Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062; the dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, the Senegal rivers. The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086; this enabled them to control an empire. However, the rule of the dynasty was short-lived; the Almoravids fell—at the height of their power—when they failed to stop the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohad Caliphate, who replaced them as a ruling dynasty both in Morocco and Al-Andalus.

The term "Almoravid" comes from the Arabic "al-Murabit", through the Spanish almorávide. The transformation of the b in "al-Murabit" to the v in almorávide is an example of betacism in Spanish. In Arabic, "al-Murabit" means "one, tying" but figuratively means "one, ready for battle at a fortress"; the term is related to the notion of ribat رِباط, a North African frontier monastery-fortress, through the root r-b-t. The name "Almoravid" was tied to a school of Malikite law called "Dar al-Murabitin" founded in Sus al-Aksa, modern day Morocco, by a scholar named Waggag Ibn Zallu. Ibn Zallu sent his student Abdallah ibn Yasin to preach Malikite Islam to the Sanhaja Berbers of the Sous and Adrar. Hence, the name of the Almoravids comes from the followers of the Dar al-Murabitin, "the house of those who were bound together in the cause of God."It is uncertain when or why the Almoravids acquired that appellation. Al-Bakri, writing in 1068, before their apex calls them the al-Murabitun, but does not clarify the reasons for it.

Writing three centuries Ibn Abi Zar suggested it was chosen early on by Abdallah ibn Yasin because, upon finding resistance among the Gudala Berbers of Adrar to his teaching, he took a handful of followers to erect a makeshift ribat on an offshore island. Ibn Idhari wrote that the name was suggested by Ibn Yasin in the "persevering in the fight" sense, to boost morale after a hard-fought battle in the Draa valley c. 1054, in which they had taken many losses. Whichever explanation is true, it seems certain the appellation was chosen by the Almoravids for themselves with the conscious goal of forestalling any tribal or ethnic identifications; the name might be related to the ribat of Waggag ibn Zallu in the village of Aglu, where the future Almoravid spiritual leader Abdallah ibn Yasin got his initial training. The 13th-century Moroccan biographer Ibn al-Zayyat al-Tadili, Qadi Ayyad before him in the 12th century, note that Waggag's learning center was called Dar al-Murabitin, that might have inspired Ibn Yasin's choice of name for the movement.

Contemporaries referred to them as the al-mulathimun. The Almoravids veiled themselves below the eyes with a tagelmust, a custom they adapted from southern Sanhaja Berbers. Although practical for the desert dust, the Almoravids insisted on wearing the veil everywhere, as a badge of "foreignness" in urban settings as a way of emphasizing their puritan credentials, it served as the uniform of the Almoravids. Under their rule, sumptuary laws forbade anybody else from wearing the veil, thereby making it the distinctive dress of the ruling class. In turn, the succeeding Almohads made a point of mocking the Almoravid veil as symbolic of effeminacy and decadence; the Berbers of the Tamazgha in the early Middle Ages could be classified into three major groups: the Zenata across the north, the Masmuda concentrated in central Morocco, the Sanhaja, clustered in two areas: the western part of the Sahara and the hills of the eastern Maghreb. The eastern Sanhaja included the Kutama Berbers, the base of the Fatimid rise in the early 10th century, the Zirid dynasty, who ruled Ifriqiya as vassals of the Fatimids after the latter moved to Egypt in 972.

The western Sanhaja were divided into several tribes: the Gazzula and the Lamta in the Draa valley and the foothills of the Anti-Atlas range. The western Sanhaja had been converted to Islam some time in the 9th century, they were subsequently united in the 10th century and, with the zeal of neophyte converts, launched several campaigns against the "Sudanese". Under their king Tinbarutan ibn Usfayshar, the Sanhaja Lamtuna erected the citadel of Awdaghust, a critical stop on the trans-Saharan trade route. After the collapse of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust passed over to the Ghana empire; the Maghrawa exploited this disunion to dislodge the Sanhaja Gazzula and Lamta out of their pasturelands in the Sous and Draa v


Shiremoor is a large village in the Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside. It is located 3.5 miles inland of Whitley Bay and 3 miles north of The Tyne Tunnel. A mile or so north of Shiremoor, the extensive built-up areas of North Tyneside change abruptly into green belt stretching north into south east Northumberland, it has a population of 4,782. Shiremoor is not a centre of population but many housing estates were built there in the 20th and 21st centuries. Shiremoor was first built as a colliery village to accommodate the miners of the local pits. Shiremoor comprises numerous estates, they include the oldest two estates of Old Shiremoor. As well as Park Estate, Leeches Estate, Shiremoor. In the early 2000s a new area was built, known as Northumberland Park. Although built as a separate village, estate agents refer to it as being a part of Shiremoor. Earsdon View is the newest estate; the original name, Tynemouthshire Moor, refers to the common of the manor of Tynemouth. The area grew as a result of the coal industry, developed to house miners from the local pits.

As the coal industry in the area declined, Shiremoor became a commuter area and more serves as a commercial centre. Shiremoor colliery was linked to the North Eastern Railway by the Tyne Railway; every year the local people hold a "treat" for the children of Shiremoor and surrounding villages. This tradition has been held every year since, it was started by a group of men from the local pit and today is run by a committee of local people. The "treat field" was located along Algenon Drive. However, due to new developments being built it was relocated in the early 21st century to Earsdon road, near the Grey Horse pub; the Treat itself comprises many events. There is an art competition, a dance display, many sports competitions, including football and hockey. There is always a tea tent. Today there is a fun fair held alongside the Treat; each year the children of the local schools receive a free "Treat Ticket". The ticket gets them a souvenir; the local schools meet outside their school and "march" to the treat.

This is led by a band, the school banner. Many local people join in the march as it is seen as much a local tradition. There is a Primary School located in Shiremoor, described by Ofsted as an outstanding school, it provides for children aged 4–11, including a nursery for 3+. It is 52 places in the nursery. In 2011 it was designated as a teaching school. North Tyneside Council's Pupil Referral Unit is located in Shiremoor, it is called Moorbridge and was opened in 2010. It caters for KS3 and KS4 children with Behavioural and Social difficulties with up to 60 places. There is a Resource Centre in on Earsdon Road which comprises a Doctors Surgery, Pharmacy and a Library; the doctors houses 3 practises. There is a One to One Centre located in the old Doctors building, on Brenkley Avenue, they offer Sexual Health services to the local community. There is one dentist in Shiremoor, located on Lesbury Avenue, near the Metro station. There is a St. Johns day centre in Shiremoor; the Church of England parish church of Shiremoor is located on Brenkley Avenue.

There is a Salvation Army church located on Lesbury Avenue. The Catholic Parish for the area is Our Lady Star of the Sea. In recent years Shiremoor has been subjected to substantial residential development alongside the A19 corridor; the new Northumberland Park Metro Station is the centre of a new residential area between Shiremoor and West Allotment. There is extensive work being carried out on a new residential area, Earsdon View, alongside the A19 corridor. Between Shiremoor and Earsdon. An adventure playground is located on Brenkley Avenue, nearby to St Mark's Church and Shiremoor Primary School. Two major retail outlets employ local residents: Boundary Mill. There are a number of smaller local shops including a chip shop, Chinese takeaway, Post Office, a Spar and numerous family-owned corner shops. Other businesses include a national car hire company. Small businesses include a café, private nursery, florists and hairdressers. Cobalt Business Park, the largest office park in the UK, is located between Shiremoor and West Allotment.

Within the business park there are numerous different businesses including the North Tyneside Council headquarters, an Orange Call Centre, Santander customer Services, Job Centre Plus, NHS, Hewlett Packard, Just Learning Nursery, Village Hotel and many more. Patrick King was the first person to be awarded the George Medal, for rescuing a blind woman during an air raid in World War II. Evening Chronicle chief sports writer Lee Ryder went to school in the small coastal village at Shiremoor First School and Shiremoor Middle School. Bryan Hewison was spent his formative years in Shiremoor. Bryan gained a scholarship to the Royal Ballet, he had a long and successful career at La Scala, dancing as Soloist for the Theatre Ballet Company. Jackie Robinson, professional footballer, was died in Shiremoor, he played for Sheffield Wednesday and Sunderland FC. Played for England 1937–1939, until the Second World War. Scored twice against the German national team in 1938, in front of Hitler, when the English team were ordered to do the Nazi salute.

Shiremoor Pharmacy Website North Tyneside Council's Shiremoor page St. Mark's Church Shiremoor Website Home page for Shiremoor Treat

Chelsio Communications

Chelsio Communications is a held technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California with a design center in Bangalore, India. Early venture capital funding came from Horizons Ventures, Investor Growth Capital, NTT Finance, Vendanta Capital, Abacus Capital Group, Pacesetter Capital Group, New Enterprise Associates. A third round of funding raised $25 million in late 2004. LSI Corporation was added as investor in 2006 in the series D round. By January 2008, a $25M financing round was announced as series E. In 2009, an additional $17M was raised from Mobile Internet Capital. Chelsio sells hardware and software solutions including protocol acceleration technology, Unified Wire Ethernet network adapter cards, unified storage software, high performance storage gateways, unified management software, bypass cards, other solutions. Chelsio was an early vendor of 10 Gigabit Ethernet technology, announcing a product in 2004, an alliance with Foundry Networks, measurements in 2005. Chelsio products were used to build the Coates supercomputer at Purdue University in 2009.

In August 2009 Chelsio announced the Unified Storage Software product to provide storage area network and network-attached storage functions. The company holds several patents, dating from one for reduced overhead direct memory access filed in 2002. A fourth generation was announced in 2011. In January 2013 Chelsio announced the Terminator 5 application specific integrated circuit, which brings all of the company's protocol acceleration technology to 40 Gbit/s speeds, with the roadmap to 100 Gbit/s scheduled for 2015, its products such as network interface controller cards are sold by distributors. The Chelsio Unified Storage Router product is marketed by Dell, was certified to work with tape drives from Quantum Corporation in 2011. Chelsio is involved with the OpenFabrics Alliance. Official website