velvet Underground with Lou Reed, recruiting his flatmate Angus MacLise and Reed's college friend Sterling Morrison to complete the initial line-up.
Cale left the band in September 1968, owing in part to creative disagreements with Reed. Just before the band's first paying gig for $75 USD at Summit High School in New Jersey, MacLise abruptly quit the band because he viewed accepting money for art as selling out. Hired to play that one show, she soon became a permanent member and her tribal pounding style became an integral part of the band's music, despite the initial objections of Cale to the band having a female drummer. On his aforementioned visit to Britain in the summer of 1965, Cale shopped a crudely-recorded, acoustic-based Velvet Underground demo reel to several luminaries in the British rock scene with the intention of securing a record deal. Although this failed to manifest, the tape was disseminated throughout the UK underground over the following eighteen months by such figures as producer Joe Boyd and Mick Farren of the Deviants; as a result, the Deviants, the Yardbirds and David Bowie had all covered Velvet Underground songs prior to the release of their debut album in 1967.
The first commercially available recording of the Velvet Underground, an instrumental track called "Loop" given away with Aspen Magazine, was a feedback experiment written and conducted by Cale. His creative relationship with Reed was integral to the sound of the Velvet Underground's first two albums, The Velvet Underground & Nico and White Light/White Heat. On these albums he plays viola, bass guitar and piano, sings occasional backing vocals. White Light/White Heat features Cale on organ as well as two vocal turns: "Lady Godiva's Operation", an experimental song where he shares lead vocal duties with Reed, "The Gift", a long spoken word piece written by Reed. Though Cale co-wrote the music to several songs, his most distinctive contribution is the electrically-amplified viola, he played celesta on "Sunday Morning". Cale played on Nico's 1967 debut album, Chelsea Girl, which includes songs co-written by Velvet Underground members Cale and Morrison, who appear as musicians. Cale makes his debut as lyricist on "Winter Song" and "Little Sister".
Apart from appearing on the Ve
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new
Public Image Ltd
Public Image Ltd are an English post-punk band formed by singer John Lydon, guitarist Keith Levene, bassist Jah Wobble, drummer Jim Walker. The group's personnel has changed over the years. Following his departure from the Sex Pistols in January 1978, Lydon was eager to pursue a more experimental "anti-rock" project and formed PiL; that year PIL released their debut First Issue, creating an abrasive, bass-heavy sound that drew on dub, progressive rock and disco. PIL's second album Metal Box pushed their sound further into the avant-garde, is regarded as one of the most important albums of the post-punk era. By 1984, both Levene and Wobble had departed and the group was a solo vehicle for Lydon, who moved toward a more accessible sound with the commercially successful albums This Is What You Want... This Is What You Album. After a late 1990s hiatus, Lydon reformed the group in 2009 and has released several further albums, most What the World Needs Now.... Following the Sex Pistols' break-up in 1978, photographer Dennis Morris suggested that Lydon travel to Jamaica with him and Virgin Records head Richard Branson, where Branson would be scouting for emerging reggae musicians.
Branson flew American band Devo to Jamaica, aiming to install Lydon as lead singer in the band. Devo declined the offer. Upon returning to England, Lydon approached Jah Wobble about forming a band together; the pair had been friends since the early 1970s. Lydon and Wobble had played music together during the final days of the Sex Pistols. Both had broad musical tastes, were avid fans of reggae and world music. Lydon assumed, much as he had with Sid Vicious, that Wobble would learn to play bass guitar as he went. Wobble would prove to be a natural talent. Lydon approached guitarist Keith Levene, with whom he had toured in mid-1976, while Levene was a member of the Clash. Lydon and Levene had both considered themselves outsiders within their own bands. Jim Walker, a Canadian student newly arrived in the UK, was recruited on drums, after answering an ad placed in Melody Maker. PiL began rehearsing together in May 1978. In July 1978, Lydon named the band "Public Image", after the Muriel Spark novel The Public Image.
PiL debuted in October 1978 with "Public Image", a song written while Lydon was still a member of the Sex Pistols. The single was well received and reached number 9 on the UK charts, it performed well on import in the US; the photography for the album was shot by Dennis Morris who created the PiL logo. In preparing their debut album, Public Image: First Issue, the band spent their recording budget well before the record was completed; as a result, the final album comprised eight tracks of varying sound quality, half of which were written and recorded in a rush after the money had run out. The album was released in December 1978; the single "Public Image" was seen as diatribe against Malcolm McLaren and his perceived manipulation of Lydon during his career with the Sex Pistols. The track "Low Life" has been regarded as an attack on McLaren, although Lydon has stated that the lyrics refer to Sid Vicious; the two-part song "Religion" refers contemptuously to Roman Catholicism. The closing track "Fodderstompf" influenced by dub, comprises nearly eight minutes of a circular bass riff, played over a Lydon/Wobble double act lampooning public outrage, love songs and teenage apathy.
The track culminates with the sound of a fire extinguisher being let off in the recording studio, as Lydon had lit a fire whilst in a weird trance-like state during the recording session. The first album was subsequently renamed as First Issue. "PiL was the simple thing of four different people doing different drugs at different times," Wobble observed to Select. "It was only in any way together for the first two months of its existence. We had a fuckin' good drummer called Jim Walker, but he fucked off after a few months and it just fell apart. Somehow it had sort of death throes that produced a couple of blinding albums." The departure of Jim Walker made way for a series of new drummers. Auditions were held at Rollerball Studios in Tooley Street, London Bridge. David Humphrey was their second drummer, who went on to record two tracks at Manor Studios in Oxford, "Swan Lake" and "Albatross", for Metal Box. "Death Disco" was reached No. 20 in the charts. The majority of the drumming on the album was provided by Richard Dudanski, PiL's drummer from April to September 1979.
He was replaced by Karl Burns. Following sessions took place in which Martin Atkins would show up for an'audition' and discover himself in the middle of a recording session with the tape rolling; the recording was released on Metal Box as "Bad Baby". Atkins was PiL's drummer from 1979 to 1980 and 1982 to 1985. Metal Box was released as three untitled 45-rpm 12-inch records packaged in a metal box resembling a film canister with an embossed PIL logo on the lid (it was reissued in more conventional packaging as
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Club Ninja is the tenth studio album by American hard rock group Blue Öyster Cult, released December 10, 1985 in the United Kingdom and on February 11, 1986 in the United States. The album was intended as a comeback for the band, whose previous album The Revölution by Night failed to attain Gold status following the success of 1981's Fire of Unknown Origin and 1982's Extraterrestrial Live. Club Ninja sold more than 175,000 copies, falling well short of gold status again, because of its high cost, Columbia Records executives deemed it a commercial failure; the album was re-issued on compact disc on March 10, 2009, by Sony-owned reissue label American Beat Records, which had reissued the band's 1988 album, Imaginos. Club Ninja's first single, "Dancin' in the Ruins," was a minor radio and MTV hit. "When the War Comes Home" features a brief spoken-word introduction by radio personality Howard Stern, whose cousin was married to guitarist and vocalist Eric Bloom. The lyrics to "Spy in the House of the Night" were written by Richard Meltzer based on his poem "Out of Smokes", published in his 1999 book Holes.
The album was the band's last studio album with bassist Joe Bouchard. Club Ninja is the only BÖC studio album not to feature keyboardist Allen Lanier, he was replaced temporarily by Tommy Zvoncheck, who'd been keyboardist for Aldo Nova's live band, for a Japanese tour by Public Image Ltd. and had contributed to the initial recordings of Blue Öyster Cult's 1988 concept album Imaginos. The album features new drummer Jimmy Wilcox of Rick Derringer and Scandal, who replaced Rick Downey. Wilcox remained with the band until 1987. Edwin Pouncey, reviewing the album for Sounds, gave it a five-star rating, describing it as "a leaden slab of AOR which turns into gold in your hands", praising Sandy Pearlman's production. Modern reviews are quite negative, with AllMusic calling Club Ninja a testimony of "Blue Öyster Cult's gradual disintegration" and "decline into musical anonymity". Canadian journalist Martin Popoff judged the album the "least attached to the BÖC body of work, painfully constructed and baffling in its bad taste", showing a band struggling to update their sound to more "commercial avenues" without achieving the expected radio-friendly results.
Band membersEric Bloom – vocals, guitar Donald "Buck Dharma" Roeser – vocals, keyboards Joe Bouchard – bass, guitar Tommy Zvoncheck – synthesizers, organ Jimmy Wilcox – background vocals, percussionAdditional musiciansThommy Price – drums Phil Grande – guitars Kenny Aaronson – bass David Lucas, Joni Peltz, Dave Immer, Joe Caro – background vocals Howard Stern – opening to "When the War Comes"ProductionSandy Pearlman – producer, management Paul Mandl – engineer, overdubs editor, programming John Devlin, Toby Scott – engineers David Lucas – additional production Brian McGee – mixing
Heaven Forbid is the thirteenth studio album by American hard rock band Blue Öyster Cult, released in 1998. It was the band's first studio album with new material in a decade. American science fiction and horror writer John Shirley wrote lyrics to most of the songs on the album. While he his known as an author for his cyberpunk stories, many of the lyrics on this album revolve around early science fiction and mystery motifs; the album's working title was'Ezekiel's Wheel,' after the Biblical story that some take to reference an early visitation by UFOs. The album's live song "In Thee" was featured on Mirrors. "Still Burnin"' is a sequel to the song "Burnin' for You" Origin. The inspiration for the alternative cover is Morgan Fairchild; this image appears on the reverse of the insert, was intended to be the front piece as indicated by advertisements from the period. "See You in Black" – 3:17 "Harvest Moon" – 4:55 "Power Underneath Despair" – 3:30 "X-Ray Eyes" – 3:48 "Hammer Back" – 3:35 "Damaged" – 4:22 "Cold Gray Light of Dawn" – 3:51 "Real World" – 5:08 "Live for Me" – 5:19 "Still Burnin'" – 3:39 "In Thee" – 3:40 Eric Bloom – guitars, lead vocals on tracks 1, 3, 5, 7, producer Buck Dharma – guitars, lead vocals on tracks 2, 4, 6, 8-11, producer Allen Lanier – guitars, keyboards Danny Miranda – bass guitar on tracks 1, 4-9, 11, backing vocals Jon Rogers – bass guitar on tracks 2, 3 and 10, backing vocals Bob Rondinelli – drums on track 9 Chuck Burgi - drums on tracks 1-8 and 10, backing vocals George Cintron – additional vocals Tony Perrino – additional keyboards Steve Schenck - producer on tracks 2, 3, 10, management Paul Orofino – engineer, mixing Marc Senesac – engineer and mixing on tracks 2, 3, 10 Leon Zervos – mastering