Almogavars is the name of a class of soldier from many Christian Iberian kingdoms in the phases of the Reconquista, during the 13th and 14th centuries. Almogavars were clad, quick-moving frontiersmen and foot-soldiers, they hailed from the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Portugal. At first these troops were formed by farmers and shepherds originating from the countryside and frontier mountain areas, they were employed as mercenaries in Italy, Latin Greece and the Levant. There are several theories as to where this name comes from: in Arabic المغاور al-mughāwir or as المخابر al-mukhābir, al-Mujawir, "Pilgrims, outer marches" and a third theory which holds that it comes from the adjective gabar, which translates as "prideful" or "haughty"; the names of their military ranks derive from Arabic. The term was first used in the 10th century in the territory of Al-Andalus, to refer to small armed groups of Saracens engaged in looting and surprise attacks.
The first documented historical reference appeared in the chronicle "Akhbar muluk Al-Andalus" or "Chronicle of the Moor Rasis", the history of the kings of Al-Andalus, written between 887 and 955 by Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ar-Razi, known among Arabs by the name Al-Tarij and among Christians as the Moor Rasis. In his chronicle, the historian of Qurtuba describes the territories of Al-Andalus, upon arrival at the Ebro Valley, cites the existence of some troops called Almogavars present in the city of Saraqusta for the first time in history: And the city of Saraqusta was the chamber of the Almojarifes for a long time, was the choice of the warriors, and when they fought the city of Saraqusta, fought all the alcalles and Almogavars, they chose for them. The word Almogavar was used during the last centuries of the Reconquista, at the Granadan border, for designating the groups of Moorish bandits that launched attacks from the kingdom of Granada on the border towns of the kingdoms of Murcia and Valencia.
The Aragonese were the first Christians to adopt those strategies and fight like those groups of Saracens known as Almogavars, which led to them being known by the same name. Though there were no contemporary chronicles of the events of the 11th or 12th centuries, the first time that any Christian Almogavars are mentioned is in a testimony by Jerónimo Zurita in his Annals of Aragón, which places the Almogavars in the time of Alfonso I of Aragon reinforcing the fortress of El Castellar around 1105-1110 with visions of the conquest of Zaragoza: Taking Tahuste. Almogavar guards. From there he was passing captured the seat of Tahuste next to the banks of the Ebro, and soon after began to set people talking about war and training hard for it, they called them almogavars, in'el Castellar' who were on the frontier against the Moors of Zaragoza. Alfonso the Chaste, loyal to his friendship with the kingdom of Castile, went to besiege al-madinat Kunka in 1177, with a group of foot soldiers identified as Almogavars, to help the Castilian monarch.
Because of the Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula, the wars of the Reconquista and the military campaigns of Al Andalus, the Christian shepherds of the Pyrenean valleys were left unable to use the valleys in winter because they had been occupied. In order to continue to survive, these shepherds had to organize themselves into bands of outlaws and penetrate the enemy domain in search of what their people needed to survive. During these raids, which lasted only a few days, the Almogavars could live off the land and sleep way out in the open; the knowledge required to be able to perform in this struggle was gained in their former life as shepherds, since the majority of them had grown up among the wildest mountains, where the harshness of the climate made it so that the land did not provide many resources and they had to take full advantage of the few that were present. But after many generations of leading this new kind of life that they had been pushed into by the invaders, it seems clear that a genuine warrior spirit formed in these shepherd communities, so that they ended up not knowing how to live by any other means than making war.
In addition, it was much easier to make a living through attacks lasting a few days than by working hard for the whole year. This way of life went on being adopted by the inhabitants of the areas that bordered the Muslim territories as the Christian kingdoms advanced toward the south; the presence of Islamic Almogavars fighting alongside Catholic Almogavars is documented too. They were characterized as being infantry shock troops that fought on foot, with light arms and baggage with a pair of javelins, one short spear and a good knife, they dressed poorly, only in a short gown. In addition, they always used to carry a good piece of flint with them that they struck their weapons with before going into battle, which gave off enormous sparks, together with their terrible cries, terrorized their enemies. Endowed with great valor and ferocity, those from the Crown of Aragon entered into combat to the cry of "Awake iron!! Let's kill, let's kill", "for Saint George!" and "Aragon! Aragon!". This is the famous description of an Almogavar, written by Bernat Desclot in his c
The Texaco Cup, was an association football competition involving sides from England and Ireland that had not qualified for European competitions. It was one of the first football competitions to receive sponsorship, taking the name of American petroleum company Texaco for £100,000, was instituted to help promote Texaco's recent purchase of the Regent filling station chain. Irish and Northern Irish clubs withdrew from the competition after 1971–72 due to political pressure and the fact dodgy derby won it, competing in a separate Texaco Cup in 1973–74 and 1974–75. Crowds in the competition fell after the first few seasons, it became the Anglo-Scottish Cup from 1975–76 after Texaco's sponsorship ended. For the first four seasons it was played as a straight knockout tournament, with sixteen clubs entered, all ties being two-legged. For the final season of the competition, 16 English clubs played in groups before being joined in the knockout stages by four Scottish sides. Source: NB Finals played over two legs except in 1973–74 Burnley, Nottingham Forest, Stoke City, Tottenham Hotspur, West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers Airdrieonians, Dunfermline Athletic, Hearts, Motherwell Ards, Derry City Limerick, Shamrock Rovers Coventry City, Derby County, Huddersfield Town, Manchester City, Newcastle United, Stoke City Airdrieonians, Dundee United, Hearts, Motherwell Ballymena United, Coleraine Shamrock Rovers, Waterford Coventry City, Crystal Palace, Ipswich Town, Leicester City, Newcastle United, Norwich City, Sheffield United, West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers Ayr United, Dundee United, Kilmarnock, Motherwell, St Johnstone Birmingham City, Coventry City, Leicester City, Newcastle United, Norwich City, Sheffield United, Stoke City Ayr United, Dundee United, East Fife, Morton, Motherwell, St Johnstone Birmingham City, Carlisle United, Leyton Orient, Luton Town, Manchester City, Newcastle United, Norwich City, Oldham Athletic, Peterborough United, Sheffield United, Sunderland, West Bromwich Albion, West Ham United Aberdeen, Ayr United, Rangers Texaco Cup results at RSSSF
Hildegard "Hilde" Mattheis is a German teacher and politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, serving as a member of the Bundestag since 2002. Mattheis became a teacher. Mattheis entered the SPD in 1986 and is since 1995 member of the chairmanship of her party in the state association of Baden-Württemberg. Mattheis has been a member of the German Bundestag since the 2002 national elections, representing Ulm, she has since been serving on the Committee on Health. In that capacity, she was her parliamentary group’s rapporteur on issues including elderly care and psychiatry. From 2002 until 2005, she was a member of the Committee on Petitions. Within the SPD parliamentary group, Mattheis belongs to the Parliamentary Left, a left-wing movement. From 2005 until 2007, she was part of the parliamentary group’s leadership around chairman Peter Struck, she has been part of internal working groups on health and consumer protection. In 2009, Mattheis came in second only after Nils Schmid in an internal party vote on the leadership of the SPD in Baden-Württemberg.
In the negotiations to form a Grand Coalition of Chancellor Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats and the SPD following the 2013 federal elections, she was part of the SPD delegation in the working group on health policy, led by Jens Spahn and Karl Lauterbach. Appointed by Federal Minister of Health Hermann Gröhe, she served as member of an expert commission on the reform of Germany’s hospital care from 2015 until 2017. Mattheis was a candidate for the 2019 Social Democratic Party of Germany leadership election. Workers' Samaritan Foundation Germany, Member Education and Science Workers' Union, Member German Federation for the Environment and Nature Conservation, Member Gegen Vergessen – Für Demokratie, Member Mattheis was one of the most vocal opponents of her party’s decision to enter into negotiations to form a coalition government under the leadership of Chancellor Angela Merkel following the 2017 federal elections. Between 2018 and 2019, she was the one member of the SPD parliamentary group who voted most against the party line.
Mattheis and her husband live in Ulm’s Söflingen district
David Francis "Dave" Carroll is a former footballer who spent 14 seasons at Wycombe Wanderers. An attacking midfielder, Carroll played more than 600 first-team games for Wycombe in all competitions, scored 100 goals, he was nicknamed "Jesus" by the Wycombe supporters. Carroll joined Wycombe a promoted Conference side, in the summer of 1988, having played for Ruislip Manor of the Isthmian League, he went on to become a key member of the Wycombe side that won promotion to Football League in 1993. The following season, Wycombe won a second successive promotion as Carroll scored twice in Wycombe's 4-2 victory against Preston in the playoff final at Wembley. In November 1997, Carroll was rewarded for his long service to the Chairboys with a testimonial match against Leicester City. Near the end of his career at Adams Park, no longer a first-team regular, Carroll played the final ten minutes of Wycombe's famous FA Cup semi-final against Liverpool in 2001. In March 2002, Carroll left Wycombe on a free transfer to join Aldershot Town.
He spent eight months at Aldershot, finished his career at Windsor & Eton. Dave Carroll now works as Manager for Space Station plc. Dave Carroll at Soccerbase Chairboys on the Net: Dave Carroll profile
The Southern Railway L1 class was a class of 4-4-0 steam tender locomotives built for express passenger service on the South Eastern Main Line of the Southern Railway. They were designed by Richard Maunsell as a development of Harry Wainwright's L class. Harry Wainwright had built two useful and attractive 4-4-0 classes for the South Eastern and Chatham Railway between 1902 and 1908. However, by 1918 they were beginning to struggle with the heaviest express trains. Wainwright's successor, Richard Maunsell, therefore rebuilt several examples of the D and E classes before the grouping of the SECR with other railways to form the Southern Railway in 1923; when Maunsell was appointed as Chief Mechanical Engineer of the new railway he turned his attention to designing new K & K1 class 2-6-4 tank engines. However, in 1926 there was an urgent requirement for fifteen more powerful 4-4-0 locomotives for the London to Folkestone express trains. Maunsell did not rebuild the L class as the locomotives were still new and useful in their present form.
He rather amended Wainwright's drawings to form his own L1 class, supplied them to the North British Locomotive Company. The weight of the new class was increased to 57 tons 16 cwt; the boiler pressure was increased from 160 to 180 lbs per square inch but the cylinders reduced in diameter from 20 1⁄2 to 19 1⁄2 inches. The engines had long-travel piston valves, Maunsell’s own design of superheater and side-window cab and other detail alterations; the locomotives were numbered A753–A759, A782–A789, but were renumbered by the Southern Railway as 1753–1759 and 1782–1789. All passed to British Railways in 1948 and were again renumbered between 31753 and 31789; the locomotives were used on express trains on the South Eastern main lines from London to Dover and Hastings. They remained on these duties until the mid-1930s when they were replaced on the heavier trains by the newer ”King Arthur” and ”Schools” classes, they continued to be used on the former London Chatham and Dover Railway main line to Dover and Ramsgate until after the Second World War and the nationalisation of British Railways in 1948.
The transfer of Bulleid “Light Pacifics” to these services in the early 1950s made the class redundant. Some were transferred to Eastleigh and to replace worn out locomotives on cross-country services, but most spent their careers between London and the Kent coast. Withdrawal began in 1959; the final locomotive was withdrawn in February 1962. None remain. Bradley, D. L.. The locomotive history of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway. London: Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. ISBN 0-901115-49-5
Jack Z. Fulk was an American businessman who co-founded the Bojangles' Famous Chicken'n Biscuits fast food restaurant chain in 1977 in Charlotte, North Carolina. Fulk was born to Charles and Lucille Hunter Fulk in Davidson County, North Carolina, on November 30, 1932. Fulk operated a Hardee's franchise in Wilkesboro, North Carolina. While still working with Hardee's, Fulk began experimenting with recipes for biscuits during the mid-1970s. In 1977, Fulk and his business partner, Richard Thomas, opened a chicken restaurant that became the first Bojangles' Famous Chicken'n Biscuits on West Boulevard in Charlotte, North Carolina; the first restaurant was a walk-in with no seating, but it specialized in chicken, spicier than its competitors. Fulk added his biscuits to the restaurant's menu, which increased sales 60%. Fulk and Thomas opened a second Bojangles' Famous Chicken'n Biscuits in 1978. Fulk retired from Bojangles in 1985, when the chain had reached 350 locations, he sold his stake in Bojangles, but continued to operate a franchise in Jonesville, North Carolina.
Jack Fulk, a resident of Charlotte, died on March 30, 2011, at the age of 78. Jack Fulk at Find a Grave