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Alliance for Progress

The Alliance for Progress, initiated by U. S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U. S. and Latin America. Governor Luis Muñoz Marín of Puerto Rico was a close advisor on Latin American affairs to Kennedy, one of his top administrators, Teodoro Moscoso, the architect of "Operation Bootstrap", was named the coordinator of the program by President Kennedy; the United States government began to strengthen diplomatic relations with Latin America in the late 1950s during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. In March 1961, the newly inaugurated President Kennedy proposed a ten-year plan for Latin America:...we propose to complete the revolution of the Americas, to build a hemisphere where all men can hope for a suitable standard of living and all can live out their lives in dignity and in freedom. To achieve this goal political freedom must accompany material progress... Let us once again transform the American Continent into a vast crucible of revolutionary ideas and efforts, a tribute to the power of the creative energies of free men and women, an example to all the world that liberty and progress walk hand in hand.

Let us once again awaken our American revolution until it guides the struggles of people everywhere-not with an imperialism of force or fear but the rule of courage and freedom and hope for the future of man. The program was signed at an inter-American conference at Punta del Este, Uruguay, in August 1961; the charter called for: an annual increase of 2.5% in per capita income, the establishment of democratic governments, the elimination of adult illiteracy by 1970 price stability, to avoid inflation or deflation more equitable income distribution, land reform, economic and social planning. First, the plan called for Latin American countries to pledge a capital investment of $80 billion over 10 years; the United States agreed to guarantee $20 billion within one decade. Second, Latin American delegates required the participating countries to draw up comprehensive plans for national development; these plans were to be submitted for approval by an inter-American board of experts. Third, tax codes had to be changed to demand "more from those who have most" and land reform was to be implemented.

Because of the program, economic assistance to Latin America nearly tripled between fiscal year 1960 and fiscal year 1961. Between 1962 and 1967 the US supplied $1.4 billion per year to Latin America. If new investment is included, the amount of aid rose to $3.3 billion per year during this timespan while the total amount of aid was $22.3 billion. However, the amount of aid did not equal the net transfer of resources and development as Latin American countries still had to pay off their debt to the US and other first world countries. Additionally, profits from the investments returned to the US, with profits exceeding new investment. Economic aid to Latin America dropped in the late 1960s when Richard Nixon entered the White House. In March 1969, the US ambassador to the OAS, William T. Denzer, explained to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs: When you look at net capital flows and their economic effect, after all due credit is given to the U. S. effort to step up support to Latin America, one sees that not that much money has been put into Latin America after all."

The alliance charter included a clause encouraged by US policy makers that committed the Latin American governments to the promotion "of conditions that will encourage the flow of foreign investments" to the region. U. S. industries lobbied Congress to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to ensure that US aid would not be furnished to any foreign business that could compete with US business "unless the country concerned agrees to limit the export of the product to the US to 20 percent of output". In addition the industries lobbied Congress to limit all purchases of AID machinery and vehicles in the US. A 1967 study of AID showed that 90 percent of all AID commodity expenditures went to US corporations. Ivan Illich advanced a "potent and influential critique" of the Alliance, seeing it as "bankrolled and organized by wealthy nations and religious groups."The journalist AJ Langguth noted that many Brazilian nationalists scorned the Alliance as Brazilian foreign aid to America due to the belief that American corporations were withdrawing more money from the country than they were investing.

Though Brazil did indeed run balance of payments deficits with the United States during the years of the Alliance, the size of these deficits was well exceeded by the grants and credits provided by the US to Brazil before factoring development loans and military aid. Brazil enjoyed large overall balance of payments surpluses during the Alliance years. During the Kennedy administration, between 1961 and 1963, the U. S. suspended economic and/or broke off diplomatic relations with several countries which had dictatorships or socialist democracies, including Argentina, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Peru. The suspensions lasted for periods of three weeks to six months; because the perception was that the Alliance for Progress was a failure, shortly after taking office, on February 17, 1969, President Richard Nixon commissioned a study to assess the state of Latin America. Nixon appointed his most powerful political rival, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to direct the study; the poor relationship between the two politicians suggested that Nixon would not be that interested in the results of the study.

There was a lack of interest for the region in the late 1960s to early 1970s. In early 1969, Rockefeller and his advisors took four trips to Latin America. Most of the trips turned out to be an embarrassment. Rockefeller wrot

Epsilon (Blood Stain Child album)

Epsilon is Blood Stain Child's fifth studio album and first release on Coroner Records/Pony Canyon. It's the first and only album to feature vocalist Sophia and drummer Gami. All compositions—except "Electricity,", composed by Aki—are by Ryu, while lyrics are co-written by Sophia; this album was pre-sold during A-Kon from June 10 to 12, 2011. And, in this event, nine of the new songs were performed; as of June 7, 2011, Pony Canyon released forty-four second samples of each song in the album. Blood Stain ChildSophia – clean vocals Ryo – unclean vocals, bass guitar Ryu – lead guitar G. S. R – rhythm guitar Aki – synthesizers, programming, backing vocals Gami – drums, percussionGuestsClaudio Ravinale – screams on "Forever Free" and "S. O. P. H. I. A" Ettore Rigotti – vocals on "Forever Free" and "Moon Light Wave", electronic percussion on "Forever Free". ProductionProduced/Recorded by Blood Stain Child. Mixed/Mastered by Ettore Rigotti. Illustrated by Mario Wibisono

Spice Girls discography

English girl group Spice Girls has released three studio albums, one compilation album, 11 singles and 18 music videos. Formed in 1994, the group was made up of singers Geri Halliwell, Emma Bunton, Melanie Brown, Melanie Chisholm and Victoria Beckham; the Spice Girls' debut single, "Wannabe", was released by Virgin Records in the United Kingdom in July 1996. It went to number one in 31 countries worldwide and became the biggest-selling debut single of all time. In the UK it stayed at the top of the UK Singles Chart for seven weeks and went on to sell over six million copies worldwide, it topped the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States for three weeks in February 1997. Follow-up singles "Say You'll Be There" and "2 Become 1" went to number one in the UK and reached the top five across most of Europe and in the US; the group's debut album, was released in the UK in November 1996 and became another global success, selling two million copies in its first week and 10 million copies in the next seven months.

Spice has sold 23 million copies worldwide and was certified ten times platinum by the British Phonographic Industry in the UK. The fourth Spice Girls single, the double A-side "Mama"/"Who Do You Think You Are" went to number one in the UK. In November 1997 the group released their second album, certified five times platinum by the BPI; the album produced three number-one singles in the UK, "Spice Up Your Life", "Too Much" and "Viva Forever", with "Stop" peaking at number two, ending the group's run of consecutive number-one singles in the UK. In May 1998 Halliwell left the group to pursue a solo career. Now a four-piece, the Spice Girls released their third album, Forever, in November 2000. Forever produced two more UK number-one singles, "Goodbye" and the double A-side "Holler"/"Let Love Lead the Way". In December 2000, the girls decided to go on an indefinite hiatus and concentrate on solo projects and motherhood. In June 2007 all five members of the Spice Girls reunited to tour. A Greatest Hits was released with two new tracks.

The album peaked at number two in the UK, became their first number-one album in Australia. It peaked within the top ten in Ireland. Greatest Hits was certified platinum in the UK; as of January 2010, the Spice Girls have sold more 85 million records worldwide. In 2012, the Official Charts Company revealed the biggest selling singles artists in British music chart history, they are the seventh overall biggest group of all time, with 8 million singles sold in the UK. General Specific Official website Spice Girls discography discography at Discogs Spice Girls discography at MusicBrainz

Habeas Corpus Suspension Act (1863)

The Habeas Corpus Suspension, 12 Stat. 755, entitled An Act relating to Habeas Corpus, regulating Judicial Proceedings in Certain Cases, was an Act of Congress that authorized the president of the United States to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in response to the American Civil War and provided for the release of political prisoners. It began in the House of Representatives as an indemnity bill, introduced on December 5, 1862, releasing the president and his subordinates from any liability for having suspended habeas corpus without congressional approval; the Senate amended the House's bill, the compromise reported out of the conference committee altered it to qualify the indemnity and to suspend habeas corpus on Congress's own authority. Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law on March 3, 1863, suspended habeas corpus under the authority it granted him six months later; the suspension was lifted with the issuance of Proclamation 148 by Andrew Johnson, the Act became inoperative with the end of the Civil War.

The exceptions to his Proclamation 148 were the States of Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, the District of Columbia, the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona. At the outbreak of the American Civil War in April 1861, Washington, D. C. was undefended, rioters in Baltimore, Maryland threatened to disrupt the reinforcement of the capital by rail, Congress was not in session. The military situation made it dangerous to call Congress into session. In that same month, Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States, therefore authorized his military commanders to suspend the writ of habeas corpus between Washington, D. C. and Philadelphia. Numerous individuals were arrested, including John Merryman and a number of Baltimore police commissioners; when Judge William Fell Giles of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland issued a writ of habeas corpus, the commander of Fort McHenry, Major W. W. Morris, wrote in reply, "At the date of issuing your writ, for two weeks previous, the city in which you live, where your court has been held, was under the control of revolutionary authorities."Merryman's lawyers appealed, in early June 1861, U.

S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney, writing as the United States Circuit Court for Maryland, ruled in ex parte Merryman that Article I, section 9 of the United States Constitution reserves to Congress the power to suspend habeas corpus and thus that the president's suspension was invalid; the rest of the Supreme Court had nothing to do with Merryman, the other two Justices from the South, John Catron and James Moore Wayne acted as Unionists. The President's advisers said it was ignored; when Congress was called into special session, July 4, 1861, President Lincoln issued a message to both houses defending his various actions, including the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, arguing that it was both necessary and constitutional for him to have suspended it without Congress. Early in the session, Senator Henry Wilson introduced a joint resolution "to approve and confirm certain acts of the President of the United States, for suppressing insurrection and rebellion", including the suspension of habeas corpus.

Senator Lyman Trumbull, the Republican chairman of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, had reservations about its imprecise wording, so the resolution opposed by anti-war Democrats, was never brought to a vote. On July 17, 1861, Trumbull introduced a bill to suppress insurrection and sedition which included a suspension of the writ of habeas corpus upon Congress's authority; that bill was not brought to a vote before Congress ended its first session on August 6, 1861 due to obstruction by Democrats, on July 11, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended that it not be passed during the second session, but its proposed habeas corpus suspension section formed the basis of the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act. In September 1861 the arrests continued, including a sitting member of Congress from Maryland, Henry May, along with one third of the Maryland General Assembly, Lincoln expanded the zone within which the writ was suspended; when Lincoln's dismissal of Justice Taney's ruling was criticized in an editorial that month by a prominent Baltimore newspaper editor Frank Key Howard, Francis Scott Key's grandson and Justice Taney's grand-nephew by marriage, he was himself arrested by federal troops without trial.

He was imprisoned in Fort McHenry, which, as he noted, was the same fort where the Star Spangled Banner had been waving "o'er the land of the free" in his grandfather's song. In early 1862 Lincoln took a step back from the suspension of habeas corpus controversy. On February 14, he ordered all political prisoners released, with some exceptions and offered them amnesty for past treason or disloyalty, so long as they did not aid the Confederacy. In March 1862 Congressman Henry May, released in December 1861, introduced a bill requiring the federal government to either indict by grand jury or release all other "political prisoners" still held without habeas corpus. May's bill passed the House in summer 1862, it would be included in the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, which would require actual indictments for suspected traitors. Seven months faced with o

James Douglas Hamilton Dickson

James Douglas Hamilton Dickson FRSE MRI was a Scottish mathematician and expert in electricity. He was a Senior Fellow at Cambridge. Glasgow University elected him an Eglinton Fellow, he was the elder brother of Lord Dickson. He had in-depth knowledge in fields of electricity and electrostatics and a great interest in low temperature physics, he was born in Glasgow on 1 May 1849 the son of Dr John Robert Dickson of Edinburgh. He attended both Glasgow and Cambridge Universities, graduating MA. From 1867 to 1869 he was assistant to William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, being the joint-builder of the technical equipment which Kelvin used to measure electrostatic energy. In 1869 he assisted Kelvin in the laying of the first Transatlantic communication cables; the French company overseeing the work were impressed by Dickson and kept him in their employ as Electrician-in-Charge, based in Brest until 1870. He returned to Cambridge to collaborate with W H King and Theophillus Varley in creating more of Lord Kelvin’s machines, including the siphon recorder.

In 1877 he became a Maths Tutor at his alma mater. In 1907 the college made him a Senior Fellow, he was made a Governor of the college. He was a Governor of Huntingdon Grammar School, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1876. His proposers were Sir James Dewar, Peter Guthrie Tait, Alexander Crum Brown, William Turner. In the First World War, at which point he was retired, he was asked to fill in for absent masters teaching Maths at both Fettes College and Edinburgh Academy, he died on 6 February 1931. Over and above multiple papers on mathematics and physics, Dickson enjoyed biographical work. Three entries in the Dictionary of National Biography are under his authorship: Peter Guthrie Tait James Hamblin Smith Edward John Routh Dickson could speak Japanese and was keen on Japanese culture, he had a large collection of swords and tsuba. On his death these were gifted to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and to the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh, he married sister of his sister-in-law Hestor Bagot Banks.

A third sister, Helen Rose Banks, married Sir James Dewar, connecting all three figures

Berkeley County, South Carolina

Berkeley County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 177,843, its county seat is Moncks Corner. After two previous incarnations of Berkeley County, the current county was created in 1882. Berkeley County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley County was established in 1682, it was named after co-owners of the Province of Carolina. It became part of the Charleston District in 1769, it did not exist as a District during most of the 19th century and was part of the Low Country culture. In 1882, after Democrats regained control of the state legislature following the Reconstruction era, they established the current incarnation of Berkeley County, with its seat at Mount Pleasant; the county seat was moved in 1895 to Moncks Corner. The Old Berkeley County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,229 square miles, of which 1,099 square miles is land and 130 square miles is water.

Georgetown County - east Williamsburg County - northeast Clarendon County - north Orangeburg County - northwest Dorchester County - west Charleston County - south Francis Marion National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 142,651 people, 49,922 households, 37,691 families living in the county. The population density was 130 people per square mile. There were 54,717 housing units at an average density of 50 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.00% White, 26.63% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. 2.76 % of the population were Latino of any race. 16.4% were of American, 10.0% German, 8.4% Irish and 7.7% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,922 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 14.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.50% were non-families.

19.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 11.70% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 7.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,908, the median income for a family was $44,242. Males had a median income of $31,583 versus $22,420 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,879. About 9.70% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 177,843 people, 65,419 households, 47,141 families living in the county.

The population density was 161.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 73,372 housing units at an average density of 66.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 66.5% white, 25.0% black or African American, 2.3% Asian, 0.6% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.8% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 65,419 households, 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,777 and the median income for a family was $56,869. Males had a median income of $40,534 versus $30,997 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,865. About 9.9% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

In addition to local municipal police departments, the entire county is protected by the Berkeley County Sheriff's Office. Headquartered in Moncks Corner, the Sheriff's Office is divided into many divisions: The Uniformed Patrol Division consists of four squads of deputies who alternately patrol the entire county in twelve-hour shifts, they respond to all calls dispatched by 911 operators. The Criminal Investigations Division is a division of trained detectives who investigate both violent and property crimes. Normal office hours are 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, the designated detective on duty is available to respond in the evening and on weekends; the Narcotics Division investigates drug activity and is available to receive information 24 hours a day. They have a dedicated tip line available to receive anonymous tips; the Special Response Team consists of trained deputies who respond to crisis situations such as manhunts, armed robberies, hostage situations. They are activated by the Command Staff.

The team members are trained in hostage negotiations. Each patrol squad has trained canine, they are available to search for contraband, guns and missing persons. The Records Office is located in the Sheriff's Office and will provide copies of incident reports when requested in person; the Training Office is located at the Berkeley County Sheriff's Office. These facilities are used f