Allsvenskan is a Swedish professional league for men's association football clubs. It was founded in 1924, is the top flight of the Swedish football league system, operating on a system of promotion and relegation with Superettan. Seasons run from late March or early April to the beginning of November, with the 16 clubs all meeting each other twice, resulting in a 30-match season, for a total of 240 matches league-wide. Allsvenskan is ranked 20th in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. Allsvenskan is ranked highest of the leagues in Scandinavia after Denmark in 16th place; the current champions are Djurgårdens IF. Including the 2019 season, Allsvenskan has been running for an unbroken streak of 94 seasons. Unlike many other European football leagues, the Allsvenskan did not experience an interruption in play during World War II due to Swedish neutrality in that conflict. Allsvenskan started in the 1924–25 Allsvenskan season and the first winner was GAIS.
The one-league twelve team Allsvenskan replaced the Svenska Serien, consisting of a southern and northern group, held before. In 1931, the league started to decide the Swedish football champions. In the early years and Gotland teams were not allowed to play on higher levels in the league system, changed to include the Norrland and Gotland teams on higher levels. For the 1959 Allsvenskan, the season start was changed from autumn to spring to be played in one calendar year. In 1973, it was expanded to contain 14 teams. In the 1970s, Malmö FF, under the lead of Spanish Antonio Durán and English Bob Houghton, won five Allsvenskan and managed to proceed to the 1979 European Cup Final, which they lost to Nottingham Forest. From the 1982 season, the league introduced a play-off to determine the Swedish football champions. In the late 1980s, Malmö FF were dominant, winning the league five times in a row, but only two Swedish championships; the 1990 season saw the introduction of three points per win. The play-off season years were followed by two years of continuation league, named Mästerskapsserien.
The 1993 season saw a return to the classical format, again with 14 teams. IFK Göteborg won five Allsvenskan league titles in the 1990s. In the early 2000s, Djurgårdens IF won three titles. In 2004, Örebro SK lost its place in the league due to financial problems, Assyriska FF got their place. Since 2008, the league consists of 16 teams; the champions are considered gold medal winners. The runners-up are awarded the Large Silver medal, the third positioned team are awarded the Small Silver medal and the team positioned in fourth place are awarded the Bronze medal. There have been seasons with exceptions when the winners of Allsvenskan wasn't considered Swedish champions as well. Allsvenskan winners between 1924 and 1930 were crowned league champions and awarded gold medals, the title of Swedish champions was awarded to the winner of Svenska Mästerskapet up until 1925 and not at all until 1930; the years 1982 through 1990 are exceptions, the title was instead decided through play-offs during these years.
The same was true for the years 1991 and 1992 when the title was decided through a continuation league called Mästerskapsserien. However, there is a big difference between the Allsvenskan winners before 1931 compared to the period between 1982 and 1992; as winning Allsvenskan in its earlier seasons was the optimal aim for the clubs, while as during the era of play-offs and Mästerskapsserien, the optimal goal wasn't to win Allsvenskan, but the play-offs or Mästerskapsserien. Since 2008 there are 16 clubs in Allsvenskan. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice for a total of 30 games; the two lowest placed teams at the end of the season are relegated to Superettan and the top two teams from Superettan are promoted in their place. The third lowest team in Allsvenskan plays a relegation/promotion play-off against the third placed team in Superettan; the winners of Allsvenskan qualify for the UEFA Champions League, the runner-up together with the third placed team in the table qualify for the UEFA Europa League as well as the team who wins the Svenska Cupen.
In case the winner of the Cup has qualified to Champions League or Europa League, the third Europa League spot is given to the team that finishes fourth in Allsvenskan. The decider at equal number of points was goal ratio until the 1940–41 season, thereafter goal difference; the current trophy awarded to the Swedish champions is the Lennart Johanssons Pokal. Created in 2001, the trophy is named after Lennart Johansson. A different trophy, named after Clarence von Rosen, the first chairman of the Swedish Football Association, had been used between 1903 and 2000, but was replaced after journalists reported that von Rosen had personal connections to the infamous Nazi leader Hermann Göring during the time he lived in Sweden; the former President of the Swedish Football Association, Lars-Åke Lagrell stated that the reason for the change of trophy was not a personal attack against Von Rosen but rather that the Football Association did not want to be linked to Nazism and engage in discussions regarding this every time the trophy was awarded.
In addition to the winner's trophy and the individual winner's medals awarded to players, Allsvenskan awards the most valuable player, goalkeeper of the year, defender of the year, midfielder of the year, forward of the yea
The Grão-Pará Ecological Station (Portuguese: Estação Ecológica Grão-Pará is a protected ecological station in the state of Pará, Brazil. It managed by the state of Pará. With 42,458 square kilometres of well-preserved Amazon rainforest it is the largest protected tropical forest conservation unit in the world; the Grão-Pará Ecological Station is on the left bank of the Amazon River in the west of the state of Pará. It contains parts of the basins of the Maicuru, Curuá, Erepecuru and Mapuera rivers, it has an area of 4,245,819 hectares, which makes it the largest protected tropical forest conservation unit on the planet. The unit covers parts of the municipalities of Alenquer, Óbidos and Monte Alegre, its boundaries are: North: Guyana. East: Tumucumaque National Park Indian Territory, Rio Paru D'Este Indian Territory and Maicuru Biological Reserve. South: Trombetas-Mapuera Indian Territory, Trombetas State Forest, Zo'é Indian Territory and Paru State Forest. West: State of Roraima; the Grão-Pará Ecological Station was established by state decree 2609 of 4 December 2006, signed by the state governor Simão Jatene.
The unit was announced by Jatene in a ceremony that announced nine conservation areas in northern Pará that occupy a total of about 15,000,000 hectares. Others included the 1,200,000 hectares Maicuru Biological Reserve, the Paru, Trombetas and Iriri state forests and the Triunfo do Xingu Environmental Protection Area. Creation of the protected areas was expected to reduce deforestation and consequent mercury contamination of water, irregular farming and other threats. Within two months of creation of the protected unit it was reported that the Rio Tinto mining company was seeking approval to have 500,000 hectares excluded from the unit; the miner had been prospecting for bauxite near the headwaters of the Curuá River, thought there might be a huge deposit. It seemed unlikely that the permission would be given since this would throw into doubt the state's entire environmental plan. In 2007, the Pará Secretary of State for the Environment signed a Term of Technical Cooperation with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Forest Development Institute of Pará, Institute of Man and Environment, Conservation International and the German Technical Cooperation Agency.
These institutions worked together to develop the management plan for the implementation of the reserve, published in 2011. The Management Plan is based on the general objectives for a conservation unit, establishes standards for use of the area and management of natural resources, including implementation of the physical structures needed to manage the unit; the Grão-Pará Ecological Station covers dissected plateaus with altitudes from 200 to 1,000 metres. Most of the region has altitudes of 250 to 450 metres; the lowest areas are in the north near the Trombetas River, while the highest are in the northwest in the Serra do Acari region at 400 to 1,000 metres and in the southern portion at 400 to 550 metres. The terrain is rugged, with no access roads or navigable rivers; the unit can be reached only by helicopter or light air plane using improvised landing strips. It is known that indigenous people access it through the Erepecuru river regions; the Grão-Pará Ecological Station is in the Amazon biome.
It has a tropical monsoon climate. Temperatures range from 18 to 30 °C and are between 24 and 27 °C. Average annual rainfall is from 1,900 to 2,300 millimetres, with heaviest rains on the December–May period when monthly precipitation is 300 to 600 millimetres. In the driest months rainfall is above 60 millimetres; the unit contains parts of two sub-basins of the Amazon River, the Nhamundá-Trombetas basin and the Cuminapanema-Maicuru sub-basin. The main rivers of the unit have combined lengths of 21,800 kilometres; the unit is covered with dense submontane rainforest or transitional forest, with small areas of cerrado and dense alluvial rainforest. Known numbers of species include 125 fish, 62 amphibians, 68 reptiles, 355 birds, 61 mammals, 125 ferns and 653 flowering plants; the natural resources are well preserved. The Grão-Pará Ecological Station allows only indirect use of its natural resources, has the specific purpose of conserving nature and supporting scientific research. Public visits are prohibited except for educational purposes subject to the Management Plan, scientific research requires prior permission of SEMA/PA.
It lies within the Pará Northern Corridor Full Protection Zone. With the other protected areas and indigenous lands in the region it connects the Central Amazon Ecological Corridor to the west with the Amapá corridor to the east; the conservation unit is supported by the Amazon Region Protected Areas Program
Juliette Drouet, born Julienne Josephine Gauvain, was a French actress. She abandoned her career on the stage after becoming the mistress of Victor Hugo, to whom she acted as a secretary and travelling companion. Juliette accompanied Hugo in his exile to the Channel Islands, wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life, she was born Julienne Josephine Gauvain on 10 April 1806 in Fougères, Ille-et-Vilaine, the daughter of Julien Gauvain, a tailor, Marie Marchandet, employed as a housemaid. She had two older sisters, Renee and Thérèse, a brother Armand. Orphaned from her mother a few months after her birth, her father the following year, Gauvain was raised by her uncle, René Drouet, she was educated in Paris at a religious boarding school and considered a precocious child, having learned to read and write at the age of five. At the age of ten, Gauvain was proficient in literature and poetry. Around 1825, she became the mistress of sculptor James Pradier, who represented her in a statue symbolizing Strasbourg, at the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
They had a daughter Claire. On the advice of Pradier, she started an acting career in 1829 in Brussels in Paris, it was, Drouet. Described by those who knew her as independent and hot-tempered. Drouet had bright eyes. In 1833, while playing the role of Princess Négroni in Lucrezia Borgia, she met Victor Hugo, whose wife Adèle was having an affair with the critic Sainte-Beuve, she abandoned her theatrical career afterwards to dedicate her life to her lover. Her last stage role was of Lady Jane Grey in Hugo's Marie Tudor, she became Hugo's secretary and travelling companion. For many years she lived a cloistered life. In 1852, she accompanied him in his exile on Jersey, in 1855 on Guernsey, she wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life, which testify to her writing talent according to Henri Troyat who wrote her biography in 1997. Each year, from 16 February 1833 to 1883, they celebrated the anniversary of the first night they had spent together. Victor Hugo slipped this personal anecdote into the plot of Les Misérables: Marius and Cosette’s wedding night takes place on the same date.
Juliette Drouet died in Paris on 11 May 1883 at the age of 77. Hugo’s family dissuaded him from attending Juliette’s funeral out of concern for what people might say. Simone de Beauvoir, Patrick O'Brian; the Coming of Age. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31443-X Juliette Drouet, Evelyn Blewer, Victoria Tietze Larson. My Beloved Toto: Letters from Juliette Drouet to Victor Hugo 1833-1882. State University of New York Press ISBN 0-7914-6572-1 Graham Robb, 1999. Victor Hugo: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31899-0 Henri Troyat, 1997. Juliette Drouet: La prisonnière sur parole. Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-067403-X Works by Juliette Drouet at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Juliette Drouet at Internet Archive Archival material at Leeds University Library