The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Innsworth is a suburb of Gloucester, it is a civil parish and forms part of the borough of Tewkesbury. The parish population taken at the 2011 census was 2,468, it contains Imjin Barracks, the home of Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, which moved from Germany in 2010. Until 2008, it was best known for RAF Innsworth, the home of the RAF Personnel and Training Command, before its move to RAF High Wycombe to co-locate with RAF Strike Command, forming RAF Air Command. Innsworth like its neighbouring village, Churchdown, is split into two halves: the military housing side which ends at the junction of Ward Avenue and Swallow Crescent and Thompson Way again with Swallow Crescent. Many of the housing association homes in Innsworth were either prefabricated, or built "no fines" structures, as was common in the mid- to late 1940s after the Second World War; the former were only intended to remain standing for two decades, they have now been up for close to 70 years. The majority have had the original pre fabricated concrete removed and re bricked with two modern brick walls, some of the distinctive Wimpey and prefab houses still remain.
In common with many developments at this time, these houses and bungalows are all on roads named according to a theme, in this case they are after birds. New housing developments in the village have followed the tradition with Tern Court at the north of Rookery Road and Falcon Close 100 yards down the Rookery Road. Innsworth used to be home to a local pub called The Bullfinch, known locally as "The Bully"; the Bully was closed in late 2004 and knocked down in 2010/2011, to be replaced with social housing by the Severn Vale Housing Society. The old sign for the pub can still be found standing in pride of place at the top of Bullfinch Way and its junction with Innsworth Lane; the village falls in the'Innsworth with Down Hatherley' electoral ward. This ward stretches between the two villages; the ward population taken at the 2011 census was 2,887. The village now has its own Community Hall on Rookery Road next to the Junior School, home to the village youth club and to the bingo club, held every Sunday evening and many Severnvale Housing Association drop-in clinics.
The village campaigned for many years to the local Borough Council for the Hall. Details of parish council Innsworth Infant School Innsworth Junior School Map sources for Innsworth
I Corps (United Kingdom)
I Corps was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps. It had a short-lived precursor during the Waterloo Campaign. Assembling an army in Belgium to fight Napoleon’s resurgent forces in the spring of 1815, the Duke of Wellington formed it into army corps, deliberately mixing units from the Anglo-Hanoverian, Dutch-Belgian and German contingents so that the weaker elements would be stiffened by more experienced or reliable troops; as he put it: ‘It was necessary to organize these troops in brigades and corps d’armee with those better disciplined and more accustomed to war’. He placed I Corps under the command of the Prince of Orange and it was this corps, first contacted by the advancing French at Quatre Bras on 16 June 1815. However, Wellington did not employ the corps as tactical entities, continued his accustomed practice of issuing orders directly to divisional and lower commanders.
When he drew up his army on the ridge at Waterloo, elements of the various corps were mixed up, although he gave the Prince of Orange nominal command of the centre, that officer had different forces under him. Subsequent to the battle, the corps structure was re-established for the advance into France, I Corps being commanded by Maj-Gen Sir John Byng, the Prince of Orange having been wounded at Waterloo. General Officer Commanding: General HRH The Prince of Orange 1st Division 3rd Division 2nd Division 3rd Division After Waterloo the army corps structure disappeared from the British Army, except for ad hoc formations assembled during annual manoeuvres. In 1876 a Mobilisation Scheme for eight army corps was published, with'First Corps' based on Colchester. In 1880 First Corps' organization was: 1st Division 1st Brigade 1st Bn. 2nd Foot, 1st Bn. 10th Foot 2nd Brigade 1st Bn. 9th Foot, 28th Foot Divisional Troops 2nd Bn. 12th Foot, Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, 1st Company Royal Engineers Artillery F/1st Brigade Royal Artillery, D/1st Brigade RA 2nd Division 1st Brigade 1st Bn. 15th Foot, 47th Foot 2nd Brigade 1st Bn.
3rd Foot, 49th Foot, 55th Foot Divisional Troops 1st Bn. 23rd Foot, Hertfordshire Yeomanry, 20th Company Royal Engineers Artillery I/4th Brigade RA, N/4th Brigade RA, M/4th Brigade RA 3rd Division 1st Brigade 77th Foot, 104th Foot, 105th Foot 2nd Brigade 2nd Bn. 5th Foot, 31st Foot, 86th Foot Divisional Troops 87th Foot, West Kent Yeomanry, 22nd Company Royal Engineers Artillery O/4th Brigade RA, A/5th Brigade RA Cavalry Brigade 3rd Hussars, 4th Hussars, Suffolk Yeomanry, F Battery C Brigade Royal Horse Artillery Corps Artillery E Battery C Brigade RHA, H Battery A Brigade RHA G/1st Brigade RA, B/5th Brigade RA Corps Engineers A Troop Royal Engineer Train C Troop Royal Engineer Train 23rd Company Royal Engineers and Field Park This scheme had been dropped by 1881. The Stanhope Memorandum of 1891 laid down the policy that after providing for garrisons and India, the army should be able to mobilise three army corps for home defence, two of regular troops and one of militia, each of three divisions.
Only after those commitments, it was hoped, might two army corps be organised for the unlikely eventuality of deployment abroad. When war with the Boer Republics was imminent in September 1899, a Field Force, referred to as the Army Corps was mobilised and sent to Cape Town, it was, in fact,'about the equivalent of the First Army Corps of the existing mobilization scheme', was placed under the command of Gen Sir Redvers Buller, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Aldershot Command. However, once in South Africa the corps never operated as such, the three divisions were dispersed; the 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on the six regional commands of which only I Corps and II Corps would be formed of regular troops. However, these arrangements remained theoretical, the title'I Corps' being added to Aldershot Command. In early October 1902 a memorandum was issued showing the organization and allocation of the 1st Army Corps, to which Sir John French had been appointed in command: 1st Division 1st Brigade 2nd Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brigade divisions Royal Field Artillery, an ammunition column, a field company Royal Engineers, one company Army Service Corps, a field hospital 2nd Division 3rd Infantry Brigade 4th Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brigade divisions Royal Field Artillery, an ammunition column, a field company Royal Engineers, one company Army Service Corps, a field hospital 3rd Division 5th Infantry Brigade 6th Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brig
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
General Sir Alexander Richard David Shirreff, is a retired senior British Army officer and author. From March 2011 to March 2014 he served as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe. Shirreff was born in Kenya, the son of Alexander David Shirreff of the 5th Battalion King's African Rifles. Educated at Oundle School and Exeter College, Shirreff was commissioned into the 14th/20th King's Hussars as a second lieutenant on probation on 3 September 1976, he was confirmed as a second lieutenant on probation and as a second lieutenant on 18 June 1977 and promoted to lieutenant from the same date. Shirreff was promoted to captain on 1 August 1980, to major on 30 September 1987. Having seen active service during the Gulf War in 1991, Shirreff was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 30 June 1992, was appointed Commanding Officer of the King's Royal Hussars in 1994, he deployed with his Regiment to Northern Ireland in 1995, for which Shirreff was awarded a Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service. Promoted to colonel – Army Plans at the Ministry of Defence on 30 June of the following year, he was advanced to brigadier on 30 June 1998.
He was appointed Commander of 7th Armoured Brigade, deployed to Kosovo, was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in April 2001 in recognition of his service. Shirreff was promoted to major general on 9 May 2003 and became Chief of Staff at Land Command and in 2005 he became General Officer Commanding 3rd Mechanised Division, which deployed as HQ Multinational Division South East in Iraq in July 2006. In January 2007 he was appointed Commander of the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, was promoted to lieutenant general on 13 December of that year. Shirreff was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 2010 New Year Honours. On 11 January 2010, Shirreff gave evidence to the Iraq Inquiry. On 4 March 2011 he was promoted to full general, he retired from that post in March 2014. Shirreff is the honorary colonel of Oxford University OTC and served as the Honorary Colonel to the Royal Wessex Yeomanry from 2005 to 2015, he served a term as Colonel Commandant of the Royal Armoured Corps from 2004 and as Colonel of the Kings Royal Hussars from 2012 to 2017.
Shirreff is an Advisory Board member of the non-for profit security organisation Genderforce, aiming to fight and prevent acts of Sexual and Gender Based Violence in conflict and post-conflict situations. He is a founding partner of Strategia Worldwide, a risk management consultancy founded in 2016. In 2016, Shirreff published a book entitled 2017: War with Russia: An Urgent Warning from Senior Military Command, it suggests that Russia could invade the Baltic States, that war between Russia and NATO would be possible, alleges that former Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, tried to court-martial him when he spoke up on British defence cuts
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army