Politics of Moldova
The politics of Moldova take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the prime minister is the head of the government, a multi-party system. The government exercises executive power; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The position of the breakaway region of Transnistria, relations with Romania and with Russia, integration into the EU dominate political discussions; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Moldova as "flawed democracy" in 2016. The Moldovan Parliament has 101 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation; the president is elected for a four-year term by the citizens. The seat of the legislature is known as the Parliament Building. In the 2010 Parliamentary election, the Communists won 42 seats, while the Liberal-Democrats won 32, the Democratic Party won 15, the Liberals won 12; this gave the Alliance for European Integration 59 seats, two short of the 61 needed to elect a President. The result thus maintained the status quo following the contemperaneous constitutional deadlock.
Observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Council of Europe lauded the election. The president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term. According to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with the Parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; the cabinet is selected by prime minister-designate, subject to approval of Parliament. The cabinet meets at the Government House on Stephen the Great Boulevard in Central Chișinău; the 9 ministries of the Government of Moldova are: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Moldova Ministry of Defence Ministry of Finance Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration Ministry of Justice Ministry of Economy and Infrastructure Ministry of Education and Research Ministry of Health and Social Protection Ministry of Agriculture, Regional Development and Environment Moldova is divided into 32 raions, or raioane, three municipalities, one autonomous region, the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of, disputed.
The underlying issue in the Republic of Moldova revolves around ethnicity and whether the country should re-unite with Romania, with which it shares a common ethnicity, language and history. The Republic of Moldova represents the eastern half of what is known as the Principality of Moldova; as a result of the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1806, it was separated from the western part of the principality along the Prut river and annexed by the Russian Empire, which named it Bessarabia. The western half of the former Principality of Moldova, not annexed by Russia, united with Wallachia in 1859 to form the basis for modern day Romania; the eastern half united with Romania in 1918, but was re-annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 as a result of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. Russian and Soviet-era identity politics focused on Russification in the colonial sense as well as on stressing artificial differences between the Moldovans and the Romanians in an attempt to create a uniquely "Moldovan" identity, including indoctrination against Romania and Romanians.
As a result, Moldovan ethnic identity is complicated and divided between those who consider themselves Moldovan and those who consider themselves Romanian. Although Moldovans comprise a sizeable ethnic majority of the population, they are fragmented in terms of degree of Russification and cultural indoctrination; the more pro-Russian the Moldovan, the more it is that s/he will call his/her language and ethnicity Moldovan rather than Romanian. Today, Moldova is bilingual, with a Romanian-speaking majority and a sizable and influential, Russian-speaking minority, with the Russian language still dominating the media; the Russophile population is hostile to the idea of unification with Romania and votes for left-wing parties. The Moldovan majority is divided between pro-Russian nostalgia and growing pro-Romanian and pro-EU sympathies, with a growing number of people supporting the idea of re-unification with Romania among the youth. Transnistria is a strip of land running along Moldova's eastern border with Ukraine, named after the Nistru river.
The Transnistrian region is majority Slavic and russophone, in contrast with the rest of the country, it was industrialized during USSR rule. The Moldovan Declaration of Independence claims continuity of Moldovan sovereignty over the territory of Transnistria as it is "a component part of the historical and ethnic territory of our people". However, the Moldovan Declaration of Independence is itself used as an argument against Moldovan sovereignty over Transnistria as it denounces the Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement of 23 August 1939 between the government of the Soviet Union and the government of Nazi Germany "null and void" being the only formal union between the two territories. After failing to establish control over the breakaway region in the War of Transnistria, Moldova offered a broad cultural and political autonomy to the region; the dispute has strained Moldova's relations with Russia. The July 1992 cease-fire agreement established a tripartite peacekeeping force composed of Moldovan and Transnistrian units.
Negotiations to resolve the conflict co
Igor Dodon is a Moldovan politician, the President of Moldova since 23 December 2016. He was the leader of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, he served as Minister of Trade and Economics in the governments of Vasile Tarlev and Zinaida Greceanîi from September 2006 to September 2009 and was a member of the Parliament of Moldova from 2009 to 2016. Igor Dodon was born on 18 February 1975 in Sadova village in the Călărași District of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to Nikolai and Galina Dodon, he studied economics at the Agricultural State University of Moldova and received a doctorate in 1998 from the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova. From 1997 to 2005, he worked as an assistant lecturer in the academic field; this is where he would meet his wife Galina in May 1995. Besides his wife, Dodon has three children, his oldest son Vladislav is a passionate player of water polo. Aside from his native Romanian, he speaks Russian and English. On 9 September 2018, Dodon was involved in a car accident on the Chisinau-Călărași highway.
Although Dodon wasn't injured himself, his mother and his middle son Nicolae sustained serious injuries. His accident came hours after Abkhazian Prime Minister Gennadi Gagulia was killed in a car accident in the Abkhazian city of Myussera. Dodon was appointed to the post of Associate Minister of Trade and Economics in May 2005, during the second Tarlev Cabinet, he assumed the position of Minister of Trade and Economics in September 2006. He held the position until September 2009. Dodon held the post of Associate Prime Minister under Greceanîi from 2008 until 2009. In June 2011, Dodon lost to Dorin Chirtoacă in the election for mayor of Chișinău, he took 49.4% of the vote. In November 2011, Dodon left the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova citing hopes that a deal could be worked out with the ruling Alliance for European Integration to elect a president and end a constitutional crisis that had dragged on since the resignation of Vladimir Voronin in 2009. Greceanîi and Veronica Abramciuc left at the same time.
On 18 December 2011, Dodon joined the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova and was elected chairman of the party. On 16 March 2012, three former communists voted for the Alliance for European Integration candidate Nicolae Timofti as President of Moldova. Dodon stated that he regretted his vote for Timofti. After he was elected as the President of Moldova, due to specifics of Moldovan law, Dodon resigned as PSRM chairman and left the party, being replaced by Zinaida Greceanîi as interim leader. According to the polls carried out in 2019 related to the most respected politicians of the Republic of Moldova, Igor Dodon enjoys the highest trust, ranking first among politicians in which Moldovans have the highest trust. Igor Dodon is considered a pro-Russian politician and in favor of the federalization of Moldova. In 2010, the Party of Communists started promoting a new official flag for Moldova. In March 2012, Igor Dodon and the Party of Socialists invited PCRM to initiate a referendum to change the national flag of Moldova from the original tricolour to a red-blue bicolor flag.
The proposed flag is considered by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova as a "pure political invention". In November 2012, Dodon posted on his Facebook profile a photo that shows him wearing clothes printed with a patch of the Russian flag, criticized as a sign of Dodon's alleged Russophilia. In November 2014, the socialist politician of Russian ethnicity Valentin Crîlov accused Igor Dodon of being an "instrument of scenarios that would cause'bloodshed' in Moldova", labeled the Party of Socialists as "being in the service of another country" such as Russia, he accused the party of becoming a threat to the "stability and the existence" of the Republic of Moldova and its extraordinarily large base of financial resources — the origin of which bear "reasonable doubt". In October 2016, during the presidential election campaign, Igor Dodon affirmed that Crimea, the subject of a territorial dispute between Russia and Ukraine, "is a territory of the Russian Federation". In January 2017 Dodon stated that Moldova would not recognize Crimea as Russian, stressing that "we need to build friendships with Ukraine, we need to solve the Transnistrian problem."On 17 October 2017, the Constitutional Court of Moldova decided that Dodon is temporarily unable to perform his duties for failing to swear in proposed Defence Minister Eugen Sturza.
On 2 January 2018, the Constitutional Court of Moldova decided that Dodon is temporarily unable to perform his duties for failing to swear in a number of seven ministers. Several days the Constitutional Court once again temporarily suspended Dodon, due to his veto on a bill on restricting Russian news broadcasts; this allowed the parliament to bypass his veto and enact a law restricting Russian television broadcasts. The law bans television channels from broadcasting news and analytical programs from countries that have not signed the regional agreement for the European Broadcasting Area, such as Russia. Dodon was sworn in on December 2016 in the Palace of the Republic. Three days the flag of the European Union, hanging next to the Moldovan flag was removed from the building of the Moldovan presidential administration. On January 4, 2017, in the Dodon met with the President of the breakaway republic of Transnistria Vadim Krasnoselsky; this meeting was the first meeting of the leaders of Transnistria in 8 years.
His first two internati
Prime Minister of Moldova
The Prime Minister of Moldova is Moldova's head of government. The Prime Minister is formally appointed by the President and exercises executive power along with the cabinet subject to parliamentary support. Pantelimon Erhan Daniel Ciugureanu Petru Cazacu Tihon Konstantinov, in exile in Russian SFSR between June 1941 and August 1944 Nicolae Coval Gherasim Rudi Gherasim Rudi Alexandru Diordiță Petru Pascari Semion Grossu Ion Ustian Ivan Călin Petru Pascari Parties FPM PDAM ADR PCRM PLDM PL Independent Status Cabinet of Moldova President of Moldova
April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests
Protests against the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election results, began on 6 April 2009, in major cities of Moldova before the final official results were announced. The demonstrators claimed that the elections, which saw the governing Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova win a majority of seats, were fraudulent, alternatively demanded a recount, a new election, or resignation of the government. Similar demonstrations took place in other major Moldovan cities, including the country's second largest, Bălți, where over 7,000 people protested; some of the protesters discussed and organized themselves using Twitter, hence its moniker used by the media, the Twitter Revolution. In Chișinău, where the number of protesters rose above 30,000, the demonstration escalated into a riot on 7 April. Rioters attacked the parliament building and presidential office, breaking windows, setting furniture on fire and stealing property; the unrest began as a public protest after the announcement of preliminary election results on 6 April 2009, which showed the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova victorious, winning 50% of the votes.
Final results, published on 8 April, showed that the PCRM garnered 49.48% of the vote, gaining 60 parliament seats – one less than the three-fifths required for the party to control the presidential election. The opposition rejected the election results, accusing the authorities of falsification in the course of counting the votes and demanded new elections; the PCRM has been in power since 2001. A series of protests have been organized by opposition parties in 2003, when the government attempted to replace the school subject "History of the Romanians" with "History of Moldova". Students protested for months before the government backed down on its plans. Petru Negură, a university professor of sociology at the Moldova State University and the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, attributed the origins of the crisis to the ethnic identity problem: some people in Moldova identify themselves as "Moldovans", while others as "Romanians"; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe International Election Observing Mission declared the elections free and fair, although it reported that the comparison of data on the voting age population provided by the Moldovan Ministry of the Interior with the number of registered voters provided by local executive authorities revealed a discrepancy of some 160,000.
A member of the OSCE observation team, Emma Nicholson disagreed with the assessment of the OSCE report on the fairness of the elections. A number of voters have reported cases of fraud where deceased and nonattendant persons were registered as having voted. According to Vladimir Socor, a political analyst for the Jamestown Foundation, the elections were evaluated as positive on the whole, with some reservations not affecting the outcome or the overall initial assessment. Exit polls had showed a comfortable win for the Communist Party, with the only uncertainty being the size of the winning margin. Opposition parties pointed out that the lists of eligible voters included 300,000 more people compared to the previous elections, although the population of Moldova has been shrinking. Due to this, they claimed that around 400,000 fictive voters have been created in the last two months and, changed the voting result, it was claimed that the authorities have printed more than one voting bulletin for certain persons.
The first demonstrations, organized as a flashmob by a 25-year-old Moldovan journalist Natalia Morar, began in Chişinău on 6 April 2009, with a larger number of demonstrators arriving on the next day, 7 April. The demonstration, numbering over ten thousand, most of them students and young people, gathered in the city center on Ştefan cel Mare boulevard; the protest against the announced election results turned into clashes with the police, who used tear gas and water cannons. However, the police were soon overwhelmed by the number of the protesters. Rioters broke into the office of president. Entering the building through broken windows, demonstrators set parts of the building on fire, using documents and furniture both inside and outside; the building was retaken by the police in the evening. The protesters, some of which carried Romanian flags, chanted pro-Western, pro-Romanian and anti-government slogans such as "We want Europe", "We are Romanians" and "Down with Communism". Two teenagers, Ion Galaţchi and Dragoş Musteţea, with the alleged approval of the policemen, replaced the Flags of Moldova at the Presidential and Parliament buildings with a Flag of Romania and a Flag of Europe, claiming that they expected that this would calm the crowd.
The emergency hospital of Chişinău reported treating over 78 injured police officers and protesters on 8 April, while the Moldovan president stated that 270 people were injured in the riots. Moldovan opposition called on the authorities to carry out new elections and on the demonstrators to cease violence. Moldovan national television had reported that a young woman died of carbon monoxide poisoning due to the fires within the parliament building set off by the rioters. However, it was reported that the woman was saved by a team of medics. On the evening of 7 April, a group of protesters organised a National Salvation Committee, consisting of student and civic representatives. Writer Nicolae Dabija, a vice-president of the Committee said that the intended purpose of the Committee is to organise new elections. However, the protests died off as the police intervened during the night to arrest the protesters found in the square. On 7 April, Serafim Urechean, leader of the opposition Party Alliance Our Moldova, during a meetin
Maia Sandu is a Moldovan economist who served as Minister of Education of Moldova from 2012 until 2015. In 2016, she was a candidate in the Moldovan presidential election. Running on a pro-EU action platform, she was one of the two candidates that reached the runoff of the election. Maia Sandu was born on 24 May 1972 in Fălești, in Soviet Moldavia. From 1989 to 1994, she majored in management at the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova. From 1995 to 1998, she majored in international relations at the Academy of Public Administration in Chișinău. In 2010, she graduated from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Sandu speaks English in addition to her native Romanian. From 2010 to 2012, Sandu worked as Adviser to the Executive Director at the World Bank in Washington, D. C. From 2012 to 2015 she served as Minister of Education of Moldova, she was considered on 23 July 2015 by the Liberal Democratic Party as a nominee to be the next Prime Minister of Moldova, succeeding Natalia Gherman and Chiril Gaburici.
A day after being proposed by a renewed pro-European coalition, Sandu set the departure of the Head of the National Bank of Moldova, Dorin Drăguțanu and the State Prosecutor Corneliu Gurin as conditions for her acceptance of the office. Valeriu Streleț was nominated over Sandu by the President of Moldova. On December 23, 2015 she launched a platform „În /pas/ cu Maia Sandu” that became a political party called "Partidul Acțiune și Solidaritate". In 2016, Sandu was a candidate in the Moldovan presidential election. Running on a pro-EU action platform, she was one of the two candidates that reached the runoff of the election. According to some polls from 2019, Sandu ranks among the most trusted three politicians in Moldova. Other polls, place her lower, in the 6th place. Sandu declared about former leader of Romania Ion Antonescu in 2018 that he was "a historical figure about whom we may tell both good and bad things", her statements were toughly criticized by the Jewish Community of Moldova, who issued an open letter stating: "The lack of sanctions for Holocaust denial and glorification of fascism in the Moldovan legislation allows some opinion leaders and political leaders to not be held accountable for such acts, lets them create their public image by distorting and revising historical facts and fueling inter-ethnic and inter-religious discrimination and hate".
In 2018, information surfaced in the Moldovan press according to which the Open Dialog Foundation covered the travel expenses of Sandu and PPDA leader Andrei Năstase when they attended a conference on human rights in Moldova that took place in Brussels. Shortly after, the parliamentary investigation committee examined the alleged meddling in Moldovan internal affairs of the Open Dialog Foundation and its leader, Lyudmyla Kozlovska, concluded: "PAS and PPDA and their leaders have benefited from illegal funds from the Open Dialog Foundation and did not report this financing accordingly". While serving as Minister of Education, Maia Sandu was accused of paying an exaggerated sum of money for 1,200 security cameras made in China for the baccalaureate exams. A charge has been issued against her, but was dropped; the former prosecutor, Ivan Diacov, stated that Maia Sandu "postponed the tender three times, so that the tender would be won by the right bidder. I take responsibility for that. I closed this case".
Maia Sandu on Facebook În /pas/ cu Maia Sandu
Chișinău known as Kishinev, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bâc, a tributary of Dniester. According to the results of the 2014 census, the city proper had a population of 532,513, while the number of population in the Municipality of Chișinău was 662,836. Chișinău is its largest transportation hub; the origin of the city's name is unclear, but in one version, the name comes from the archaic Romanian word chișla and nouă, because it was built around a small spring, at the corner of Pușkin and Albișoara streets. The other version, formulated by Ștefan Ciobanu, Romanian historian and academician, holds that the name was formed the same way as the name of Chișineu in Western Romania, near the border with Hungary, its Hungarian name is Kisjenő, from. Kisjenő comes from kis "small" and the "Jenő", one of the seven Hungarian tribes that entered the Carpathian Basin in 896.
At least 24 other settlements are named after the "Jenő" tribe. Chișinău is known in Russian as Кишинёв, it is written Kişinöv in the Latin Gagauz alphabet. It was written as "Chișineu" in pre-20th-century Romanian and as "Кишинэу" in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet; the English language name for the city, "Kishinev", was based on the modified Russian one because it entered the English language via Russian at the time Chișinău was part of the Russian Empire. Therefore, it remains a common English name in some historical contexts. Otherwise, the Romanian-based "Chișinău" has been gaining wider currency in written language; the city is historically referred to as German: Kischinau, Polish: Kiszyniów, Ukrainian: Кишинів, or Yiddish: קעשענעװ, translit. Keshenev. Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia. At the beginning of the 19th century Chișinău was a small town of 7,000 inhabitants. In 1812, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the eastern half of Moldavia was ceded to the Russian Empire.
The newly acquired territories became known as Bessarabia. Chișinău became the capital of the newly annexed oblast of Bessarabia. By 1834, an imperial townscape with broad and long roads had emerged as a result of a generous development plan, which divided Chișinău into two areas: the old part of the town, with its irregular building structures, a newer city center and station. Between 26 May 1830 and 13 October 1836 the architect Avraam Melnikov established the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului with a magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the building of the Triumphal arch, planned by the architect Luca Zaushkevich, was completed. Following this the construction of numerous buildings and landmarks began. On 28 August 1871, Chișinău was linked by rail with Tiraspol, in 1873 with Cornești. Chișinău-Ungheni-Iași railway was opened on 1 June 1875 in preparation for the Russo-Turkish War; the town played an important part in the war between Russia and Ottoman Empire, as the main staging area of the Russian invasion.
During the Belle Époque, the mayor of the city was Carol Schmidt, considered one of Chisinau's best mayors. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862, to 125,787 by 1900. In the late 19th century due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chișinău. By the year 1897, 46% of the population of Chișinău was Jewish, over 50,000 people. A large anti-Semitic riot took place in the town on April 19–20, 1903, which would be known as the Kishinev pogrom; the rioting continued for three days, resulting in 47 Jews dead, 92 wounded, 500 suffering minor injuries. In addition, several hundred houses and many businesses were destroyed; the pogroms are believed to have been incited by anti-Jewish propaganda in the only official newspaper of the time, Bessarabetz. Mayor Schmidt disapproved of the incident and resigned in 1903; the reactions to this incident included a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on behalf of the American people by US President Theodore Roosevelt in July 1905.
On 22 August 1905 another violent event occurred: The police opened fire on an estimated 3,000 demonstrating agricultural workers. Only a few months 19–20 October 1905, a further protest occurred, helping to force the hand of Nicholas II in bringing about the October Manifesto. However, these demonstrations turned into another anti-Jewish pogrom, resulting in 19 deaths. Following the Russian October Revolution, Bessarabia declared independence from the crumbling empire, as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, before joining the Kingdom of Romania; as of 1919, Chișinău, with an estimated population of 133,000, became the second largest city in Romania. Between 1918 and 1940, the center of the city undertook large renovation work. Romania granted important subsidies to its province and initiated large scale investment programs in the infrastructure of the main cities in Bessarabia, expanded the railroad infrastructure and started an extensive program to eradicate illiteracy. In 1927, the Stephen the Great Monument, by the sculptor Alexandru Plămădeală, was erected.
In 1933, the f
Constitutional Court of Moldova
The Constitutional Court of Moldova represent the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in the Republic of Moldova and independent from the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The task of the Constitutional Court is to guarantee the supremacy of the Constitution, to ensure the principle of separation of State powers into the legislative and judicial branches, to guarantee the observance of the State's responsibility towards the citizen and the citizen's responsibility towards the State. Upon request, the Constitutional Court interprets the Constitution and undertakes the review of constitutionality of the Parliament's laws and decisions, the decrees of the President and the acts of the Government; the court's existence was provided for by the Constitution, adopted in July 1994. It was created in February 1995. Www.constcourt.md - official site