Alexe Mateevici was one of the most prominent Romanian poets in Bessarabia. He was born in the town Căinari, in Eastern Bessarabia and he studied at the theological school of Chişinău, and published his first poems in the newspaper Basarabia, where he published two articles on Moldavian folklore. Mateevici published articles on religion in Moldavia. Mateevici went on to study at the Theological Academy of Kiev, in that year he married Teodora Borisovna Novitski. He returned to Chişinău, and became a Greek language teacher at the theological school, monument to Simion Murafa, Alexei Mateevici and Andrei Hodorogea, opened in 1933 Museum Alexei Mateevici from Cainari
Tudor Arghezi was a Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and childrens literature. Born Ion N. Theodorescu in Bucharest, he explained that his pen name was related to Argesis, in 1904, he and Vasile Demetrius published their own magazine, Linia Dreaptă, which ceased to exist after only five issues. Arghezi, Gala Galaction, and Demetrius maintained a friendship, as witnessed by the latters daughter. After a four-year-long stint as an Orthodox monk at Cernica Monastery, news he gathered of the revolt itself left a lasting impression on Arghezi, much later, he was to dedicate an entire volume to the events. During the period, Arghezi became a prominent art critic, and engaged in the defense of Ștefan Luchian, according to Zambaccian, Arghezi was more rarely seen at Bucharests other major literary venue, Casa Capșa. He authored a poem in honor of Bogdan-Pitești. In 1915, he wrote, A barbaric war, once upon a time, we had pledged our duty to fight against the arming of civilized states.
With every newborn baby, the quantity of explosive matter destined to suppress him was being created, as progress and «rational outlook» were being viewed as calamities and ammunitions factories were increasing the shell storages, were fabricating the artillery used in extermination. Pătrășcanu, Alexandru Marghiloman, Ioan Slavici, Grigore Antipa, arrested along with eleven other newspapermen and writers, among them Slavici, he was accused of collaboration with the enemy for his anti-Entente activities. In 1927, he published his first volume of collected poems, titled Cuvinte Potrivite, Arghezi was in charge of the satirical newspaper Bilete de Papagal and published his first prose effort, Icoane de Lemn, in 1928. In 1932, he published Flori de Mucigai and Poarta Neagră - collections of poetry inspired by the years he spent in detention and influenced by the works of Charles Baudelaire and other Symbolists. He began writing the works made him most familiar to the public, his poems. Among the more famous are Cartea cu Jucării, Cântec de Adormit Mitzura and and he routinely visited art shows throughout the 1920s, helping to establish the artistic reputation of painters such as Oscar Han, Nicolae Dărăscu, Camil Ressu, Francisc Șirato, and Nicolae Vermont.
He authored the preface to Nicolae Tonitzas first art catalog, and welcomed Arta Română, by the mid-1930s, Arghezi contributed the art chronicle to the newspaper Mișcarea - mouthpiece of the National Liberal Party-Brătianu. Gândirea and its affiliated magazines alleged that the influence of Crainics thought had played a part in Arghezis early works. To these, Argezi replied with a dose of irony, I have never ever read Gândirea, according to some views, Arghezi developed a sympathy for the Iron Guard towards the end of the 1930. This perspective, notably favored by essayist Alex Mihai Stoenescu, was disputed by the literary critic Ion Simuț, in 1939, Arghezi became suddenly and severely ill, being incapacitated by sciatica. The extreme pain and mysterious causes became topics of major interest, upon examination, some of Romanias top physicians, including Nicolae Gh
The Thaw became possible after the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953. Khrushchev denounced Stalin in The Secret Speech at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party, the term was coined after Ilya Ehrenburgs 1954 novel The Thaw, sensational for its time. Although the power struggle between pro-Khrushchev and pro-Stalinists never stopped, it weakened the Soviet Communist Party. Such political and cultural updates all together helped liberate the minds of millions, Khrushchevs Thaw had its genesis in the concealed power struggle among Stalins lieutenants. Several major leaders among the Red Army commanders, such as Marshal Georgy Zhukov, on the surface, the Red Army and the Soviet leadership seemed united after their victory in World War II. That power struggle was surreptitiously prepared by Khrushchev while Stalin was alive, at the same time, millions of soldiers and officers had seen Europe after World War II, and had become aware of different ways of life which existed outside the Soviet Union.
The loot was confiscated by Stalins security apparatus, and Marshal Zhukov was demoted and exiled, Zhukov waited until the death of Stalin, which allowed Khrushchev to bring Zhukov back for a new political battle. Khrushchev and Zhukov needed one another to eliminate their enemies in the Soviet political elite. In 1953, Zhukov helped Khrushchev to eliminate Lavrenty Beria, a First Vice-Premier, soon Khrushchev ordered the release of millions of political prisoners from the Gulag camps. Under Khrushchevs rule the number of prisoners in the Soviet Union was decreased, according to some writers, Khrushchev promoted and groomed Leonid Brezhnev, whom he brought to Kremlin and introduced to Stalin in 1952. Then Khrushchev promoted Brezhnev to Presidium and made him the Head of Political Directorate of the Red Army and Navy, after the delivery of the speech, it was officially disseminated in a shorter form among members of the Soviet Communist Party across the USSR starting 5 March 1956. Then Khrushchev initiated a wave of rehabilitations that officially restored the reputations of many millions of innocent victims, tentative moves were made through official and unofficial channels to relax restrictions on freedom of speech that had been held over from the rule of Stalin.
Khrushchevs speech was published internationally within a few months, and his initiatives to open, Khrushchevs speech had angered many of his powerful enemies, thus igniting another round of ruthless power struggle within the Soviet Communist Party. Khrushchevs denouncement of Stalin came as a shock to the Soviet people, many in Georgia, Stalins homeland, especially the young generation, bred on the panegyrics and permanent praise of the genius of Stalin, perceived it as a national insult. The first big international failure of Khrushchevs politics came in October–November 1956, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was suppressed by a massive invasion of Soviet tanks and Red Army troops in Budapest. The street fighting against the invading Red Army caused thousands of casualties among Hungarian civilians and militia, the attack of the Soviet Red Army caused massive emigration from Hungary, as hundreds of thousands of Hungarians had fled as refugees. At the same time, the Polish October emerged as the political and social climax in Poland, a faction of the Soviet communist party was enraged by Khrushchevs speech in 1956, and rejected Khrushchevs de-Stalinization and liberalization of Soviet society.
One year after Khrushchevs secret speech, the Stalinists attempted to oust Khrushchev from the position in the Soviet Communist Party
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Octavian Goga was a Romanian politician, playwright and translator. Goga was born in Rășinari, near Sibiu, Goga was an active member in the Romanian nationalistic movement in Transylvania and of its leading group, the Romanian National Party in Austro-Hungary. Before World War I, Goga was arrested by the Hungarian authorities, at various intervals before the union of Romania and Transylvania in 1918, Goga took refuge in Romania, becoming active in literary and political circles. Because of his activity in Romania, the Hungarian state sentenced him to death in absentia. During World War I, he joined the Romanian Army and took part as a soldier in the Dobruja campaign, in the interwar period he left the PNR to join General Alexandru Averescus Peoples Party, a populist movement created upon the wars end. Goga clashed with Averescu over the conflict with King Carol II. A founder of the minor PP splinter group naming itself the National Agrarian Party, cuzas National-Christian Defense League, forming the National Christian Party.
Goga became Prime Minister of Romania and served from 28 December 1937 to 10 February 1938 and he had been appointed by King Carol, in his attempt to increase his own power. Indeed, Carol wrote in his diary that he knew Goga was a human cipher, very early in its tenure, Gogas government introduced a series of anti-Semitic laws. On 12 January 1938 his government stripped Romanian Jews of their citizenship, besides being an anti-Semite himself, Goga attempted to outflank the Iron Guards popular support. The regime instituted by Goga and Cuza gave itself a wing of Fascist character. They borrowed heavily from the Iron Guard, and started competing with it for public attention, after his resignation, Goga withdrew to his estate in Transylvania, where he suffered a stroke on 5 May 1938. Works by or about Octavian Goga at Internet Archive
Vasile Alecsandri was a Moldavian poet, playwright and diplomat. He collected Romanian folk songs and was one of the animators of the 19th century movement for Romanian cultural identity. Alecsandri was born in the Moldavian town of Bacău, to a family of landowners and his parents were Vasile Alecsandri and Elena Cozoni, and his mother was the daughter of a Greek Romanian merchant. His parents had seven children, of three survived, one daughter and two sons, Iancu — a future army colonel – and Vasile. The family prospered in the business of salt and cereals trade. In 1828, they purchased an estate in Mircești, a village near Siret River. The young Vasile spent time studying with a devout monk from Maramureş, Gherman Vida, and playing with Vasile Porojan. Both characters would appear in his work. Between 1828 and 1834, he studied at the Victor Cuenim pensionnat and he moved to Paris in 1834, where he dabbled in chemistry and law, but soon abandoned all in favor of what he called his lifelong passion, literature.
He penned his first literary essays in 1838 in French, which he had mastered to perfection during his stay in Paris, after a brief return home, he left for Western Europe again, visiting Italy and southern France. A year later, Alecsandri attended a party celebrating the day of Costache Negri. He there fell in love with Negris sister, the 21-year-old and not long divorced Elena Negri responded enthusiastically to the 24-year-old youngsters love declarations. Alecsandri began writing love poems until an illness forced Elena to head abroad to Venice. He met her there, where they shared two torrid months and they cruised to Austria, and to Alecsandris former romping grounds, France. Elenas chest illness aggravated in Paris, and after a stint in Italy. Tragedy struck on the ship, when Elena died in her lovers arms, Alecsandri channeled his mourning into a poem, Steluţa. Later, he dedicated his Lăcrimioare collection of poems to her, in 1848, he became one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement based in Iaşi.
He wrote a widely read poem urging the public to join the cause, Către Români, together with Mihail Kogălniceanu and Costache Negri, he wrote a manifesto of the revolutionary movement in Moldavia, Dorinţele partidei naţionale din Moldova
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a persons head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders. The piece is supported by a plinth. These forms recreate the likeness of an individual and these may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble, terracotta or wood. A parallel term, aust, is a representation of the part of an animal or mythical creature. Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity are sometimes displayed as busts, these are often fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body, these portrait heads are not included in this article. Herma Portraiture Livius. org, Bust gallery of famous ancient Greeks Oxford definition Dictionary. com definition
These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in use is known as the Bronze Age. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time, everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone. It was only that tin was used, becoming the major ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the process could be more easily controlled. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic, the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik.
Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa and some ancient sites in China, ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artefacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value, in Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources and these were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and used by the living for ritual offerings. Pure iron is soft, and the process of beating and folding sponge iron to wrought iron removes from the metal carbon. Careful control of the alloying and tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel, Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.
Among other advantages, it does not rust, the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong for many uses. Archaeologists suspect that a disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition. The population migrations around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean, limiting supplies, there are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin
Gheorghe Asachi was a Moldavian, Romanian prose writer, painter, historian and translator. An Enlightenment-educated polymath and polyglot, he was one of the most influential people of his generation and his literary works combined a taste for Classicism with Romantic tenets, while his version of the literary language relied on archaisms and borrowings from the Moldavian dialect. He thus came to clash with representatives of the liberal current, Asachi was noted for his deep connections with the Western culture, which led him to support the employment of foreign experts in various fields and educational institutions. He cultivated a relationship with the French historian Edgar Quinet, whose father-in-law he became in 1852, Asachi was born in Hertsa, a small town which is now part of Ukraine. His family originated in Austrian-ruled Transylvania, where it was known under the name Asachievici and his father, Lazăr, was an Orthodox priest who kept close contacts with Metropolitan Veniamin Costachi, according to several sources, he was of Armenian descent.
His mother Elena was herself the daughter of a Transylvanian priest, the couple had another son, named Petru. Lazăr Asachi was his sons first educator, after which the young Gheorghe most likely enrolled in the Church-run primary school in Herţa, after completing seven terms of education in Latin and German, Gheorghe Asachi entered university at the age of 14. He studied at the Faculty of Letters and Sciences, despite this, his level of familiarity with Western culture was arguably unparalleled in his native country during the first half of the 19th century. Over the following decades, he designed several lodgings in both his country and Galicia. His return followed the death of his mother and Lazăr Asachis appointment as First Protopope of the Moldavian Metropolitan Seat, in early 1805, Asachi fell ill with malaria, and was helped by Metropolitan Veniamin to leave for Vienna, where doctors had advised him to seek treatment. As the recipient of a scholarship, Asachi studied mathematics and astronomy with Tobie Bürg.
Instead, he left for the Italian Peninsula in April 1808, aiming to complete his studies in Rome, reaching the capital of the Papal States on June 11, Asachi left on August 19 to visit Naples and other locations in the Kingdom of Sicily. Upon reaching Mount Vesuvius, he descended unaccompanied into the volcanic crater, in 1809, while visiting an art shop near the Spanish Steps, he met Bianca Milesi, the 19-year-old daughter of a wealthy merchant from Milan, with whom he fell in love. Despite her 1825 marriage to a French doctor, he was to remain her passionate admirer until her death from cholera in 1849, at the time, he authored his first poems on Romanian nationalist subjects, which earned him an award presented by the Roman Literary Society. One of these was Viitorul, which voiced a call for national regeneration and it was during the latter research that he came across Dimitrie Cantemirs History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire in its English-language edition. Partly as a result of encouragement, Asachi decided to travel back home on June 22,1812.
In reaction to developments, Gheorghe Asachi centered his attention on cultural improvements, Westernization. In 1813, his expertise and familiarity with European languages led Prince Callimachi to appoint him Reviewer for the Department of Foreign Affairs and he gave various lectures, and offered additional training in drawing and art history, as well as in Romanian history