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Allied Joint Force Command Naples

Allied Joint Force Command Naples is a NATO military command based in Lago Patria, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy—the base was located in the Bagnoli quarter of Naples. It was activated on 15 March 2004, after what was a redesignation of its predecessor command, Allied Forces Southern Europe formed in 1951. AFSOUTH in NATO Military Command Structure terms was a "Major Subordinate Command". Commander JFC Naples reports to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Belgium. Allied Forces Southern Europe was one of two major NATO commands in the Mediterranean area, the other being Allied Forces Mediterranean based on the island of Malta, responsible for naval activities in the region. While Admiral Robert B. Carney of the U. S. Navy was appointed as Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe on 19 June 1951, AFMED was not activated until 1953; the delay was due to negotiations and compromises between the Americans and the British, who wished to retain one of their commanders over Britain's traditional sea lines of communication stretching through the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and beyond.

From 1951 to 2003, the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe was always a United States Navy admiral, based at Naples, who held the US Navy position of Commander-in-Chief United States Naval Forces Europe and functioned as the Navy service component commander for United States European Command within the US-only chain of command. AFSOUTH headquarters was established at Naples; the initial command arrangements for AFSOUTH consisted of the classic three land and air headquarters preferred by Eisenhower. Allied Land Forces Southern Europe, Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe were all established in Italy. Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in early 1952. On 8 September 1952, a new allied land command, Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe, was created with its headquarters in Izmir, under the command of a U. S. officer, Lieutenant General Willard G. Wyman. Under this command, with its headquarters in Izmir assisted by the subordinate Thessaloniki Advanced Command Post, were to be most of the Greek and Turkish armies in case of war.

The first AIRSOUTH commander became U. S. Major General David M. Schlatter, USAF. On 14 October 1953, the Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force was established in Izmir, commanded by Major General R. E. L. Easton, USAF, responsible to Allied Air Forces Southern Europe for the air defence of Greece and Turkey. Three national air Commands were assigned to it: the Turkish 1st and 3rd Tactical Air Forces, the Greek Air Force's Royal Hellenic 28th Tactical Air Force. In terms of actual forces this meant two Greek wings and four Turkish fighter-bomber groups of F-84 aircraft, plus some B-26A Mosquitoes. In 1953, the various national naval forces within Allied Forces Mediterranean were organised into six Sub-Principal Subordinate Commands, each commanded by an Admiral. In time of war, CINCAFMED would be responsible for securing the Sea lines of communications throughout the Mediterranean Sea; some of AFSOUTH's first exercises took place in 1952. Operation Ancient Wall was a series of military maneuvers involving ground small unit tactical training, land-based tactical air support, carrier-based air support under the overall command of Admiral Carney.

Exercise Grand Slam was a combined naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea between 25 February to 16 March 1952. The exercise included allied warships escorting three convoys of supply ships which were subjected to repeated simulated air and submarine attacks, as well as anti-submarine warfare operations and naval gunfire shore bombardment. Operation Longstep was a ten-day naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea held during November 1952, it involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft, it featured a large-scale amphibious assault along the western coast of Turkey.1953 AFSOUTH exercises included: "Italic Weld" — a combined air-naval-ground exercise in northern Italy involving the United States, Italy and Greece "Weldfast" — a combined amphibious landing exercise in the Mediterranean Sea involving British, Italian, U. S. naval forcesIn 1957, Operation Deep Water simulated the defence of the Dardanelles from a Soviet attack. The exercise included an 8,000 strong amphibious landing; the drawdown of the British Mediterranean Fleet, the military difficulties of the politically-decided command structure, the withdrawal of the French from the military command structure forced a rearrangement of the command arrangements in the southern region.

Allied Forces Mediterranean was disbanded on 5 June 1967, all forces in the south and the Mediterranean assigned to AFSOUTH. AFSOUTH continued to conduct exercises in the 1960s and 1970s, among, exercise'Dawn Patrol,' a five-nation naval and air exercise conducted throughout the Mediterranean in 1974; the U. S. contribution to the exercise was based on the USS America carrier battle group. During the 1960s Exercise Deep Furrow appears to have been held annually. Deep Furrow, will be conducted from 20–29 September 1973 in the southern region of Allied Command Europe. Forces from Greece and other countries in AF South Command will participate in Exercise Deep Furrow 73, scheduled annually by CINCSOUTH. Land forces will hold maneuvers in Greek and Turkish Thrace and naval Force will exercise in the Eastern Mediterranean, including the Aegean Sea; as part of the exercise

Mission Ribas

Misión Ribas is a Venezuelan Bolivarian Mission that provides remedial high school level classes to the five million Venezuelan high school dropouts. In July 2006 President Chávez announced that the Mission Ribas should become a socio-political movement conformed by students, family members and professors to guarantee its role as a promoting agent of the Bolivarian revolution. There have been many concerns about the effectiveness of other missions lately. Chávez has expressed worry about the high number of people who drop out of school or do not continue to the Mision Sucre, or Higher Education; the pro-government deputy Pastora Medina admitted that "there are denunciations about the way scholarships are given. There is little commitment from the pupils and the teachers of the Misión Ribas and this has led to a wrong development. In the Caricuao area, in Caracas, there are 300 pupils registered, but only eight go to classes"; the state-owned Petróleos de Venezuela is a large contributor to Mission Ribas.

In 2009, US$2.1 billion were allocated to the mission, which according to PDVSA were "resources that have resulted in the issuance of 159,749 scholarships" and helped 632,623 Venezuelans earn "the title of Bachelor of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". In a 2007 New York Times article, it was reported that "most of the students receive stipends of $85 a month to attend" and that "the students themselves choose who gets the stipends, based on need and dedication". Mission Ribas officials stated that "Political and ideological training... is the top qualification for a facilitator". Ribas officials gave students lengthy talks about supporting the Venezuelan government during the 2007 Venezuelan Elections when one official from Las Torres told students "to attend marches and street demonstrations supporting Chávez". In May 2009, Citizen Minister and President of PDVSA, Rafael Ramírez, created Socialist Production Brigades from former graduates which aimed to "constitute the aim of promoting community participation and inclusion of volunteerism through the implementation of socialist-oriented projects the execution of works and services to meet the needs in different sectors".

Misión Ribas – Official government link

Posadas, Misiones

Posadas is the capital city of the Argentine province of Misiones, in its south, at the far north-east of the country on the left bank of the Paraná River, opposite Encarnación, Paraguay. The city has an area of 965 square kilometres and a population of 324,756, the Greater Posadas area has a population of over 359,609 according to a 2017 estimate. Posadas is the provincial centre of the government and the economy. Furniture, food and construction are its most important industries. Other important economic activities are commerce and services. Posadas is connected to the Paraguayan city of Encarnación by the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge; the port, once of great economical importance, is used for sport vessels, carrier of passengers and some boats for sand transport. The city is located on some 1,300 kilometres from Buenos Aires; the General José de San Martín Airport, at coordinates 27°22′S 55°58′W, is seven kilometres from the city, features regular flights to Buenos Aires. Father Roque González y de Santa Cruz established a town called Anunciación de Itapúa on March 25, 1615, but ten years the settlement was moved to the other side of the Paraná River to the present location of Encarnación, Paraguay.

The first settlement was not abandoned, a new San José reduction was settled there in 1628. In 1867, during the Paraguayan War, the Brazilians set up the Trinchera de San José military base there. Following the end of the war, Paraguay renounced all claims to the area, in 1879, the town was renamed after Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, the Supreme Director of the Argentine Confederation. On December 22, 1881, the limits of the Misiones Federation were drawn, leaving Posadas within the territory of current Corrientes Province. On July 30, 1884 the National Congress decided to give Posadas to Misiones Province, name it its capital; the National University of Misiones was established at Posadas in 1973, in 1990, the city's cultural and economic links to Encarnación were strengthened with the completion of the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Posadas, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 57 min. 10% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day.

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 16 min, while 26% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.3 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Posadas has a humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid with lows around 21 °C, highs around 31.5 °C, daily mean 26.0 °C, frequent thunderstorms. Winters are warm with lows around 12 °C and highs around 22.5 °C, daily mean 17 °C. The highest temperature recorded was 42.1 °C and the coldest was −2.8 °C. José Acasuso, tennis player Alberto Mancini, tennis player Mariano Messera, soccer player German Cano, soccer player Daniel Vancsik, golf player Danny Veron, dj producer musician Bergamo, Italy Municipality of Posadas - Official website. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Misiones Posadas Information

Chinese-American Planning Council

Founded in 1965, the Chinese-American Planning Council, Inc. is one of the largest non-profit providers of educational and community services for Asian-Americans in the United States. It now services over 8,000 people daily through some 50+ programs at over 30 locations citywide, it administers early childhood services, school-age child care services, youth services, community services, workforce development and senior services. Chinese-American Planning Council, Inc.’s mission is to serve the Chinese-American and low-income communities in New York City by providing services and resources towards economic self-sufficiency. The Chinese-American Planning Council, Inc. the Chinatown Planning Council, was founded in 1965 as a grass roots community-based organization in response to the tremendous influx of Chinese immigrants after the change in immigration laws, in the midst of the Great Society movement. CPC volunteers counseled families by referring them to local schools, provided case management services to help immigrants adjust to their newly homes.

Filling a void in the community as the first social service agency to serve Chinese-Americans in New York, CPC began to expand its services based on the needs expressed by those in the community. In 1966, CPC launched its Head Start Program and youth programs for pre-school and school-age children. In 1970 it opened its first child care center, it helped construct two uniquely conceived senior citizen residential buildings, Everlasting Pine and Hong Ning. In 1975, it launched its employment & training services with the English Language Center, which provided new immigrants with badly needed job-readiness skills training and workplace English instruction; the Chinese-American Arts Council, a CPC subsidiary, was founded in 1975. By 1983, CPC was providing home care services to senior citizens through its Home Attendant Program, which continues to burgeon as the population ages; the need of low English proficient, home-bound seniors for language appropriate, culturally sensitive care prompted the launch of CPC's Mature Workers program to train home attendants, which answered the need of middle aged workers to find low skill employment that didn't require English fluency.

Since the late 1970s, as gentrification of Chinatown, Manhattan pushed up rental costs, immigrants began to move to Brooklyn and Queens, CPC followed suit, setting up Queens and Brooklyn offices and changing its name and vision from the Chinatown Planning Council to the Chinese-American Planning Council. The community continued to evolve in the 1990s, with the majority of undocumented immigrants flowing in from China's Fujian Province and facing challenges that are unique, yet similar to the trajectory of waves of earlier Chinese immigrants. Since the tragedy of 9/11 in 2001, one-quarter of Chinatown's workforce was out of work. CPC responded by launching 9/11 relief services to help dislocated workers get access to emergency assistance, serving more clients than any other such program in the community due to CPC's reputation and ability to refer clients in-house to its other services; as the economic slump continued in the year after 9/11, CPC transitioned its 9/11 program to meeting long-term employment and training needs as well as ongoing case management needs, training over 800 clients and placing over 50%, a remarkable feat given the economic climate.

CPC has achieved accreditation of its childcare centers and received three licenses to open vocational and business schools. A new program enables clients who do not qualify for government assistance to pay for their own employment workshops and placement assistance; the Workforce Development Division is enhancing its focus on health care training programs in keeping with client and market needs in the changing economy, has introduced a new Food Protection program. In January 2005, CPC opened a one-stop multi-social services center to connect clients to services with a focus on mental health, while the Brooklyn branch is conducting mental health outreach among community seniors. Over the years, CPC has honored many people of Chinese descent who have become outstanding leaders in their fields, including architect I. M. Pei, musician Yo-Yo Ma, fashion designer Vera Wang, Major John Fugh, film director Ang Lee, Nobel Prize winner Dr. Daniel C. Tsui, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author Sheryl WuDunn, others.

CPC holds two major events, a biennial Brooklyn Bridge Walk-A-Thon with a Family Day Fair, an annual Chinese New Year Dinner. The events and CPC are supported by many elected officials, including New York City Comptroller John Liu, New York State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, New York State Senator Tom Duane, New York City Council Member Margaret Chin, Brooklyn Borough President Marty Markowitz, many others. CPC has three main offices located within New York City; the main office is located at Chinatown in Manhattan, while the other two branches are located in Flushing and Sunset Park, Brooklyn. Each office provides different services to the community. 150 Elizabeth Street is home to the Chinese-American Planning Council's Administration, Fiscal Office, Human Resources and Volunteer and Internship Program. Located in the edges of Chinatown, Little Italy, Manhattan and SoHo, CPC strives to build a better community for all not only in Manhattan, but Queens and Brooklyn through satellite branch offices.

The Queens branch of the Chinese-American P

Pepper mild mottle virus

Pepper mild mottle virus is a plant pathogenic virus that occurs worldwide on species of field grown bell and ornamental pepper species. It is caused by members of the plant virus genus Tobamovirus- otherwise known as the tobacco mosaic virus family. Tobamovirus are viruses. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on the cultivar. Typical symptoms include the chlorosis of leaves and distorted and lumpy fruiting structures; the virus is spread by infected seeds. Avoidance is the best means of controlling the disease because once a plant is infected it cannot be treated. Only seeds that have been tested and treated for the pathogen should be planted; the origin of PMMoV has been linked to Tomato mosaic virus, as they both reside in the Tobacco mosaic virus family. The Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection brought about the link between PMMoV to ToMV from a French study dating back to 1964. ToMV affects a wide range of Solanaceous crops and a strain of this virus mutated into PMMoV. Pepper mild mottle virus is the major viral pathogen of peppers.

The host range of PMMoV include species of pepper. This virus strain does not infect eggplant, or tobacco; the others include Tomato mosaic virus and Tobacco mild green mosaic virus. This pathogen is known to occur throughout the world and it results in significant crop losses or reductions in both field and greenhouse plantings; the virus has been identified in places like Australia, China, Taiwan and North Africa. Since 1997, PMMoV has been the cause of many major outbreaks in the southeastern states namely Georgia and Florida. Symptoms caused by this pathogen vary based on the specific host cultivar. Symptoms include various degrees of mottling, curling and distortion of the fruit and whole plants; the symptoms on fruit include: a reduction in size and color changes, an obvious distorted and lumpy appearance. Many times brown necrotic streaks or splotches can be seen on the leaves and fruit; the symptoms can be seen on new growth, they are far more pronounced if the plant was infected when it was young rather than when it was older.

This disease is harmful because of the mild foliar symptoms and due to this many times the pathogen goes unnoticed until the more evident symptoms on the fruit appear. This is why there are higher yield losses because symptoms only become evident during the fruiting stage right before the crops are supposed to harvested. PMMoV is a rigid rod shaped virus pathogen that can be transmitted to healthy plants via mechanical inoculation or contact between plants or another medium that can carry the pathogen such as hands and clothing; the virus is found on the outer seed coat and rarely in the endosperm of seeds of the infected plants. Being seedborne, the virus infects through mechanical contamination during seed transplanting and other agricultural procedures, it enters the plant/seed through microscopic wounds. The virus is in vitro, which in this case means it can survive in an isolated environment, being infectious it can be transmitted during normal crop maintenance. PMMoV is exceptionally stable and it is known to survive for extended periods of time in plant debris and on greenhouse structures and horticultural tools.

There are no known insect vectors. This virus is widespread and is found anywhere peppers are grown, this is because the virus is most introduced with the pepper seed; the virus moves long distances on the seed and moves short distances via plant-to-plant contact, handling of plants by contaminated implements and workers aids in the spread of the virus. Soils with low organic matter content humus will much more promote the adsorption of PMMoV; the allophanic clays and iron minerals in these soils will promote the adsorption of PMMoV. Disease incidence has occurred in greenhouse environments and hot, humid environments like southwest and southeast Florida and in regions like North Africa, Japan; this is an indication of the type of soil, optimal for the virus. Greenhouses are an ideal production environment for rapid spread of the disease. Up until 2005, the primary means of prevention was a pre-plant treatment of Bromomethane or methyl bromide; the import and production of this fumigation chemical was banned under the Montreal Protocol.

A modern organic method of prevention was found by a Japanese study on soil adsorptions role in the adsorption of PMMoV. The study found that increased humus content in a soil will have an inhibitory effect on PMMoV adsorption; as with all plant viruses, but with those in the genus Tobamovirus, avoidance is the best means of control. Growers must only plant clean seeds. Growers must use caution when handling plants, plants with abrasions or wounds give the virus an opportunity to enter the tissue of the plant. There are no chemical or biological control methods that can be used to control the disease once the plant is infected. Though a challenge, accurate identification of PMMoV is key to successful control of the disease. (See reference 7 for a detailed description of control measur


Mnemozina was a quarterly literary almanac, published in Moscow from 1824 to 1825. The full title in the Russian language is Мнемозина, собрание сочинений в стихах и прозе and was a reference to Mnemosyne, a persona in Greek mythology embodying memory; the main editors were Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Vladimir Odoevsky. Mnemozina came about as a production of the Lovers of Wisdom society, a literary and philosophical circle created by Odoevsky and Dmitry Venevitinov in the early 1820s. Besides Odoevsky, Venevitinov and Küchelbecker, the Society counted Aleksey Khomyakov, Mikhail Pogodin and others as members. Alexander Pushkin, attracted to Mnemozina through his friends Küchelbecker and Venevitinov, was an admirer of the magazine's publications. Pushkin contributed his poem The Demon to Mnemozina. Mnemozina was devoted to the consideration and debate of the ideas of the French Encyclopédistes of the eighteenth century, to the spread of German idealism; the direct successor to Mnemozina was The Russian Messenger