A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, the largest city in West Michigan. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles east of Lake Michigan; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County. A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, is nicknamed Furniture City, its more common modern nickname of River City refers to the landmark river. The city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care, information technology, automotive and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the childhood home of U. S. President Gerald Ford, buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city; the city's main airport is named after him.
For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area. Over 2000 years ago, people associated with the Hopewell culture occupied the Grand River Valley. A tribe from the Ottawa River traveled to the Grand River valley, fighting three battles with the Prairie Indians who were established in the area; the tribe split, with the Chippewas settling in the northern lower peninsula, the Pottawatomies staying south of the Kalamazoo River and the Ottawa staying in central Michigan. By the late 1600s, the Ottawa, who occupied territory around the Great Lakes and spoke one of the numerous Algonquian languages, moved into the Grand Rapids area and founded several villages along the Grand River; the Ottawa established on the river, which they called O-wash-ta-nong, or far-away-water due to the river's length, where they "raised corn, melons and beans, to which they added game of the woods and the fish from the streams". In 1740, an Ottawa man who would be known as Chief Noonday and become the future chief of the Ottawa, was born.
Between 1761 and 1763, Chief Pontiac visited the area annually, gathering over 3,000 natives and asking them to volunteer to fight the British in Detroit, which would culminate into Pontiac's War. The Potawatomi attacked the Ottawa in 1765, attempting to take the Grand River territory but were defeated. By the end of the 1700s, there were an estimated 1,000 Ottawa in the Kent County area. After the French established territories in Michigan, Jesuit missionaries and traders traveled down Lake Michigan and its tributaries. At the start of the 19th century, European fur traders and missionaries established posts in the area among the Ottawa, they lived in peace, trading European metal and textile goods for fur pelts. In 1806, Joseph and his wife Madeline La Framboise, Métis, traveled by canoe from Mackinac and established the first trading post in West Michigan in present-day Grand Rapids on the banks of the Grand River, near what is now Ada Township, they were Roman Catholic. They both spoke Ottawa, Madeline's maternal ancestral language.
After the murder of her husband in 1809 while en route to Grand Rapids, Madeline La Framboise carried on the trade business, expanding fur trading posts to the west and north, creating a good reputation among the American Fur Company. La Framboise, whose mother was Ottawa and father French merged her successful operations with the American Fur Company. By 1810, Chief Noonday established a village on the west side of the river with about 500 Ottawa. Madeline La Framboise returned to Mackinac; that year, Grand Rapids was described as being the home of an Ottawa village of about 50 to 60 huts on the west side of the river near the 5th Ward, with Kewkishkam being the village chief and Chief Noonday being the chief of the Ottawa. The first permanent European-American settler in the Grand Rapids area was Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister. General Lewis Cass, who commissioned Charles Christopher Trowbridge to establish missions for Native Americans in Michigan, ordered McCoy to establish a mission in Grand Rapids for the Ottawa.
In 1823, McCoy, as well as Paget, a Frenchman who brought along a Native American pupil, traveled to Grand Rapids to arrange a mission, though negotiations fell through with the group returning to the Carey mission for the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River. In 1824, Baptist missionary Rev. L. Slater traveled with two settlers to Grand Rapids to perform work; the winter of 1824 was difficult, with Slater's group having to resupply and return before the spring. Slater erected the first settler structures in Grand Rapids, a log cabin for himself and a log schoolhouse. In 1825, McCoy established a missionary station, he represented the settlers who began arriving from Ohio, New York and New England, the Yankee states of the Northern Tier. Shortly after, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, was convinced by fur trader William Brewster, in a rivalry with the American Fur Company, to travel to Grand Rapids and establish trade there. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, stating the Native Americans in the area were "friendly and peaceable".
Campau returned to Detroit returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Ottawa and Ojibwa, with the only currency being fur. Campau's longer brother Touissant would assist him with trade and other tasks at hand. In 1831 the federal survey of the Northwest Territory reached the Grand River.
GVSU Fieldhouse Arena is a 4,200-seat indoor arena located in Allendale, Michigan, a suburb of Grand Rapids, on the campus of Grand Valley State University. It was built in the early 1980s as the home of the Grand Valley State University Lakers basketball and volleyball teams, as it remains to this day; the current fieldhouse replaced the former one when the roof of the "Dome" over the arena became unstable and was condemned. The 300,000-square-foot fieldhouse was created as a multipurpose facility; the arena seats up to 5,900 for concerts. It is located in the northwest part of campus along with most all other athletics facilities. Laker Nation, Grand Valley's student section for all sports has a large attendance present at sporting events held in the GVSU Fieldhouse Arena. Aerosmith REO Speedwagon Santana the Eagles Frank Zappa Hoodie Allen Hillary Clinton Peter Frampton Ted Nugent Bill Cosby Hellogoodbye The Black Eyed Peas Motion City Soundtrack Steve Aoki Dan + Shay Grand Valley State University Fieldhouse
Grand Rapids metropolitan area
The Grand Rapids metropolitan area is a triangular shaped Metro Triplex, in West Michigan, which fans out westward from the primary hub city of Grand Rapids, Michigan to the other two metro hubs of Muskegon and Holland. The metropolitan area has an estimated population of 1,059,113 as of 2017; the region, noted in particular for its western edge abutting the Lake Michigan shoreline and its beaches, is a popular tourist and vacation destination during the summer. Noted popular metro area beach towns include Grand Haven, Holland and Saugatuck; the metropolitan area is home to many attractions. Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park is located in the outskirts of Grand Rapids. Michigan's Adventure theme park is just north of Muskegon, the Grand Rapids Art Museum and the DeVos Place Convention Center are both in downtown Grand Rapids; the Grand River flows through the metropolitan area and is noted for its fishing and canoeing. The Grand Rapids-Wyoming Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of four counties in western Michigan, anchored by the cities of Grand Rapids and Wyoming.
The MSA has a population of 988,938 at the 2010 census. It comprises four counties which include Barry, Kent and Ottawa; the Grand Rapids – Muskegon – Holland Combined Statistical Area is the 2nd largest CSA in the U. S. state of Michigan. The CSA had a population of 1,379,237 at the 2010 census; the primary cultural and financial centers of the region are Grand Rapids and Holland. It includes the four counties in the Grand Rapids-Wyoming Metropolitan Statistical Area plus one metropolitan area, adding Muskegon-Norton Shores in Muskegon County, three micropolitan areas of Holland in Allegan County, Ionia in Ionia County and Big Rapids in Mecosta County for a total of eight counties; the Grand Rapids metropolitan area is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis containing an estimated 54 million people. However, OMB Bulletin 18-04 has redefined the Grand Rapids-Kentwood-Muskegon Combined Statistical Area as: Big Rapids Micropolitan Statistical Area, thus Ionia County is no longer a stand-alone Micropolitan Area.
Barry County is no longer part of the CSA. Kentwood replaces Wyoming in the name of the MSA and CSA; these changes do not affect the ACS data available. Grand Rapids Wyoming Kentwood Allendale Charter Township Byron Township Gaines Charter Township Georgetown Charter Township Holland Holland Charter Township Muskegon Norton Shores Plainfield Charter Township Walker Ada Township Allendale Alpine Township Caledonia Township Cannon Township Cascade Charter Township Comstock Park Cutlerville East Grand Rapids Forest Hills Fruitport Charter Township Grand Haven Grand Haven Charter Township Grand Rapids Charter Township Grandville Ionia Jenison Muskegon Charter Township Muskegon Heights Park Township Northview Spring Lake Township As of the census of 2010, there were 774,160 people, 290,340 households, 197,867 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 83.1% White, 8.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.8% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 740,482 people, 272,130 households, 188,192 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 85.71% White, 7.40% African American, 0.53% Native American, 1.51% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.82% from other races, 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.02% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $43,251, the median income for a family was $49,715. Males had a median income of $37,853 versus $25,483 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $19,173. Aquinas College Calvin College Cornerstone University Grace Bible College Grand Rapids Community College Grand Valley State University Hope College Kuyper College Kendall College of Art and Design Muskegon Community College Thomas M. Cooley Law School Western Theological SeminaryThe area has campuses for Baker College, Ferris State University, Davenport University, Western Michigan University, University of Phoenix, the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine.
Alticor, Ada American Seating, Grand Rapids Baker Books, Grand Rapids Bissell, Grand Rapids Eerdmans, Grand Rapids Family Christian Stores, Grand Rapids Farmers Insurance Group, Grand Rapids GE Aviation, Cascade Gentex, Zeeland Gerber Products Company, Fremont Goodrich Quality Theaters, Grand Rapids Gordon Food Service, Wyoming Haworth, Holland Herman Miller, Zeeland Howard Miller, Zeeland Loeks Theatres, Wyoming Meijer, Walker Mercantile Bank of Michigan, Grand Rapids Old Orchard Brands, Sparta Perrigo, Allegan Plascore Incorporated, Zeeland SpartanNash, Byron Township Steelcase, Grand Rapids Sun Chemical, Muskegon Universal Forest Products, Grand Rapids Wolverine World Wide, Rockford X-Rite, Kentwood Zondervan Publishing, Cascade Centerpointe Mall The Lakes Mall Rivertown Crossings Mall Tanger Outlet Mall Woodland Mall Michigan census statistical areas
Grand Valley State University
Grand Valley State University is a public liberal arts university in Allendale, Michigan. The university was established in 1960 and its main campus is situated on 1,322 acres 12 miles west of Grand Rapids. Classes are offered at the university's campus in Downtown Grand Rapids, its international campus in Holland, through Traverse City established in cooperation with local community colleges. GVSU is a comprehensive coeducational university serving nearly 25,000 students as of fall 2018, from all 83 Michigan counties and dozens of other states and foreign countries, it is one of America's 100 largest universities, employs more than 3,000 people with about 1,780 academic faculty and 1,991 support staff. The university has alumni in all 50 U. S. states, 25 countries around the world. GVSU's NCAA Division II sports teams are called the Lakers, compete in the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference in all 19 intercollegiate varsity sports, they have won 20 NCAA Division II National Championships since 2002 in seven different sports.
In January 2019, the GVSU Board of Trustees announced that Dr. Philomena V. Mantella, senior vice president at Northeastern University, will be GVSU's fifth president and the first woman to serve in the position, her term will start July 1, 2019. In 1958 the Michigan Legislature commissioned a study that demonstrated a need for a four-year college in the Grand Rapids area, Michigan's second largest metropolitan region. Local businessman Bill Seidman created a committee to study the report and spearhead the planning and promotion to create such an institution. In the following year the Michigan Legislature established the college. A naming contest was held, out of 2500 submissions, "Grand Valley State College" was chosen. Private donations, including $350,000 to purchase land and $1,000,000 for construction, were secured from 5,000 individuals and business throughout West Michigan. In 1961, the Grand Valley State College Board of Control chose a 876-acre site in Ottawa County near the Grand River for the new campus, construction of academic buildings began the following year.
Grand Valley State College accepted its first class of 225 students in 1963 and held its first graduation of 138 students on June 18, 1967. The middle-late 1960s saw the addition of the first dormitories and construction of new academic buildings, including the Zumberge Library, named for the university's first president, James Zumberge. In 1969, the Grand Valley Lanthorn printed an issue containing several obscenities. After complaints from some at Grand Valley State College and the surrounding communities, the Ottawa County, sheriff arrested the editor, the prosecutor closed down the newspaper office; the university a co-ed college, sued the sheriff and prosecutor for closing the Lanthorn offices. Michigan's Attorney General settled the case out of court, ruling in favor of Grand Valley State College. Which cited. During the 1970s Grand Valley used a multiple college concept: "College of Arts and Sciences," "Thomas Jefferson College," "William James College," "Seidman College of Business," and "College IV."
Former Michigan Governor William Milliken signed into law for the name to be changed to Grand Valley State Colleges in 1973. However the "s" was dropped and the name was reverted to Grand Valley State College in 1983 when the academic programs were reorganized into divisions. In 1987 the Michigan Legislature passed a law renaming the college to "Grand Valley State University." The 1980s and 1990s saw addition of satellite campuses or centers in downtown Grand Rapids, Muskegon and Traverse City. In 2004, the Board of Control reorganized the University structure again into a college system consisting of College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, College of Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Community and Public Service, College of Education, College of Health Professions, Kirkhof College of Nursing, Seidman College of Business, Seymour and Esther Padnos College of Engineering and Computing; the fall semester 2010 began a year-long celebration of the university's first 50 years of history and change.
Grand Valley completed its first 50 years with a comprehensive campaign that raised $100 million from over 17,000 donors, making it the university's largest campaign to date. Money raised from the campaign has helped fund many new construction projects on campus, including the Mary Idema Pew Library and L. William Seidman Center. In 2012, GVSU announced several land purchases. Future buildings to be constructed include a new biology laboratory building and an addition and renovation to the Zumberge Library on the Allendale campus. Land purchases in 2012 included property in downtown Grand Rapids adjacent to the medical mile for healthcare program expansion. In 2013, GVSU announced that it would be adding onto Au Sable Hall as well as construct a new building to house the GVSU Laker Store, with expanded dining facilities. Grand Valley has three campuses: the main campus in Allendale and two satellite campuses in the surrounding area. Smaller centers in Muskegon and Traverse City exist; the Interurban Transit Partnership operates several The Rapid bus routes under contract with the university.
The public can ride these buses by paying the fare, but rides are free to Grand Valley students and staff on all Rapid routes with a valid I. D. card. The University's main and original campus in Allendale is the location of most of the university's programs; the Allendale campus is composed of 1,322 a
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol